National Merit Scholarship Program
The National Merit Scholarship Program is a United States academic scholarship competition for recognition and university scholarships administered by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC), a privately funded, not-for-profit organization. The program began in 1955. NMSC conducts two annual competitions for recognition and scholarships: the National Merit Scholarship Program, which is open to all students who meet entry requirements, and the National Achievement Scholarship Program (est. 1964) in which only African American students participate. The highest achieving students in the National Merit Scholarship Program are designated as National Merit Scholars, representing less than 1% of the initial pool of entrants. The corporation's headquarters are located in Evanston, Illinois. Finalists and semifinalists are also given recognition for their academic and extracurricular achievements. Commended Students are named on the basis of a nationally applied Selection Index score that may vary from year to year and is typically below the level required for participants to be named Semifinalists in their respective states. Each year's Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT®) is the qualifying test designated for entry to a particular year's competitions.
About 1.5 million students in some 22,000 high schools enter the National Merit Scholarship competition annually when they take the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT®). This serves as an initial screen of program entrants. Of these entrants, some 16,000 Semifinalists are designated on a state representational basis, in numbers proportional to each state’s percentage of the nation’s high school graduating seniors. Semifinalists are the highest-scoring program entrants in each state and represent the top one percent of the state’s senior students.
To be considered for a National Merit Scholarship, Semifinalists have to fulfill requirements to advance to Finalist standing. Each Semifinalist submits a detailed scholarship application, which includes essays and information about extracurricular achievements, awards, and leadership positions. Semifinalists also have to have an outstanding academic record, be endorsed and recommended by a school official, and earn SAT scores that confirm their qualifying test performance. From the Semifinalist group, some 15,000 meet Finalist requirements. By the conclusion of the competition, a select group of Finalists are chosen to receive prestigious National Merit Scholarships totaling nearly $35 million. Winners are the Finalist candidates judged to have the strongest combination of academic skills and achievements, extracurricular accomplishments, and potential for success in rigorous university studies. Scholarship winners represent less than 1% of the initial pool of student entrants, based on official statistics released by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
Program entry requirements 
To enter the competition, a student must
- Be enrolled full time as a high school student progressing normally toward completion of high school and planning to enroll full time in college in the fall following the completion of high school;
- Be a citizen of the United States or be a U.S. lawful permanent resident who intends to become a U.S. citizen at the earliest opportunity allowed by law, or have applied for permanent residency with the intention of becoming a U.S. citizen at the earliest possible opportunity and have not been denied; and
- Take the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT) in the specified year of the high school program, usually the junior (11th grade) year and usually at one's own school. Students completing high school in three (3) years or less must be in the last or next-to-last year of high school when they take the test. Students unable to take the exam because of an extenuating circumstance, such as severe illness or natural disaster, may be permitted to substitute subsequent SAT results by making arrangements with NMSC no later than March 1 following the exam that was missed.
Competition rounds 
The NMSC uses the PSAT/NMSQT as the initial screen of over 1.5 million program entrants. In the spring of the junior year, NMSC determines a national Selection Index qualifying score (critical reading + math + writing skills scores) for "Commended" recognition, which is calculated each year to yield students at about the 96th percentile(top 50,000 highest scorers). Scores in the 200's (out of 240) often qualify for recognition, but qualifying levels change annually depending on how the top approximately 50,000 high scorers fared. Qualification levels also vary by state, and qualifying levels are higher in competitive states such as California and New York. For the 2009/2010 school year, a score of 217 was required in California to qualify. Notification is mailed to school principals in April regarding students who scored at or above this level. The principals then notify their students of their status. These students are given the opportunity to identify two colleges or universities to which they would like NMSC to send their scores.
