National Polytechnic School

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National Polytechnic School
(Spanish: Escuela Politécnica Nacional)
Motto "E scientia hominis salus" (in Latin)
Established 1869
Type Public university
Rector Engineer Jamie Calderon Segovia, M.A.
Undergraduates 10000
Postgraduates 2500
Location Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador
0°12′38″S 78°29′20″W / 0.21056°S 78.48889°W / -0.21056; -78.48889Coordinates: 0°12′38″S 78°29′20″W / 0.21056°S 78.48889°W / -0.21056; -78.48889
Campus Urban, 152,000 square metres (38 acres)
Mascot Owl
Website (in 5 languages)

The National Polytechnic School (Spanish: Escuela Politécnica Nacional), also known as EPN, is a public university located in Quito, Ecuador.

EPN is known for research and education in the applied science, astronomy, atmospheric physics, engineering and physical sciences. The Geophysics Institute [1][2] monitors over the country`s seismic, tectonic and volcanic activity in the continental territory and in the Galápagos Islands.

EPN adopted the polytechnic university model that stresses laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering.

One of the oldest observatories in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory. Founded in 1873 and located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is the National Observatory of Ecuador and is located in the Historic Center of Quito and is managed by the National Polytechnic School.[3][4]

CEC Classroom building on the National Polytechnic School campus in Quito, Ecuador.


The National Polytechnic School was founded on August 27, 1869 by the National Convention of the Ecuador and the Ecuadorian President Gabriel García Moreno. For this purpose, Garcia Moreno brought members of a German Jesuit religious order who managed the university and the Quito Astronomical Observatory. Juan Bautista Menten, Teodoro Wolf and Luis Sodiro are among the first scientists that come to the National Technical University. The newborn institution was conceived as the first research center of Ecuador and was created with the purpose of contributing to the scientific and technological development of the country. The faculty of EPN is engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.

EPN is the second-oldest public university in Ecuador, after Central University of Ecuador.

The university remained closed during some decades, until 1935, when Ecuadorian President José María Velasco Ibarra re-opened it.

Students at CEC-EPN can use the virtual platform as a tool to support the subjects taught in the Undergraduate claesroom.[5]

EPN is considered the best university in Ecuador due to it is on the top of A universities in the last ratings made by CEAACES (Board of Assessment, Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Higher Education in Ecuador) in 2013.[6]

In 1964, the university moved from its campus "La Alameda" to the current Polythecnic Campus, being the rector José Rubén Orellana Ricaurte.[clarification needed]. In 1967, the School of Information and Technology was founded. [7]

At EPN Students from all over the World study for an Undergraduate degree, (Undergraduate education), Master's degree and Doctorate degrees.

The Undergraduate education at EPN is the post-secondary education, previous to the postgraduate education, including all the academic programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. [8][9]

The graduate school at EPN (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.[10][11]

A Doctorate at EPN is an academic degree or professional degree that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the specific field of his or her degree, or to work in a specific profession:See Doctor (title) for more information.

Quito Astronomical Observatory[edit]

The Quito Astronomical Observatory is a research institute of EPN, the National Polytechnic School in Quito, Ecuador. Its major research fields are astronomy and atmospheric physics.[12] In Quito is one of the Oldest Observatories in South America, the Astronomical Observatory of Quito which was founded in 1873.

The Oldest Observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory and was founded in 1873 and is managed by EPN.

Inside the Astronomical Observatory of Quito is one of the best Museums in Quito, The Museum of the Quito Astronomical Observatory is located in La Alameda park. The museum explains the vivid history of the instruments used by early astronomers and scientists of the country. The Astronomical Observatory of Quito is one of the oldest in Latin America, which is one of its greatest attractions.

Contained in the museum is one of the most important collections of nineteenth-century scientific instruments, featuring the large refracting telescope Merz and the meridian circle Repsold. [13] In 1963, The Government of Ecuador transferred title of the Observatory to the National Polytechnic School.

One part of the museum's collection is centered around the numerous scientific tools were used by the French Geodesic Mission II who worked in the facilities of the Center between 1902 and 1914. The Merz Equatorial Telescope is the most important instrument of the Observatory, it was manufactured in 1875 in the city of Munich, Germany. Its designer and builder was Jacob Merz after which the telescope is named.

