National Museum, Warsaw
|National Museum in Warsaw|
|Location||3 Jerusalem Avenues
The National Museum in Warsaw (Polish: Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), Poland, is a national institution of culture, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in Warsaw. It comprises a rich collection of ancient art (Egyptian, Greek, Roman), counting about 11,000 pieces, an extensive gallery of Polish painting since the 16th century and a collection of foreign painting (Italian, French, Flemish, Dutch, German and Russian) including some paintings from Adolf Hitler's private collection, ceded to the Museum by the American authorities in post-war Germany. The museum is also home to numismatic collections, a gallery of applied arts and a department of oriental art with the largest in Poland collection of Chinese art assembling some 5,000 objects.
The Museum boasts the Faras Gallery with Europe's largest collection of Nubian Christian art and the Gallery of Medieval Art with artefacts from all regions historically associated with Poland, supplemented by selected works created in other regions of Europe.
The National Museum in Warsaw was established on 20 May 1862, as the "Museum of Fine Arts, Warsaw", and in 1916 renamed "National Museum, Warsaw" (with the inclusion of collections from museums and cultural institutions such as the Society of Care for Relics of the Past, the Museum of Antiquity at Warsaw University, the Museum of the Society for Encouragement of the Fine Arts, and the Museum of Industry and Agriculture).
The collection is housed in the building at Jerusalem Avenues, designed by Tadeusz Tolwiński, which was developed between 1927 and 1938 (earlier the museum had been located at ulica Podwale 15). In 1932 an exhibition of decorative art was opened in the two earlier erected wings of the building. A new building was inaugurated on 18 June 1938. A purpose-built modernistic edifice, was situated on the edge of Na Książęcem Park constructed between 1776-1779 for Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski. From 1935 the museum director was Stanisław Lorentz who directed an effort to save the most valuable works of art during World War II.
During the invasion of Poland the building was damaged and after the Siege of Warsaw the collection was looted by the Gestapo led by Nazi historian Dagobert Frey, who prepared a meticulous list of the most valuable artwork already in 1937 on his official visits from Germany. The Gestapo headquarters presented the Rembrandt as gift to Hans Frank in occupied Kraków and packed everything else to be shipped to Berlin. After the war the Polish Government, under the supervision of Prof Lorentz, retrieved many of the works seized by the Germans. Still more than 5.000 artefacts are missing. Also many works of art of, at that time, unknown or uncertain provenance (e.g. originating from Nazi German art repositories in Polish Recovered Territories in Kamenz, Karthaus, Liebenthal and Rohnstock among others) were nationalized by the imposed communist authorities by subsequent decrees and acts from 1945, 1946 and 1958 and included in the museum collection as so-called abandoned property. At present, the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw includes over 780.000 items displayed in many permanent galleries, including the Professor Kazimierz Michałowski Faras Gallery and galleries given over to ancient art, medieval art, painting, gldsmithing, decorative art and oriental art, as well as many temporary exhibitions.
In 2008 the "Polish Archaeological Mission "Tyritake" of National Museum in Warsaw" commenced works at Tyritake, Crimea. It is headed by Alfred Twardecki curator of the Ancient Art Gallery. Since the 2011-2012 renovation the museum is also considered as one of the most modern in Europe with a computer-led LED lighting allowing to enhance unique qualities of every painting and exhibit.
In 2012 the permanent galleries undergone revolutionary changes. The curators of the museum re-arranged it all over again and supplemented with some new works from the museum's warehouses. Paintings were not hung chronologically, but thematically: genre painting, still lifes, landscapes, cityscapes, biblical, mythological, nudes. Works by Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German and Polish artists were hung together, making it easy to observe and compare similarities and differences. The Gallery of Ancient Art, Gallery of Faras, Gallery of Medieval Art, Gallery of Old European Painting, Gallery of Old Polish and European Portrait, Gallery of 19th-century Art and the Gallery of 20th and 21st-century, including the works of Polish painters and sculptors and displayed in the context of art in other countries and in different epochs. The galleries reflects the richness and diversity of traditions and historical experience of individual nations, which, however, built their cultural identity on the same foundation of Greco-Roman antiquity and the Christian religion.
The Gallery of Medieval Art presents mainly objects from the late Middle Ages (14th-15th century), originating from different regions of today's Poland, as well as several examples of western European art. These works were originally designed almost exclusively for churches. The exhibition was designed to allow the audience to understand the role of art in the religious life of the Middle Ages.
The gallery presents transregional phenomena from 12th till 14th century, such as distinction of figurative sculpture from architecture in the Romanesque era, Central European sculpture from the circle of the Madonnas on the Lion, and the so-called International Gothic, also referred to as a courtly style. Many of the works included in the exhibition underline a distinct character of Central European regions such as Silesia between 1440–1520 (large quartered polyptychs, epitaphs, votive and didactic plaques, Ways of the Cross), Lesser Poland, Greater Poland and Kuyavia between 1440-1520 (altarpieces, devotional paintings) and Gdańsk and the Hanseatic region between 1420-1520 (with large altars from Hamburg and Pomerania).
