NPR

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For other uses, see NPR (disambiguation).
NPR
Type Public radio network
Country United States
First air date
April 1971
Availability Global
Founded February 26, 1970
Endowment US$258 million
Revenue US$159 million
US$18.9 million
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Broadcast area
Nationwide
Owner National Public Radio, Inc.
Key people
Paul G. Haaga, Jr, interim Chief Executive Officer
Established 1970
Former names
Association of Public Radio Stations
National Educational Radio Network
Affiliation World Radio Network
Official website
npr.org

NPR, formerly National Public Radio,[1] is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States.[2]

NPR produces and distributes news and cultural programming. Individual public radio stations are not required to broadcast all NPR programs that are produced. Most public radio stations broadcast a mixture of NPR programs, content from rival providers American Public Media, Public Radio International and Public Radio Exchange, and locally produced programs. NPR's flagships are two drive time news broadcasts, Morning Edition and the afternoon All Things Considered; both are carried by most NPR member stations, and are two of the most popular radio programs in the country.[3][4]

NPR manages the Public Radio Satellite System, which distributes NPR programs and other programming from independent producers and networks such as American Public Media and Public Radio International. Its content is also available on-demand via the web, mobile, and podcasts.

History[edit]

1970s[edit]

National Public Radio replaced the National Educational Radio Network on February 26, 1970, following congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967.[5] This act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, and established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which also created the Public Broadcasting Service in addition to NPR. A CPB organizing committee under John Witherspoon first created a Board of Directors chaired by Bernard Mayes.

1970s logo.

The board then hired Donald Quayle to be the first president of NPR with 30 employees and 90 charter member stations, and studios in Washington, D.C.[6]

NPR aired its first broadcast in April 1971, covering United States Senate hearings on the Vietnam War. A month later, the afternoon drive-time newscast All Things Considered began, on May 3, 1971, first hosted by Robert Conley. NPR was primarily a production and distribution organization until 1977, when it merged with the Association of Public Radio Stations. As a membership organization, NPR was then charged with providing stations with training, program promotion, and management, and with representing the interests of public radio before Congress and providing content delivery mechanisms, such as satellite transmission.[citation needed]

1980s[edit]

NPR suffered an almost fatal setback in 1983 when efforts to expand services created a deficit of nearly US$7 million. After a Congressional investigation and the resignation of NPR's president, Frank Mankiewicz, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting agreed to lend the network money in order to stave off bankruptcy.[7] In exchange, NPR agreed to a new arrangement whereby the annual CPB stipend that it had previously received directly would be divided among local stations instead; in turn, those stations would support NPR productions on a subscription basis. NPR also agreed to turn its satellite service into a cooperative venture (the Public Radio Satellite System), making it possible for non-NPR shows to get national distribution. It took NPR approximately three years to pay off the debt.[8]

Logo used during the 1990s.

1990s[edit]

Delano Lewis, the president of C&P Telephone, left that position to become NPR's CEO and president in January 1994.[9] Lewis resigned in August 1998.[9][10] In November 1998, NPR's board of directors hired Kevin Klose, the director of the International Broadcasting Bureau, as its president and chief executive officer.[10]

2000s[edit]

In November 2002, NPR spent nearly $13 million to acquire and equip a West Coast 25,000-square-foot (2,300 m2) production facility, dubbed "NPR West", which opened in Culver City, California; it had room to for up to 90 employees, and was established to expand its production capabilities, improve its coverage of the western United States, and create a backup production facility capable of keeping NPR on the air in the event of a catastrophe in Washington.[11]

On November 6, 2003, NPR was given US$235 million[12] from the estate of the late Joan B. Kroc, the widow of Ray Kroc, founder of McDonald's Corporation. This was the largest monetary gift ever to a cultural institution.[13][14]

In 2004 NPR's budget increased by over 50% to US$153 million due to the Kroc gift. US$34 million of the money was deposited in its endowment.[15] The endowment fund before the gift totaled $35 million. NPR will use the interest from the bequest to expand its news staff and reduce some member stations' fees.[13] The 2005 budget was about US$120 million.