The Quito Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1873. Its first director was Juan Bautista Menten, who directed and planned the construction of the Center, modeled on the Observatory of Bonn (Germany). The building was finished in 1878 and completely restored in 2009. Ecuador is located in a strategic geographical position where solar-physics studies can be performed year-round, providing data for the scientific community working to understand Sun-Earth interactions. We invite leaders from other scientific projects to deploy their instruments in Quito and to join us in supporting our new strategic research center.

Activities and services of the Quito Astronomical Observatory[edit]

The activities and services currently provided by the OAQ are:

  • Night observations by telescopes
  • Virtual telescope system (TELVA)
  • Astronomical information on the equatorial zone
  • Basic astronomy courses
  • Library
  • Operation of the museum on the premises
  • Annual publications

Geophysics Institute[edit]

National Polytechnic School houses an international team of seismologists and volcanologists at the Geophysics Institute [14] with the task of monitoring all the seismic activity in the country. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter magnitude scale. There are many geologists who study the eruptive activity for the volcanoes in the country and observe volcanic eruptions, especially Tungurahua whose volcanic activity restarted on August 19, 1999,[15] and is ongoing as of 2013, with several major eruptions since that period, the last starting on 1 February 2014.[16]

The Geophysics Institute [17] at EPN monitors the Andean Volcanic Belt, a major volcanic belt along the Andean cordillera in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina. It formed as a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate. The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products and morphology. While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a volcano belongs to, there are significant differences within volcanic zones and even between neighboring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkaline and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a large range of volcano-tectonic settings, such as rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range on crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amount of crustal assimilations. Romeral in Colombia is the northernmost member of the Andean Volcanic Belt.[18] South of latitude 49° S within the Austral Volcanic Zone volcanic activity decreases with the southernmost volcano Fueguino in Tierra del Fuego archipelago.

Ecuador is located in the Ring of Fire where About 90%[19] of the world's earthquakes and 81%[20] of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismically active region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.[21][22]

In November 2014, the Geophysics Institute installed new geophysical instruments, including a new seismic and infrasound station was placed in the sector Chilma, a repeater and prospect a site for a new station between La Carolina and Lita. They also held meetings with the local authorities of the province of Carchi, and also conducted socialization map of potential volcanic hazards and training lectures for future lookouts were offered.[23]

Department of Extractive Metallurgy[edit]

The Department of Extractive Metallurgy, also known as DEMEX, is a center located on the National Polytechnic School campus that is centered on applied research in the area of mineral resources and the environment, with its main focus on mineral processing, extractive metallurgy and effluent treatment and recycling of industrial materials. [24]

The Department of Extractive Metallurgy provides analysis, laboratory scale tests, pilot scale tests, an integrated laboratory, and a pilot plant with the ability to process and to chemically analyze atomic absorption, optical mineralogy and X-ray diffraction.

Nuclear Science Department[edit]

In 1958, research with radioactive isotopes focused mainly on the thyroid function with I-131 began in the Department of Biomedical Applications. In 1959, the Departments of Applications to Agriculture and Medicine were created.

At the end of 1966, the International Atomic Energy Agency sent the British expert Dr. Ivan Birchall to give advice during the organization of the Dosimetry section. The expert made the radiological control of all the facilities in the country using machines that work with X-ray and radioactive sources, with the collaboration of the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Later, the IAEA sent the Austrian expert, Dr. Norbert Vana, to train the technicians of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques.

The Nuclear Science Department at EPN is the only one in Ecuador and has the large infrastructure, related to irrradiation factilities like Cobalt-60 source and Electron beam processing. The installation of a Cobalt – 60 irradiator, with an initial activity of 20,000 Curies, was completed in 1974. In 1985 an Electron Accelerator[25] was installed at EPN and then in 2000, the Department of Nuclear Sciences was created at EPN.

