National Movement for the Development of Society
|National Movement for the Society of Development-Nassara|
|Seyni Oumarou (President)|
|Albadé Abouba (Secretary-General)|
|Colors||Green and Red|
The National Movement for the Society of Development - MNSD (1989-1991)/ MNSD-Nassara (1991-) (French: Mouvement National pour la Société du Développement) is a political party in Niger. Founded under the military government of the 1974-1990 period, it was the ruling party of Niger from 1989 to 1993 and again from 1999 until a coup on February 18, 2010, by a military junta called the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy (CSRD) ousted the president, Tandja Mamadou.
Under military rule
The MNSD was founded in 1989 by President Ali Saibou, as the only legal party in the country. However, by the end of 1990, the Saibou regime acquiesced to union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system.
In 1991, two factions emerged within the MNSD, one behind Tandja Mamadou (MNSD-Nassara) and the other behind Moumouni Adamou Djermakoye, both of whom had been important figures in the regime of Seyni Kountché. At a party congress in March 1991, Saibou retained his position as President of the MNSD, but at another congress held in November 1991, Tandja was elected as MNSD President, while Hama Amadou was elected as its Secretary-General. Tandja's obtaining of the party leadership over Djermakoye marked a departure from the traditional dominance of the party by Djermakoye's Zarma (Djerma) ethnic group. Djermakoye split from the MNSD and formed his own party, the Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP).
Tandja was the MNSD candidate in the 1993 presidential election and received first place in the first round, but lost in the second round to Democratic and Social Convention (CDS) candidate Mahamane Ousmane; losing candidates from the first round, whose parties had formed the Alliance of the Forces of Change (AFC) with the CDS, backed Ousmane. Although the MNSD won 29 seats in the February 1993 parliamentary election, more than any other party, it was in opposition after the election because the AFC parties held a majority of seats. However, the MNSD won the January 1995 parliamentary election, in alliance with the Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS), which had previously been hostile to the MNSD, and smaller parties; the MNSD itself again won 29 seats. Hama Amadou of the MNSD then became Prime Minister, in cohabitation with President Ousmane. The cohabitation was marked by sharp rivalry between Amadou and Ousmane, and in January 1996 the military, led by Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, seized power.
Tandja ran unsuccessfully again in the July 1996 presidential election; he received third place with 15.65% of the vote, after Maïnassara and Ousmane. Along with other opposition parties, grouped together as the Front for the Restoration and Defense of Democracy, the MNSD boycotted the November 1996 parliamentary election.n
Another coup in April 1999 led to new elections late in the year, and the MNSD won the presidential election, with Tandja as its candidate; he defeated Mahamadou Issoufou of the Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) in the second round, taking 59.89% of the vote. The MNSD also won the most seats in the parliamentary election, taking 38 out of 83, and in alliance with the CDS it gained a parliamentary majority. Amadou became Prime Minister again. While the MNSD-Nassara has consistently failed to garner the 57 seats needed for majority in the National Assembly of Niger, they have consistently won a plurality of seats. With the parliamentary support of smaller parties, such as the third largest CDS-Rahama (22 seats in 2004), MNSD-Nassara has maintained a working majority in the National Assembly since 1999. Its only large rival is the PNDS-Tarayya of Mahamadou Issoufou whose coalition list of 25 seats in 2004 was just over half of the ruling party's 47 seats. In the presidential elections of 2004, every candidate except who fell at the first round supported Tanja against Issoufou in the second.
As President, Tandja had to give up his position as party leader. Hamidou Sékou acted as interim leader until Hama Amadou, previously the party's secretary-general, was elected as President of the MNSD in December 2001.
2004 presidential election
In the presidential election of 16 November and 4 December 2004, Tandja won 40.7% of the vote in the first round and 65.5% in the second round, defeating Mahamadou Issoufou of the PNDS to win re-election. In the parliamentary election, held on 4 December 2004, the MNSD won 37.2% of the popular vote and 47 out of 113 seats.
2007 government fall, 2008 internal divisions
Amadou was arrested for alleged embezzlement in June 2008. Serious tensions between supporters of Amadou, the MNSD President, and Tandja, the President of the Republic, subsequently developed, and supporters of the two sides traded accusations.