Ken Stern became chief executive in September 2006, reportedly as the "hand-picked successor" of CEO Kevin Klose, who gave up the job but remained as NPR's president; Stern had worked with Klose at Radio Free Europe.[12]

On December 10, 2008, NPR announced that it would reduce its workforce by 7% and cancel the news programs Day to Day and News & Notes.[16] The organization indicated this was in response to a rapid drop in corporate underwriting in the wake of the economic crisis of 2008.[16]

In the fall of 2008, NPR programming reached a record 27.5 million people weekly, according to Arbitron ratings figures. NPR stations reach 32.7 million listeners overall.[17]

In March 2008, the NPR Board announced that Stern would be stepping down from his role as Chief Executive Officer, following conflict with NPR's Board of Directors "over the direction of the organization", including issues NPR's member station managers had had with NPR's expansion into new media "at the expense of serving" the stations that financially support NPR.[12]

As of 2009, corporate sponsorship made up 26% of the NPR budget.[18]

2010s[edit]

In July 2010, the former National Public Radio renamed itself NPR. Affiliated stations and staff were instructed to use the initials NPR.[1][19]

In October 2010, NPR accepted a $1.8 million grant from the Open Society Institute. The grant is meant to begin a project called Impact of Government that is intended to add at least 100 journalists at NPR member radio stations in all 50 states over the next three years.[20] The OSI has made previous donations, but does not take on air credit for its gifts.[21]

In April 2013 NPR moved from its home of 19 years (635 Massachusetts Avenue NW) to new offices and production facilities at 1111 North Capitol Street, NE in a building adapted from the former C&P Telephone Warehouse and Repair Facility.[22] The first show scheduled to be broadcast from the new studios was Weekend Edition Saturday.[23] Morning Edition was the last show to move to the new location.[24] In June 2013 NPR canceled weekday call-in show Talk of the Nation.[25]

In September 2013, certain of NPR's 840 full- and part-time employees were offered a voluntary buyout plan, with the goal of reducing staff by 10 percent and returning NPR to a balanced budget by the 2015 fiscal year.[26]

Governance[edit]

NPR's former headquarters at 635 Massachusetts Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. (demolished in 2013)

NPR is a membership corporation. Member stations are required to be non-commercial or non-commercial educational radio stations, have at least five full-time professional employees, operate for at least 18 hours per day, and not be designed solely to further a religious broadcasting philosophy or be used for classroom distance learning programming. Each member station receives one vote at the annual NPR board meetings—exercised by its designated Authorized Station Representative ("A-Rep").

To oversee the day-to-day operations and prepare its budget, members elect a Board of Directors. This board is composed of ten A-Reps, five members of the general public, and the chair of the NPR Foundation. Terms are for three years and rotate such that some stand for election every year.[27]

The original purposes of NPR, as ratified by the Board of Directors, are the following:

  • Provide an identifiable daily product which is consistent and reflects the highest standards of broadcast journalism.
  • Provide extended coverage of public events, issues and ideas, and to acquire and produce special public affairs programs.
  • Acquire and produce cultural programs which can be scheduled individually by stations.
  • Provide access to the intellectual and cultural resources of cities, universities and rural districts through a system of cooperative program development with member public radio stations.
  • Develop and distribute programs for specific groups (adult education, instruction, modular units for local productions) which may meet needs of individual regions or groups, but may not have general national relevance.
  • Establish liaison with foreign broadcasters for a program exchange service.
  • Produce materials specifically intended to develop the art and technical potential of radio.[28]

As of November 2013, the Board of Directors of NPR included the following members:

NPR Member Station Managers
President of NPR
Chair of the NPR Foundation
  • Howard Wollner, Senior Vice President, Retired, Starbucks Coffee Company
Public Members of the Board
  • Fabiola Arredondo, Managing Partner, Siempre Holdings
  • Chris Boskin, Media Company Consultant
  • Patricia Diaz Dennis; Senior Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, Retired, AT&T
  • John S. Wotowicz, Managing Partner of Concentric Capital -- (Vice Chair of the Board)