Nuclear Science Department has a LAE has a Linear Electron Accelerator ELU - 6U with electron energy up to 7 MeV and beam power up to 5 kW, made in Russia, manufactured by Techsnabexport[26] and donated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The irradiation process is continuous, through a conveyor belt, with a daily capacity of five tonnes.[27][28]

The Office of International Programs and Services at EPN[edit]

The Office of International Programs and Services provides a permanent and personalized service for the whole community at the National Polytechnic School. [29]

School of Information and Technology[edit]

The School of Information and Technology at EPN has been in operation since 1967 and has a focus on Computer Networking,Telecommunications networking and teaching all about Computer programming and how computers exchange data. [30]

Gustavo Orcés Natural History Museum[edit]

The Orcés Gustavo Natural History Museum is part of the Life Sciences Institute on the campus of the National Polytechnic School. The main focus is the conducting research in the Ecuadorian fauna in the fields of biodiversity, ecology, zoology, and environmental impact assessments and contributes to national environmental culture through the Natural History Museum Gustavo Orces.

The Institute of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic School comprises two sections: the Center for Information and Research of Vertebrate Zoology and the Museum of Natural History Orcés Gustavo V. The institute, for more than half a century has been devoted to the study of Ecuadorian fauna; its history goes back to 1946, with the arrival of the French University Mission. One of its members, Professor Robert Hoffstetter was responsible for zoos and paleontological studies.

History of the Gustavo Orcés Natural History Museum[edit]

At the start, the Institute conducted primarily paleontological research. Study material and fossil vertebrates collected by the Austrian professor Franz Spillmann began. The first director was R. Hoffstetter, who headed the Institute from 1946–1952, during which increased the paleontological collection and conducted numerous research with results announced in publications related to Pleistocene mammals of Ecuador. Professor Gustavo Orcés (1911–1999), became director in 1952 until 1990. Carried out valuable contributions to the various groups of vertebrates Ecuador through scientific articles published in international journals and at the Technical Review. Professor Orcés pioneered research wildlife Ecuador.

In the last two decades, the Institute has conducted a lot of research projects on biodiversity of different groups of Ecuadorian fauna. It also maintains a remarkable scientific production at the Polytechnic Magazine Biology Series. The Museum of Natural History, "Gustavo V. Orces" presents three areas with signs of Natural History: Ecuador Past, Present and Future Ecuador Ecuador.

There is a tour of the museum that covers the History of Ecuador and begins with a brief discussion of the most known about the formation of the universe, the origin and location of the solar system in the Milky Way, the Earth and its changes and geological events theory. Continue the natural history mural in which step can be seen, the atmosphere of each era and evolutionary processes of organisms.

In the Paleontology Hall is a mural display models and fossil remains of species of fauna from different eras is completed. Two dioramas are also on display, showing the first fossil remains found in Puyango, and the next one excavation near Bolivar province of Carchi, Ecuador, for it is shown, petrified remains of megafauna of a soil stratum is belonging to the Pleistocene Period. At the end of the room there is a section devoted to human skulls Alangasí man and man exposed Otavalo. In another part of the museum is a model of Ecuador on this one are marked Ecuadorian protected areas, then you can see movies about the flora and fauna and flora in a computer graphics seen by level altitudinal. In the next room, the visitor admires dioramas of different habitats: heathland, forest of the eastern foothills of the Andes, Cuyabeno lagoons, forests of western and freshwater; against each diorama there is ample information on the location of the area, flora, fauna and conservation also can watch movies on various aspects of habitat represented. As part of this room Ecuadorian wildlife films are also exhibited, each species has information relating to the condition, leading to activities that prevent their disappearance. One part of the museum is an area dedicated to the Future Ecuador where visitors have adequate space for the exhibition of living species currently thirteen aquariums with fish exhibit different Ecuadorian ecosystems, and four terrariums. Additionally, in the study area can be admired specimens, examine books, or electronic files, draw or education activities aimed at conservation.

The museum is open Monday to Friday from 8am to 12:30 p.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. and is located EPN Campus, Institute of Biological Sciences Building. The cost for the general public: $1 and 50 cents for children and students, admission is free for students EPN.