Early the next September (beginning of the senior year, almost a year after the PSAT/NMSQT was taken), NMSC determines Selection Index qualifying scores for further recognition by state (including three other areas: DC, US Territories and Commonwealths, and students enrolled in schools outside the US) and US boarding schools (by geographic region). About 16,000 of the 50,000 are recognized as National Merit Semifinalists in this process. The Selection Index qualifying scores for Semifinalist standing vary from state to state and from year to year. Each state is allocated a percentage of Semifinalists based on the percentage of that state's graduating seniors out of the nation's total. The National Merit Scholarship Corporation does not release to the public the minimum qualifying score required per state. In August after the PSAT was taken, high school principals are mailed notification about their Semifinalists. Principals communicate these results to their students, though some misread the NMSC materials and do not release them until the NMSC press release, which comes in mid-September. Those not making Semifinalist are "Commended", and receive a Letter of Commendation; they do not continue in the competition for Merit Scholarship awards.
Semifinalists must fulfill additional requirements and advance to the Finalist level of the competition to be considered for a scholarship. Approximately 15,000 of the 16,000 Semifinalists advance to Finalist standing by submitting SAT scores that confirm the earlier PSAT/NMSQT performance, having an outstanding academic record, and being endorsed and recommended by a high school official. They must also submit an application that includes high school courses and grades, extracurricular and volunteer activities, and a self-descriptive essay. The information that is collected about each Semifinalist is used later in the process to choose scholarship winners. All Finalists receive a Certificate of Merit in recognition of their outstanding performance in the competition.
Of the 15,000 Finalists, about 8,000 receive Merit Scholarship awards. All Finalists are considered for one of the 2,500 National Merit $2,500 Scholarships, which are awarded on a state representational basis. NMSC's own funds support the majority of these awards but corporate sponsors help underwrite these awards with grants they provide to NMSC in lieu of paying administrative fees. About 1,100 Merit Scholarship awards are provided by corporate sponsors for Finalists who meet criteria specified by the sponsor. Most of these awards are for children of the sponsor's employees, for Finalists living in a particular geographic area, or for Finalists who have career plans the sponsor wishes to encourage. These two types of awards can be used at any regionally accredited college or university in the United States. There are also approximately 4,600 college-sponsored Merit Scholarship awards for Finalists who plan to attend a sponsor college. Finalists report to NMSC their first choice college (College-Sponsored Merit Awards). In addition, about 1,500 program participants who are below the Finalist level receive Special Scholarships provided by corporate sponsors.
Before receiving an award, a Finalist must (a) notify NMSC of plans to enroll in a college or university in the United States that holds accredited status with a regional accrediting commission on higher education, and (b) plan to enroll full time in an undergraduate course of study leading to a traditional baccalaureate degree. NMSC scholarship stipends are not payable for attendance at service academies, distance learning programs, and certain institutions that are limited in their purposes or training. A number of National Merit Scholars do not receive a monetary award because their educational plans or other awards preclude receipt of a monetary scholarship; however, these students may be honored as Honorary Merit Scholars, a designation that acknowledges achievement without providing any financial assistance.
National Achievement Scholarship Program 
African American students who meet entry requirements and request consideration when they take the PSAT/NMSQT can enter the National Achievement Scholarship Program as well as the National Merit Program. The two programs are conducted concurrently; however, a student's standing in each program is determined independently. African American students can qualify for recognition, become candidates for awards, and be honored as Scholars in both competitions, but they can receive only one monetary award from NMSC. Students who are chosen as both National Achievement and National Merit Scholars receive the monetary award that is most advantageous to them and are recognized as Honorary Scholars in the other program.
Steps in the Achievement Scholarship competition are parallel to those in the National Merit Scholarship Program. Of 160,000 entrants, some 3,000 students are referred to colleges for their academic potential and an additional 1,600 students are designated Semifinalists on a regional representation basis. Semifinalists are the highest scorers in the states that make up each region and have an opportunity to continue in the competition for scholarships.
Around 1,300 Semifinalists go on to be named Finalists and about 800 receive scholarships. These include 700 National Achievement $2500 Scholarships, most of which are provided by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation, and about 100 corporate-sponsored Achievement Scholarships awards.
Notable National Merit Scholars 
The following is a list of notable National Merit Scholarship Program honorees, many of whom are listed on the "Scholars You May Know" page on the National Merit Scholarship Corporation website.
