National Monuments of Chile
The National Monuments of Chile (Spanish: Monumentos Nacionales de Chile), also abbreviated MN, are the constructions, elements and places that form part of the country's cultural heritage, and they are protected by law. They are National Heritage Sites that are an important part of the culture of Chile.
Definition and categories
The law N° 17.288 of national monuments stipulates that:
Are national monuments stays under the State's tuition and protection, the places, ruins, constructions or objects of historic or artistic nature; the Indian burial grounds or cemeteries or other aborigin rests, the pieces or antropo-archaeologic, paleontologic or naturally-formed objects, that exists under or over the national territory surface or in the submarine platform of its jurisdictional waters and which their conservation interests the history, arts or science; the sanctuaries of nature; monuments, statues, columns, pyramids, fonts, shields, crowns, inscriptions and, generally, the objects destined to stay on a public site, with conmemorative character., that law creates the National Monuments Council—Law N° 17.288 of National Monuments, Art. 1, De los Monumentos Nacionales.
There are 938 national monuments, at October 2008. The monuments are grouped on the following categories:
- Historic Monuments (633).
- Public Monuments (150).
- Archaeologic Monuments (21 elementos).
- Typical or Picturesque Zones (95).
- Sanctuaries of Nature (39).
Are considered National Monuments:
...the places, ruins, constructions and objects, of fiscal, municipal or particular property that by its quality and historic or artistic interest, or by its antiquity, could be declared such as by supreme decree, dictated by request and previous agreement by the Council.—Law N° 17.288 of National Monuments, art. 9, De los Monumentos Históricos.
In the register of the National Monuments Council, there are 633 elements (October 2008). Some of the most notable are:
- Aduana de Antofagasta
- Ambassador (clipper)
- Ascensores de Valparaíso (Funicular railways of Valparaíso)
- Biblioteca Nacional de Chile
- Biblioteca de Santiago
- Bolsa de Comercio de Santiago
- Capilla del Antiguo Lazareto de San Vicente de Paul
- Capilla San Juan de Dios de Chillán
- Casino Ross
- Casa Lo Contador
- Central Hidroeléctrica Chivilingo
- Cerro Santa Lucía
- Escuela de Artes y Oficios
- Estación Central
- Estación Mapocho
- Estadio Nacional de Chile
- Iglesia Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de Papudo
- Iglesias de Chiloé
- Londres 38
- Muelle Salitrero Compañía Melbourne Clark
- Oficina Salitrera Chacabuco
- Oficinas salitreras de Humberstone y Santa Laura
- Palacio de La Moneda
- Palacio Presidencial Cerro Castillo
- Palacios en Santiago de Chile
- Castillo Wulff
- Ruedas de Larmahue
- Ruinas de la Fundición de Metales de Huanchaca
- Templo Votivo de Maipú
- Trolleybus system of Valparaíso
- Villa Grimaldi
- Palacio Cousiño
- Iglesia San Francisco del Monte
- Morro de Arica
Public Monuments are all the objects used to perpetuate the memory on public places. The Law determines the Public Monuments as:
...statues, columns, fonts, pyramids, shields, crowns, inscriptions and, generally, all the objects placed to perpetuate memory on countries, streets, public squares or other public places.—Law N° 17.288 of National Monuments, art. 17, De los Monumentos Públicos.
The National Monuments Council of Chile is trying to create a register in which all of the Public Monuments could be listed, using information from the local authorities. As of October 2008, there are 150 Public Monuments on the list.
Are considered Archaeologic Monuments:
... places, ruins, deposits and antropo-archaeologic pieces that exists under or over the national territory surface.—Law N° 17.288 of National Monuments, art. 21, De los Monumentos Arqueológicos
In the National Monuments Council' register, at October 2008, there exists 21 Archaeologic Monuments. Some of the most notable ones are:
Typical or Picturesque Zones
Are urban or rural properties, that forms a unity and are notable by their style, materiality or constructive technique. Legally, are considered Typical or Picturesque Zones:
With the purpose to hold the environmental nature proper of some towns or places where could exist archaeologic ruins, or ruins and buildings declared Historic Monuments, the National Monuments Council can request to be declared of public interest the protection and preservation of these towns or places, or some zones of them.—Law N° 17.288 of National Monuments, art. 29, De la Conservación de los Caracteres Ambientales.
In the National Monuments Council register, at October 2008, there are 95 typical zones. Some of the most notable are:
- Barrio Concha y Toro
- Barrio París-Londres
- Centro Histórico de Los Andes
- Campamento Sewell
- Barrio Histórico de Iquique
- Paseo Atkinson
- Valle del Elqui
- Ruta del Vino
- Cajón del Maipo
- El Mercado de Chillán
- La Recova de La Serena
- Túnel Cristo Redentor
- Viaducto del Malleco
- Plazuela Marcelino Champagnat
- Centro histórico de la ciudad de Chanco
Sanctuaries of Nature
Are considered Sanctuaries of Nature:
Are sanctuaries of nature all of the terrestrial or marine sites that could offer special possibilities for studies and geologic, paleontologic, zoologic, botanic or ecologic investigations, or that have natural formations, which conservation could be of interest for the science or for the State.—Law N° 17.288 of National Monuments, art. 31, De los Santuarios de la naturaleza e investigaciones científicas.
In the National Monuments Council there are 39 Sanctuaries of Nature.