CEC-EPN, Continuing Education Center – National Polytechnic School[edit]

CEC-EPN, Continuing Education Center – National Polytechnic School (Centro de Educación Continua – Escuela Politécnica Nacional) is a division of National Polytechnic School is the Center for Continuing Education, CEC EPN [31] who has an agreement with WorldTeach,[32][33] a non-governmental organization that provides opportunities for individuals to make a meaningful contribution to international education by living and working as volunteer teachers in developing countries. Founded in 1986 by a group of Harvard University students, WorldTeach places volunteers in communities throughout the world in year-long and summer programs. Approximately 400 volunteers are placed yearly, with more than 7,000 placed to date. All volunteers must be enrolled in or have completed four year college programs, with most volunteers being recent graduates. Each instructor at CEC is able to take a free Spanish Class every day.

English Program at CEC-EPN[edit]

There are currently over 7,000 students enrolled at the English program at CEC, including the university students who study at National Polytechnic School. Students can study up to five courses per year in eight week segments called cycles. There are four written exams and one oral exam during each cycle. The sections are designed into a series of levels with beginner, intermediate one and two, advanced one and two as well as many Academic and Superior levels. Part of the class is designed to work with listening exercises where the students are asked to answer specific questions from the conversation exercise.

French Program at CEC-EPN[edit]

Since 2008, there has been a program at CEC-EPN where students can learn the French language from native speakers. The sections are designed into a series of levels with beginner, intermediate one and two, and advanced one and two levels. [2] According to a survey of the European Commission, French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union.[34] It is also the third-most widely understood language in the EU.[35]

Mandarin Program at CEC-EPN[edit]

Since 2008, there has been a program at CEC-EPN where students can learn the Mandarin Chinese from native speakers. The sections are designed into a series of levels with beginner, intermediate one and two, and advanced one and two levels. [3]

The English word "mandarin" (from Portuguese mandarim, from Malay menteri, from Sanskrit mantrin, meaning "minister or counsellor") originally meant an official of the Chinese empire.[36][37] Since their home dialects were varied and often mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a koiné based on various northern dialects. When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà (官话/官話), or "language of the officials".[38]

In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, which is often called simply "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the official language of the Republic of China (ROC/Taiwan), and one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore.

TEFL course at CEC-EPN[edit]

The TEFL course at CEC, Teaching English as a foreign language is available twice a year, September and February. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English.

The course is directed and primarily taught by Les Embleton, MATEFL, BSc, RSA DipTEFLA, a TEFL professional with 30 years of experience as an EFL/ESL teacher, course director, and writer. We also have three additional course trainers and a staff of over 100 EFL instructors to give you supplementary training, as well as any extra help or advice you may need along the way. The course trainers will give you the required skills you will need to teach different age groups, skill levels and nationalities. The Academic Coordinator of CEC is Andres Paredes, who is also an instructor for the TEFL/TESL/CCA™ Certificate Program at CEC-EPN National Polytechnic School.

The TEFL course at CEC-EPN is a 150-hour program (80 hours in the classroom with instructors) that includes a unique CCA (Cross-cultural Awareness) module and 6 hours of officially observed classroom practicum by your advisor. The TEFL course at CEC-EPN includes 70 hours of tutorials.

The TEFL program at CEC-EPN [39] has a huge focus on Language education, a teaching and learning of a foreign or second language. Language education is a branch of applied linguistics. TEFL that uses literature aimed at children and teenagers is rising in popularity. Youth-oriented literature offers simpler material ("simplified readers" are produced by major publishers), and often provides a more conversational style than literature for adults. Children's literature in particular sometimes provides subtle cues to pronunciation, through rhyming and other word play. One method for using these books is the multiple-pass technique. The instructor reads the book, pausing often to explain certain words and concepts. On the second pass, the instructor reads the book completely through without stopping. Communicative language teaching (CLT) emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. Despite a number of criticisms,[40] it continues to be popular, particularly in Japan, Taiwan,[41] and Europe. The task-based language learning (TBLL) approach to CLT has gained ground in recent years. Proponents believe CLT is important for developing and improving speaking, writing, listening, and reading skills, and that it prevents students' merely listening passively to the teacher without interaction. Dogme[42] is a similar communicative approach that encourages teaching without published textbooks, instead focusing on conversational communication among the learners and the teacher.[43]