- John C. Malone (1959)
- Elvin Bishop (1960)
- Joseph Stiglitz (1960)
- Amory Lovins (1964)
- Robert Reich (1964)
- Thomas Cech (1966)
- Mitch Daniels (1967)
- Roger Tsien (1968)
- Jerry Greenfield (1969)
- Paul Krugman (1970)
- Ben Bernanke (1971)
- Evelynn M. Hammonds (1971)
- Jeffrey Sachs (1972)
- Bill Gates (1973)
- Jim Cramer (1973)
- John Roberts (1973)
- Mae Jemison (1973)
- Elena Kagan (1977)
- Lisa P. Jackson (1979)
- B. Alvin Drew (1980)
- Lisa Randall (1980)
- Jeff Bezos (1982)
- Susan Rice (1982)
- Peter Thiel (1985)
- Jeri Ryan (1986)
- Lauren Lake (1986)
- Linda Rottenberg (1986)
- Elliott Smith (1987)
- Howard Steven Friedman (1988)
- M. Night Shyamalan (1988)
- Michael McCullers (1989)
- Melissa Harris-Perry (1991)
- Stephenie Meyer (1992)
- Felicia Day (1995)
Under the umbrella of their professional organization, the National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC), college and university admissions officers have strongly criticized the National Merit Scholarship Corporation's use of only one measure—the PSAT/NMSQT—to pre-screen students for National Merit recognition.
The NACAC's position was emphasized in a July 2009 announcement by FairTest (National Center for Fair and Open Testing). The release stated the following: "Implementing the recommendations of its blue-ribbon Testing Commission, the National Association for College Admissions Counseling (NACAC) has called on the National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC) and the College Board to stop using PSAT scores as the initial screen for the country’s most prestigious academic awards."
In public letters to the test’s co-sponsors, NACAC charged that eliminating 99% of test-takers from the National Merit Scholarship competition solely on the basis of a multiple-choice, standardized exam was “at odds with best practices in the use of admissions test scores.” To be eligible for scholarships, high school juniors must score among the top 1% of test-takers in their home state. The PSAT serves as the National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (NMSQT), and measures critical reading skills, mathematics problem solving skills and writing skills.  These criticisms were challenged and refuted by both the College Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
FairTest has also voiced concerns about the level of transparency in the National Merit Scholarship Corporation's selection process. In February of 2010, it issued an announcement stating the following: "The National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC), which runs the country’s most prestigious tuition aid competition, is trying to block internet posting of state-by-state test score requirements for its awards." FairTest, however, has been criticized for its lack of credentials, unnamed sources of funding, and generalized claims associated with standardized exams.
A number of universities reserve or guarantee additional merit-based funding for students who are National Merit Scholars, finalists or semifinalists. The National Merit Scholarship Corporation releases annual reports displaying the number of award winners enrolled at specific universities, which some believe encourage competition to attract students in this select group. Secondary schools may also publish information related to their students, in order to augment perception on teaching quality.
See also 
- Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation (Canadian equivalent)
- Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes (German National Academic Foundation)
- "NMSC Corporate Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- "National Merit Scholarship - Winner Selection". National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
- "National Merit Scholarship Program - Student Entry Requirements". National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
- "National Merit Scholarship Corporation". Your Financial Aid Office. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "National Merit Scholarship Winners" (PDF). Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Announcement of National Merit Scholarship Winners". National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
- "National Merit Scholarship Corporation - Scholars You May Know". National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- "Star Trek Ryan, Jeri". Startrek.com. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- "Lauren Lake". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. 2012-12-15. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- [dead link]
- "Report of the Commission on the Use of Standardized Tests in Undergraduate Admission". National Association for College Admission Counseling. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
- "NACAC Joins National Merit Critics". The National Center for Fair and Open Testing.
- "College Board - About PSAT/NMSQT". College Board.
- "What's Wrong with Standardized Tests?". National Center for Fair and Open Testing.
- "NMSC 2010-2011 Annual Report". National Merit Scholarship Corporation.
- National Merit Scholarship Program from the NMSC website
- NMS cutoff scores on PSAT for each state by year, 2012