Despite ongoing support for Amadou from sections of the MNSD, especially from his political base in Tillabery, Amadou was stripped of the formal leadership of the ruling party in early 2009.
A special congress of the MNSD-Nassara held in Zinder on 21 February 2009 replaced Hama as president of the party with his successor as Prime Minister, Oumarou. Minister of Interior Albadé Abouba was voted Secretary General of the party. This result came despite months of wrangling between pro-Tanja and pro-Amadou elements in the party that have threatened to split the MNSD, and saw pro-Amadou groups join opposition protests against a floated plan to extend Tanja's term past the 2009 elections. 
On 26 April 2009, the Political Bureau of MNSD-Nassara decided to expel eight party members, including five deputies to the national assembly, for "indiscipline": deputies Soumana Sanda, Issaka Hassane Djégoulé, Amadou Soumana ("Belko"), Hadiza Moussa Gros and Seydou Tahirou Mayaki, as well as three party members Seyni Mounkaïla, Ladan Tchana and former Political Bureau member Oumarou Dogari. All were supporters of Hama Amadou. According to Soumana Sanda, this was because of their support for the former prime minister. On 14 May, the National Assembly of Niger admitted five replacement deputies, chosen by the ruling party: Abdoulaye Koro, Abdoulaye Morou, Soumana Kangaye, Amadou Saidou, and Amina Ali.
- http://www.mnsd-nassara.org/ is updated only to 2008.
- MNSD-Nassara : Nouveau enjeu. Pâté Boubacar, Niger Diaspora 2 March 2009.
- Jibrin Ibrahim and Abdoulayi Niandou Souley, "The rise to power of an opposition party: the MNSD in Niger Republic", Unisa Press, Politeia, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1996.
- Myriam Gervais, "Niger: Regime Change, Economic Crisis, and Perpetuation of Privilege", in Political Reform in Francophone Africa (1997), ed. John F. Clark and David E. Gardinier, pages 100–104.
- Elections in Niger, African Elections Database.
- "Élections législatives sans l'opposition et sans commentaire", Afrique Express (French).
- PDF (1.06 MiB), democratie.francophonie.org (French).
- "Les partis politiques nigériens, leurs leaders respectifs et les pratiques politiques inavouables", La Roue de l'Histoire (africatime.com), February 24 – March 1, 2004 (French).
- "POLITIQUE: Hama Amadou est-il présidentiable?", Tamtaminfo.com, February 27, 2007 (French).
- "En piste pour la prochaine présidentielle, Le Premier ministre Hama Amadou désigné président de son parti", Afrique Express, January 2, 2002 (French).
- "Tandja wins second term as president in historic first for country", IRIN, December 8, 2004.
- "Niger: proche de son prédécesseur, Seyni Oumarou nommé Premier ministre", AFP (Jeuneafrique.com), June 3, 2007 (French).
- "Nigerien ruling party suffers from frictions", African Press Agency, September 14, 2008.
- National Political Bureau of the MNSD, MNSD web site (2005 archive) (French).
- MNSD-Nassara : Nouveau enjeu. Pâté Boubacar, Niger Diaspora 2 March 2009.
- L’énigme Tandja. Jeune Afrique, Moriba Magassouba, Fabienne Pompey. 11 January 2009.
- Niger: manifestation pour la libération de l'ex-Premier ministre. AFP. 19 October 2008.
- Niger bans demo for detained ex-PM. Sapa-AFP. October 23 2008.
- Au MNSD Nassara : exclusion de huit grosses pointures. Liberation (Niamey) 26 April 2008.
"Tous les exclus sont très proches de l’ancien premier ministre Hama Amadou."
- MNSD-Nassara 5 députés et 3 militants exclus. Amani Mounkaïla. La Source. 28 April 2009
- Assemblée nationale : adoption du projet de loi d'orientation relative à la culture. Mahaman Bako. Sahel Dimanche. 15 May 2009.
- Assemblée nationale : tumultes et coups de théâtre à la séance plénière du jeudi dernier. Mahaman Bako. Sahel Quotidien, 5 May 2009.