As a general rule schools will tend to prefer qualifications that involve a significant amount of assessed teaching: it is often said that "Learning to teach without classroom practice is like learning to drive without ever encountering traffic".[44] Shorter courses and online courses often lack assessed teaching practice. Course makers have recognized this and have begun introducing combined TEFL courses which have an element of assessed teaching.[45] [46]

Linguistics is the scientific[47] study of language.[48] Such study has, broadly speaking, three aspects: language form, language meaning, and language in context.[49] The earliest known activities in the description of language have been attributed[by whom?] to Pāṇini (fl. 4th century BCE), with his analysis of Sanskrit in Ashtadhyayi.[50]

Linguistics analyzes human language as a system for relating sounds (or signed gestures) and meaning.[51] Phonetics studies acoustic and articulatory properties of the production and perception of speech sounds and non-speech sounds. The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as to manage and resolve ambiguity. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how context influences meanings.[52]

Grammar comprises the system of rules which governs the form of the utterances in a given language. It encompasses both sound and meaning, and includes phonology (how sounds function and pattern together), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words).[53]

The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is used by CEC-EPN and is taught in the TEFL/TESL/CCA™ Certificate Program.

The Conversation Club at CEC-EPN[edit]

Students who want to practice and perfect their English speaking can enroll in the CEC-EPN Conversation Club. The course is built around improving your English with weekly lessons on numerous subjects that are designed to give the students an opportunity to improve their speaking ability and develop the confidence to speak English naturally. Each week of the Conversation Club at CEC-EPN has a different topic designed to engage the students in different ideas from around the world.[54]

TOEFL Testing Center at CEC-EPN[edit]

Test of English as a Foreign Language or TOEFL /ˈtfəl/ TOH-fəl, is a standardized test of English language proficiency for non-native English language speakers wishing to enroll in U.S. universities. The test is accepted by many English-speaking academic and professional institutions.

CEC-EPN is an ETS Authorized IBT Center for the TOEFL, one of the two major English-language tests in the world, the other being the IELTS. TOEFL is a trademark of ETS (Educational Testing Service), a private non-profit organization, which designs and administers the tests. The scores are valid for two years; then they are no longer reported.[55] The TOEFL is offered at least once a month.

Virtual Classroom at EPN[edit]

Students at the National Polytechnic School, EPN use the virtual platform as a tool to support the subjects taught in the undergraduate and graduate programs. [56] In addition, there are separate courses that are given specifically for the virtual classroom.[57] The goal of EPN is to promote the use of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in the learning process through the use of solutions E-learning based on the latest technologies and focus on three pillars: education, technology and organization.


The campus, called "José Rubén Orellana", is located at the sector center-oriental of Quito. It occupies an area of 15.2 hectares and has a built area of around 62,000 metres2. Its student body numbers approximately 10,000 of which thirty percent are women.

At the campus, there are some libraries with a content primarily oriented to engineering and scientific topics.


  • Administrative Sciences
  • Chemical Engineering and Agro-Industry
  • Civil and Environmental Engineering
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • Geology and Petroleum
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Exact Sciences: Mathematics, Physics