The new solutions implemented in the gallery allows unabridged presentation of large polyptychs, such as the famous Grudziądz Polyptych, including reverse of the wings. The new arrangement of the exhibition was designed by WWAA.
In the new presentation of the Gallery of Old European Painting, the works are presented not according to national schools, but as a confrontation of artistic circles of the South and North. The new system reflects the hierarchy of the genres created by Renaissance art theory and the former function of the paintings. The aim of this exhibition is to show, for what purpose and for which recipients works of art were created. The Gallery of Old European was divided into three levels. The second floor presents high "stories" or "high" biblical themes, mythological, allegorical. Landscape in its many varieties – heroic, beautiful, realistic-topographical is presented on the first floor, while the ground floor exhibits genre scenes, still lifes and animal themes.
The Gallery of Old Polish and European Portrait shows a variety of effigies, reflecting the multiplicity of social, political and private functions of portraiture. The exhibition opens with monumental images of courtly and aristocratic portraits compiled with some examples of traditional Polish and Western European portraits en pied and followed with smaller, less formal, or private portraits, coffin portraits and the 18th-century portraits including miniature portraits and portraiture of Stanislaus Augustus' era.
The core of the new exhibition of the Gallery of 19th-century Art, presenting the main trends shaping the art in the nineteenth century, is the work of Polish painters and sculptors, which is present in the context of selected works by representatives of other nationalities. Confrontation of works by artists from different European countries shows their artistic aspirations, universal ideas or symbols, similar experiments carried out independently or workshop practice. Poland's largest canvas painting, the Battle of Grunwald by Jan Matejko (426 cm × 987 cm (168 in × 389 in)), is displayed in the Gallery of 19th-century Art.
Collections of modern and contemporary art are among the largest in Poland. Paintings, sculptures, prints and drawings from the 1920s and 1930s, Polish avant-garde film, photographs, photomontages, along with selected works of the 1980s independent culture, video and performance of the last forty years are exhibited on the surface of 700 m2. Information about the selected objects is available through mobile application and selected works are visualized and described by the gallery curator thanks to augmented reality.
- Sandro Botticelli, The Virgin and Child, St. John and Angels,
- Paris Bordone, Venus and Cupid,
- Hendrick ter Brugghen, King David Playing Harp,
- Philippe de Champaigne, Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu,
- Cima da Conegliano, Christ among the Doctors,
- Willem Claesz Heda, Still Life,
- Lucas Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve,
- Carel Fabritius, The Raising of Lazarus,
- Luca Giordano, Prometheus,
- Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Guitarist,
- Jacob Jordaens, The Holy Family with St. John, His Parents and Angels,
- Bernaert de Rijckere, Moses saved from the waters,
- Rembrandt van Rijn, Portrait of Maerten Soolmans,
- Jacopo Tintoretto, Portrait of an Admiral,
- Édouard Vuillard, Woman in the garden.
- Jan Matejko, Battle of Grunwald,
- Józef Mehoffer, The Strange Garden,
- Jacek Malczewski, Polish Hamlet,
- Henryk Siemiradzki, Christian Dirce,
- Stanisław Wyspiański, Self-portrait.
- Edfu, Sphinx of Tuthmosis III,
- Bian Jingzhao, Wild geese in the waters of San Xiang,
- Colijn de Coter and Antwerp workshop, The Pruszcz Polyptych,
- Michael Moer and Jan van Roome, Tapestry David and Bathsheba,
- Adrian de Vries, Christ at the column,
- Johann Heinrich Köler, Regalia of Augustus III of Poland and Maria Josepha,
- Nagasawa Rosetsu, Birds amid magnolia and peony.
- Murawska-Muthesius 2001, p. 31
- Schwarz, Birgit (2009). Geniewahn: Hitler und die Kunst. Böhlau Verlag Wien. p. 312. ISBN 32-05783-07-7. "Mehrere Gemälde aus dem Berghof befinden sich heute im Nationalmuseum in Warschau. Bordones Venus und Amor etwa (Abb. 100) ebenso wie der Madonnen-Tondo Bugiardinis (Abb. 62) oder ein großes Ruinenbild von Pannini, das in der verglasten Veranda gehangen hatte (Abb. 113)."
- Lorentz, Stanisław (1984). Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie: malarstwo. Arkady. p. 28. ISBN 83-21332-01-3.
- "Oriental Art Collection". mnw.art.pl. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe)". www.warsawtour.pl. Retrieved 20 October 2013. "The most unique are the Faras Gallery (the largest European collection of artefacts of the Nubian culture and art from the early-Christian period), the Medieval Art Gallery (unique sculptures, panel paintings and goldsmithery from all regions historically related to Poland in medieval times completed with medieval works of art created in other regions of Europe) and the largest Polish painting "Battle of Grunwald" by Jan Matejko (426 x 987 cm). (...) Behind the building, there is a picturesque park located at the Vistula Slope near Książęca Street. Back in the past, the park served as gardens of Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski (...) Prof. Lorentz headed the National Museum in Warsaw in 1936-1982 and is known for saving many valuable works of art during World War II"
- Folga-Januszewska 2008, p. 9
- Warszawa oskarża (Warsaw accuses). Ministerstwo Kultury i Sztuki i Ministerstwo Odbudowy Kraju. 1945. p. 44.