Funding[edit]

In 2010, NPR revenues totaled $180 million, with the bulk of revenues coming from programming fees, grants from foundations or business entities, contributions and sponsorships.[18] According to the 2009 financial statement, about 50% of NPR revenues come from the fees it charges member stations for programming and distribution charges.[18] Typically, NPR member stations receive funds through on-air pledge drives, corporate underwriting, state and local governments, educational institutions, and the federally funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). In 2009, member stations derived 6% of their revenue from federal, state and local government funding, 10% of their revenue from CPB grants, and 14% of their revenue from universities.[18][29] While NPR does not receive any direct federal funding, it does receive a small number of competitive grants from CPB and federal agencies like the Department of Education and the Department of Commerce. This funding amounts to approximately 2% of NPR’s overall revenues.[18]

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the majority of NPR funding came from the federal government. Steps were taken during the 1980s to completely wean NPR from government support, but the 1983 funding crisis forced the network to make immediate changes. Now more money to fund the NPR network is raised from listeners, charitable foundations and corporations instead.[citation needed] According to CPB, in 2009 11.3% of the aggregate revenues of all public radio broadcasting stations were funded from federal sources, principally through CPB.,[30] in 2012 10.9% of the revenues for Public Radio came from federal sources [31]

Underwriting spots vs. commercials[edit]

In contrast with commercial broadcasting, NPR does not carry traditional radio commercials, but has advertising in the form of brief statements from major sponsors which may include corporate slogans, descriptions of products and services, contact information such as website addresses and telephone numbers.[32] These statements are called underwriting spots and, unlike commercials, are governed by specific FCC restrictions in addition to truth in advertising laws; they cannot advocate a product or "promote the goods and services" of for-profit entities.[33] When questioned on the subject of how corporate underwriting revenues and foundation grants were holding up during the recession, during a speech broadcast on C-SPAN before the National Press Club on 2 March 2009, then President and CEO Vivian Schiller stated: "underwriting is down, it's down for everybody, ... this is the area that is most down for us, in sponsorship, underwriting, advertising, call it whatever you want, just like it is for all of media."[34] Hosts of the NPR program Planet Money stated the audience is indeed a product being sold to advertisers in the same way as commercial stations, saying: "they are not advertisers exactly but, they have a lot of the same characteristics; let's just say that."[35]

Listenership[edit]

According to a 2009 Washington Post article,[36] about 20.9 million listeners tune into NPR each week. The average listener is 49 years old[37] and earns an annual household income (HHI) of US $93,000. As of 2006, NPR's listenership is 80% white and 20% non-white.[38] While Arbitron tracks public radio listenership, they do not include public radio in their published rankings of radio stations.

NPR stations generally do not subscribe to the Arbitron rating service and are not included in published ratings and rankings such as Radio & Records. However, NPR station listenership is measured by Arbitron in both Diary and PPM (people meter) markets. NPR stations are frequently not included in "summary level" diary data used by most advertising agencies for media planning. Data on NPR listening can be accessed using "respondent level" diary data. Additionally, all radio stations (public and commercial) are treated equally within the PPM data sets making NPR station listenership data much more widely available to the media planning community. According to Arbitron's National Broadcast Audience Estimate report for September 29, 2011,[39] NPR's signature morning news program, Morning Edition, is the network's most popular program, drawing 12.9 million listeners a week, with its afternoon newsmagazine, All Things Considered, a close second, with 12.2 million listeners a week. Arbitron data is also provided by Radio Research Consortium, a non-profit corporation which subscribes to the Arbitron service and distributes the data to NPR and other non-commercial stations and on its website.[40] In a Harris telephone survey conducted in 2005, NPR was the most trusted news source in the U.S.[41]

Digital media[edit]