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Instituto Geofísico - EPN - Home". 
  2. ^ YouTube Channel for the Geophysics Institute at EPN
  3. ^ NASA, Scientific research, Virtual Telescope System.
  4. ^ The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by EPN, official web site
  5. ^ Virtual learning environment and E-learning at CEC-EPN
  6. ^ (Board of Assessment, Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Higher Education in Ecuador) National Polytechnic School.
  7. ^ In 1967, the School of Information and Technology was founded.
  8. ^ University of California, Los Angeles—an example of a typical university entry level in the USA—"Division of Undergraduate Education".
  9. ^ Harvard University Different learning levels in a university in the USA
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ [1] The Quito Astronomical Observatory ]
  13. ^ American Astronomical Society, National Polytechnic School Establishes Division of Solar Physics Phenomena
  14. ^ Institute for Geophysics at National Polytechnic School
  15. ^ "Tungurahua volcano erupts in Ecuador". NBC News. 19 Aug 2012. 
  16. ^ "Ecuador's Tungurahua Volcano shoots ash and lava". Associated Press. 2014-02-01. 
  17. ^ The IG-EPN is the main research centre in Ecuador for the diagnosis and monitoring of seismic and volcanic hazards. Its mission is to reduce the impact on the population and on infrastructures caused by seismic and volcanic phenomena in Ecuador through constant monitoring, scientific research and technological application, promoting a culture of prevention, from the United Nations web site
  18. ^ "Romeral". 29 March 2012.  Global Volcanism Program
  19. ^ " - Ring of Fire". 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  20. ^ Usgs Faqs (2013-05-13). " - Where do earthquakes occur?". Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  21. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes FAQ.
  22. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes Visual Glossary.
  23. ^ In November of 2014, the Geophysics Institute installed new geophysical instruments
  24. ^ Department of Extractive Metallurgy at EPN, Official Web Site
  25. ^ Livingston, M. S.; Blewett, J. (1962). Particle Accelerators. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 1-114-44384-0. 
  26. ^ Helmer, John (1 May 2007). "Russia gears up for uranium boom". Mineweb. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  27. ^ Widerøe, R. (17 December 1928). "Ueber Ein Neues Prinzip Zur Herstellung Hoher Spannungen". Archiv fuer Elektronik und Uebertragungstechnik 21 (4): 387. 
  28. ^ Ising, Gustav (1928). "Prinzip Einer Methode Zur Herstellung Von Kanalstrahlen Hoher Voltzahl". Arkiv Fuer Matematik, Astronomi Och Fysik 18 (4).  Nuclear Science Department EPN
  29. ^ The Office of International Programs and Services at EPN
  30. ^ School of Information and Technology at EPN
  31. ^ Center for Continuing Education at the National Polytechnic School, official web site
  32. ^ Teach for the World, The New York Times
  33. ^ Lessons learned from WorldTeach, Harvard Gazette
  34. ^ European Commission (August 2011), "Europeans and their Languages" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer 386 (Europa): 5, retrieved 7 September 2014 
  35. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - European Commission
  36. ^ China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Mathew Ricci.
  37. ^ "mandarin", Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 1 (6th ed.). Oxford University Press. 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. 
  38. ^ Coblin (2000), p. 537.
  39. ^ CEC-EPN's World Class TEFL/TESL/CCA™ Certificate Program
  40. ^ van Hattum, Ton (2006), The Communicative Approach Rethought
  41. ^ The Trend and Challenge for Teaching EFL at Taiwanese Universities
  42. ^ Meddings, L and Thornbury, S (2009) Teaching Unplugged: Dogme in English Language Teaching. Peaslake: Delta.
  43. ^ Luke, Meddings (2004-03-26). "Throw away your textbooks". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  44. ^ " World TEFL Info, World TEFL Info
  45. ^ "Distance learning courses can also be a good introduction, but feedback on your teaching practice is important and most distance courses will not include this, and therefore will not be acceptable to many teaching institutes." The British Council
  46. ^ BBC, Language firm TEFL Scotland seals China training deal
  47. ^ Crystal, David (1990). Linguistics. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140135312. 
  48. ^ Halliday, Michael A.K.; Jonathan Webster (2006). On Language and Linguistics. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. vii. ISBN 0-8264-8824-2. 
  49. ^ Martinet, André (1960). Elements of General Linguistics. Tr. Elisabeth Palmer Rubbert (Studies in General Linguistics, vol. i.). London: Faber. p. 15. 
  50. ^ S.C. Vasu (Tr.) (1996). The Ashtadhyayi of Panini (2 Vols.). Vedic Books. ISBN 9788120804098. 
  51. ^ Jakobson, Roman (1937). Six Lectures on Sound and Meaning. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0262600102. 
  52. ^ Chierchia, Gennaro & Sally McConnell-Ginet (2000). Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 9780262531641. 
  53. ^ Adrian Akmajian; Richard A. Demers; Ann K. Farmer; Robert M. Harnish (2010). Linguistics (6th ed.). The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-51370-6. Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  54. ^ The Conversaation Club at CEC-EPN, official web site
  55. ^ TOEFL iBT™ Test Scores
  56. ^ Students at the National Polytechnic School, EPN can use the virtual platform as a tool to support the subjects taught in the Undergraduate and Graduate programs.
  57. ^ Virtual Classroom at EPN

External links[edit]