- Folga-Januszewska 2008, p. 11
- Folga-Januszewska 2008, p. 12
- (Polish) Monika Kuhnke. Przyczynek do historii wojennych grabieży dzieł sztuki w Polsce. Druga wojna światowa (Contribution to the history of looting in Europe. World War II).
- Folga-Januszewska 2008, p. 12
- (English) Anna Trosborg (1995). Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints, and Apologies. Walter de Gruyter. p. 497. ISBN 31-10144-68-9. "Compare the foreign partitioning powers in the nineteenth century, the Nazi occupation during World War II, the Soviet-imposed communist regime in post-war Poland."
- (English) Stefan Hambura (2004). "Ekspertyza BSiE nr 302. IP-105 P". Reparacje wojenne w stosunkach polsko-niemieckich (War reparations in Polish-German relations). p. 5-6. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Nie zbadają zabytków w Bazylice Mariackiej. Wyjazd odwołano". polskalokalna.pl. Retrieved 9 March 2013. "W komunikacie przypomniano, że "Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie jest właścicielem tzw. "depozytów gdańskich" na mocy Ustawy z 6 maja 1945 r. o majątkach opuszczonych i porzuconych (Dz. U. z 1945, Nr 17, poz. 97 ze zmianami) oraz Dekretu z 8 marca 1946 r. o majątkach opuszczonych i poniemieckich (Dz. U. z 1946, Nr 13, poz. 87 ze zmianami), jak również Ustawy z 25 lutego 1958 r. o uregulowaniu stanu prawnego mienia pozostającego pod zarządem państwowym (Dz. U. z 1958, Nr 11, poz. 37)"."
- "Warsaw Top 10". Warsaw tour Edition nr 5, 2012. p. 20. Retrieved 1 March 2013. "The National Museum in Warsaw is also one of the most modern in Europe. Computer-led LED lighting is a feature of only select museums and galleries in Germany and the UK. The LED system allows to adjust the light to every painting so that its unique qualities are enhanced."
- Monika Kuc. "Nowe galerie i światła". www.rp.pl. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Galeria Sztuki XIX Wieku". mnw.art.pl. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Marta Dziewulska. "Nowe oblicze Galerii Sztuki Średniowiecznej Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie". beautymission.pl. Retrieved 25 November 2013. "W Galerii Sztuki Średniowiecznej MNW znajdują się głównie obiekty z okresu późnego średniowiecza (XIV–XVI w.), pochodzące z różnych regionów dzisiejszej Polski, a także kilka eksponatów z zachodu Europy. Są to dzieła, które pierwotnie przeznaczone były niemal wyłącznie do kościołów. Ekspozycja została zaprojektowana tak, aby widzowie mogli jak najlepiej zrozumieć rolę sztuki w życiu religijnym czasów średniowiecza. (...) W galerii prezentowane są ponadlokalne zjawiska sztuki XII–XV wieku, np. usamodzielnienie się rzeźby figuralnej od architektury w epoce romańskiej, środkowoeuropejska rzeźba z kręgu Madonn na Lwie, oraz tzw. międzynarodowy styl dworski, określany również jako piękny ok. 1400. Wiele włączonych do wystawy dzieł świadczy także o odrębnym charakterze ważnych dla Europy Środkowej regionów: Śląska 1440–1520 (wielkie, wieloskrzydłowe ołtarze, epitafia, tablice wotywne i dydaktyczne, droga krzyżowa), Małopolski, Wielkopolski i Kujaw 1440–1520 (ołtarze, obrazy dewocyjne) oraz Gdańska i regionu północnohanzeatyckiego 1420–1520 (z okazałymi ołtarzami z Hamburga i Pomorza). (...) Aranżacja przestrzeni wystawienniczej powierzona pracowni architektonicznej WWAA (...) Dzięki nowym rozwiązaniom konstrukcyjnym poliptyki skrzydłowe, takie jak słynny Poliptyk Grudziądzki są dostępne ze wszystkich stron, łącznie z rewersami skrzydeł, które do tej pory nie były widoczne dla widzów."
- "Galeria Dawnego Malarstwa Europejskiego". mnw.art.pl. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Galeria Portretu Staropolskiego i Europejskiego". mnw.art.pl. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Galeria Sztuki XX i XXI Wieku". mnw.art.pl. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Folga-Januszewska, Dorota (2008), Muzeum Sztuk Pięknych i Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie 1862-2004 (Museum of Fine Arts and the National Museum in Warsaw 1862-2004) (PDF direct download, 94.1 KB) (in Polish), National Museum in Warsaw, retrieved August 4, 2012 .
- (English) Murawska-Muthesius, Katarzyna; Folga-Januszewska, Dorota (2001), National Museum in Warsaw: guide : galleries and study collections, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, ISBN 83-7100-126-6.
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- Official website
- Site of the Cooperation Program with the Kerch Museum
- Site of the Polish Archaeological Mission "Tyritake"