NPR's history in digital media includes the work of an independent, for-profit company called Public Interactive, which was founded in 1999[42] and acquired by PRI in June 2004, when it became a non-profit company.[43] By July 2008, Public Interactive had "170 subscribers who collectively operate 325 public radio and television stations" and clients such as Car Talk, The World, and The Tavis Smiley Show; by the end of that month, NPR acquired Public Interactive from PRI[42] In March 2011, NPR revealed a restructuring proposal in which Boston-based Public Interactive would become NPR Digital Services, separate from the Washington D.C.-based NPR Digital Media, which focuses on NPR-branded services.[44] NPR Digital Services would continue offering its services to public TV stations.[44]

The technical backbone of its digital news publishing system is Core Publisher, which was built on Drupal, the open-source content management system.[44]

NPR has been dubbed as "leveraging the Twitter generation", because of its adaptation of the popular microblogging service as one of its primary vehicles of information. Of NPR’s Twitter followers, the majority (67%) still do listen to NPR on the radio. According to Mashable.com, in a survey of more than 10,000 respondents, NPR found that its Twitter followers are younger, more connected to the social web, and more likely to access content through digital platforms such as NPR’s website, podcasts, mobile apps and more. NPR has more than one Twitter account; its survey found that most respondents followed between two and five NPR accounts, including topical account, show-specific accounts and on-air staff accounts.[45] In addition, NPR's Facebook Page has been at the forefront of the company foray into social media. Started by college student and fan Geoff Campbell[46] in 2008, the page was quickly taken over by the organization,[47] and over the last two years has grown to nearly 4 million fans and is a popular example of the company's new focus on a younger audience.[48]

Programming[edit]

Programs produced by NPR[edit]

News and public affairs programs[edit]

NPR News logo

NPR produces a morning and an afternoon news program, both of which also have weekend editions with different hosts. It also produces hourly news briefs around the clock. NPR formerly distributed the World Radio Network, a daily compilation of news reports from international radio news, but no longer does so.

Cultural programming[edit]

Programs distributed by NPR[edit]

News and public affairs[edit]

Cultural programs[edit]

Public radio programs not affiliated with NPR[edit]

Individual NPR stations can broadcast programming from sources that have no formal affiliation with NPR. If these programs are distributed by another distributor, a public radio station must also affiliate with that network to take that network's programming.

Many shows produced or distributed by Public Radio International—such as This American Life, Living on Earth and Whad'Ya Know?—are broadcast on public radio stations, but are not affiliated with NPR. PRI and NPR are separate production and distribution organizations with distinct missions, and each competes with the other for programming slots on public radio stations.

Public Radio Exchange also offers a national distribution network where a significant number of public radio stations go to acquire programs from independent producers. PRX provides a catalog of thousands of radio pieces available on-demand as broadcast quality audio files and available for streaming on the PRX.org website.

Most public radio stations are NPR member stations and affiliate stations of PRI, APM, and PRX at the same time. The organizations have different governance structures and missions and relationships with stations. Other popular shows, like A Prairie Home Companion and Marketplace, are produced by American Public Media, the national programming unit of Minnesota Public Radio. These programs were distributed by Public Radio International prior to APM's founding. Democracy Now!, the flagship news program of the Pacifica Radio network, provides a feed to NPR stations, and other Pacifica programs can occasionally be heard on these stations as well.

Additionally, NPR member stations distribute a series of podcast-only programs, such as Planet Money, On Gambling with Mike Pesca, Groove Salad, and Youthcast, which are designed for younger audiences.

Controversies[edit]

Main article: NPR controversies

Over the course of NPR's history, controversies have arisen over several incidents and topics.

