National Nanotechnology Initiative
The National Nanotechnology Initiative is a United States federal nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research and development program. “The NNI serves as the central point of communication, cooperation, and collaboration for all Federal agencies engaged in nanotechnology research, bringing together the expertise needed to advance this broad and complex field.” Initiative participants (cited below) state that its four goals are to
- advance a world-class nanotechnology research and development (R&D) program;
- foster the transfer of new technologies into products for commercial and public benefit;
- develop and sustain educational resources, a skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure and tools to advance nanotechnology; and
- support responsible development of nanotechnology.
Mihail Roco started the initiative.
- Consumer Product Safety Commission
- Department of Agriculture Cooperative State Research, Extension, and Education Service
- Department of Agriculture Forest Service
- Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security
- Department of Education
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology
- Intelligence Community
- Department of Defense
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration
- Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Industrial Technologies
- National Science Foundation
- Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health
- Nuclear Regulatory Commission
- Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services
- Department of State
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Department of Health and Human Services
- Department of Homeland Security (which includes Transportation Security Administration)
- Department of Justice
- Department of Labor
- Department of Transportation
- International Trade Commission
- U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
- Department of the Treasury
- Department of the Interior
Clinton and Bush's influence
President Bill Clinton advocated nanotechnology development. In a 21 January 2000 speech  at the California Institute of Technology, Clinton stated that "Some of our research goals may take twenty or more years to achieve, but that is precisely why there is an important role for the federal government." President George W. Bush further increased funding for nanotechnology. On December 3rd, 2003 Bush signed into law the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (Public Law 108-153 ), which authorizes expenditures for five of the participating agencies totaling $3.63 billion over four years.. This law is an authorization, not an appropriation, and subsequent appropriations for these five agencies have not met the goals set out in the 2003 Act. However, there are many agencies involved in the Initiative that are not covered by the Act, and requested budgets under the Initiative for all participating agencies in Fiscal Years 2006 - 2008 totaled over $1 billion each. The current NNI budget supplement for Fiscal Year 2009 provides $1.5 billion to the NNI, reflecting steady growth in the nanotechnology investment. (See the Summary of the Supplement to the President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2009 ). In December 2007 the National Nanotechnology Initiative released a Strategic Plan outlining updated goals and "program component areas" ," as required under the terms of the Act. This follows the Strategic Plan released in December 2004.
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- Council of Advisors on Science and Technology
- Signature initiative
- United States federal loan guarantee
- Translational research
- "About the NNI"
- "Clinton makes nanomention of large legacy"
- W. Patrick McCray, “Will Small Be Beautiful? Making Policies for Our Nanotech Future,” History and Technology, 2005 21, 2: 177-203.