Allegations of ideological bias[edit]

NPR has been accused of displaying both liberal bias, as alleged in work such as a UCLA and University of Missouri study of Morning Edition, and conservative bias, including criticism of alleged reliance on conservative think-tanks.[49] NPR has also been accused of bias related to specific topics, including support of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and coverage of Israel. The NPR ombudsman has described how NPR's coverage of the Israel-Palestinian conflict has been simultaneously criticized as biased by both sides.[50] University of Texas journalism professor and author Robert Jensen has criticized NPR for its pro-war stance during coverage of Iraq war protests.[51]

Surveys and follow-up focus groups conducted by the Tarrance Group and Lake Snell Perry & Associates have indicated that, "The majority of the U.S. adult population does not believe that the news and information programming on public broadcasting is biased. The plurality of Americans indicate that there is no apparent bias one way or the other, while approximately two-in-ten detect a liberal bias and approximately one-in-ten detect a conservative bias."[52]

Euphemisms[edit]

In a controversial act, NPR banned in 2009 the use of the word "torture" in the context of the Bush administration's use of enhanced interrogation techniques.[53] NPR's Ombudswoman Alicia Shepard's defense of the policy was that "calling waterboarding torture is tantamount to taking sides."[54] But Berkeley Professor of Linguistics, Geoffrey Nunberg pointed out that virtually all media around the world, other than what he called the "spineless U.S. media", call these techniques torture.[55][56] In an article which criticized NPR and other U.S. media for their use of euphemisms for torture, Glenn Greenwald discussed what he called the enabling "corruption of American journalism":

This active media complicity in concealing that our Government created a systematic torture regime, by refusing ever to say so, is one of the principal reasons it was allowed to happen for so long. The steadfast, ongoing refusal of our leading media institutions to refer to what the Bush administration did as "torture" – even in the face of more than 100 detainee deaths; the use of that term by a leading Bush official to describe what was done at Guantanamo; and the fact that media outlets frequently use the word "torture" to describe the exact same methods when used by other countries --reveals much about how the modern journalist thinks.[57]

Live from Death Row commentaries[edit]

In 1994, NPR arranged to air on All Things Considered, a series of three-minute commentaries by Mumia Abu-Jamal, a journalist convicted in a controversial trial, of murdering a police officer. They cancelled airing them after the Fraternal Order of Police and members of the U.S. Congress objected.[58]

Juan Williams comments[edit]

On October 20, 2010, NPR terminated Senior News Analyst Juan Williams's independent contract[59] over a series of incidents culminating in remarks he made on the Fox News Channel regarding Muslims.

Ronald Schiller comments[edit]

In March 2011 conservative political provocateur James O'Keefe sent partners Simon Templar (a pen name) and Shaughn Adeleye[60] to secretly record their discussion with Ronald Schiller, NPR's outgoing senior vice president for fundraising, and an associate, in which Schiller made remarks viewed as disparaging of the Tea Party and conservatives, and controversial comments regarding Palestine and funding for NPR. Schiller immediately resigned, and NPR disavowed Schiller's comments. CEO Vivian Schiller, who is not related to Ronald, later resigned over the fallout from the comments and the previous firing of Juan Williams.[61]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b National Public Radio is changing its name to NPRWashington Post, July 8, 2010
  2. ^ "How NPR Works: NPR's Mission Statement". NPR. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007. 
  3. ^ ""Mandela: An Audio History" on NPR's All Things Considered Series". National Public Radio. April 9, 2004. "All Things Considered, NPR's daily, afternoon newsmagazine was first broadcast in 1971, and according to recent reports is the third most listened radio show in the country, attracting a weekly audience of 11.5 million people on 605 public radio stations nationwide." 
  4. ^ Mitchell, Jack W. (2005). Listener supported: the culture and history of public radio. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN 0-275-98352-8. "Conceived as "alternatives," Morning Edition and All Things Considered are the second and third most listened-to radio programs in the ..." 
  5. ^ Jarvik, Laurence Ariel, PBS, behind the screen, Rocklin, CA : Forum, 1997. ISBN 0761506683
  6. ^ "History". NPR. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  7. ^ "GAO statement on NPR financial crisis, 1984". Public Broadcasting PolicyBase at Current.org. 1984. Retrieved June 12, 2007. 
  8. ^ "History of public broadcasting in the United States". Current.org. Retrieved June 12, 2007. 
  9. ^ a b "Delano Lewis Resigns". NPR. April 3, 1998. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  10. ^ a b "NPR Announces New President and CEO". NPR. November 11, 1998. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  11. ^ a b "NPR Establishes Major Production Center in California NPR West Opens November 2, Expanding Network's Presence and Reach". NPR. November 2, 2002. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  12. ^ a b c NPR Leader out After Board Clash, Washington Post, March 6, 2008.
  13. ^ a b Steinberg, Jacques (November 7, 2003). "Billions and Billions Served, Hundreds of Millions Donated". New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2008. "National Public Radio announced yesterday that it had received a bequest worth at least $200 million from the widow of the longtime chairman of the McDonald's restaurant chain. The gift is the largest in the 33-year history of NPR, the nonprofit broadcasting corporation – and about twice the size of NPR's annual operating budget. It is believed to be among the largest ever pledged to an American cultural institution." 
  14. ^ "NPR Receives a Record Bequest of More Than $200 Million" (Press release). National Public Radio. November 6, 2003. Retrieved October 2, 2006. 
  15. ^ Janssen, Mike (May 24, 2004). "Kroc gift lets NPR expand news, lower fees". Current.org. Retrieved October 2, 2006. 
  16. ^ a b Carney, Steve (December 10, 2008). "National Public Radio to cut shows, personnel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008. 
  17. ^ "NPR reaches new audience high". Press release. NPR. March 24, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c d e "Public Radio Finances". NPR. Retrieved October 22, 2010. 
  19. ^ NPR Labs - IBOC High Power Calculator. Secure.nprlabs.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
  20. ^ "The Situation Room". 
  21. ^ Lisa Chiu, [1], " Secret Recording Explores Relationship Between Billionaire Soros and NPR," The Chronicle of Philanthropy, March 17, 2011
  22. ^ "NEW NPR HEADQUARTERS NEARS COMPLETION". Press release. NPR. February 1, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013. 
  23. ^ Scott Simon, [2], "Saying Goodbye To The Old NPR Headquarters", Weekend Edition Saturday, April 06, 2013
  24. ^ "Npr moves to new headquarters - morning edition airs first broadcast from new building today". Press release. NPR. 2013-04-22. Retrieved 2013-05-14. 
  25. ^ "A Fond Farewell to Talk of the Nation." Tell Me More. NPR. June 27, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=196242323
  26. ^ "NPR To Offer Voluntary Buyouts In Bid To Balance Budget". The Observer. September 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  27. ^ NPR Bylaws; Public Broadcasting Policy Base; January 20, 1999
  28. ^ Siemering, William (November 29, 1999). "National Public Radio Purposes". Public Broadcasting PolicyBase at Current.org. Retrieved October 2, 2006. 
  29. ^ "NPR Responds". Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Table 2 Public Broadcasting Revenue by Public Television and Radio System and Source of Revenue, Fiscal Year 2008–2009". Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2009. Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Table 2 Public Broadcasting Revenue by Public Television and Radio System and Source of Revenue, Fiscal Year 2011–2012". Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2012. Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
  32. ^ "NPR Underwriting Credit Guidelines". npr.org. NRP. 24 Nov 2008. p. 1. Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "The Public and Broadcasting". Federal Communications Commission. 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  34. ^ "Public Broadcasting and Commercial Media". C-SPAN. 2 March 2009. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "The Friday Podcast: Economists On Federal Funding For NPR". NPR (Planet Money). March 25, 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  36. ^ Farhi, Paul (24 March 2009). "Good News for NPR: Its Most Listeners Ever". Washington Post. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  37. ^ "Audience". NPR. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  38. ^ "The Listeners of National Public Radio". Onthemedia.org. September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Audience Estimates". NPR. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  40. ^ Fong-Torres, Ben (March 12, 2006). "Radio Waves". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 26, 2008. 
  41. ^ Eggerton, John (November 10, 2005). "Survey Says: Noncom News Most Trusted". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved October 2, 2006. 
  42. ^ a b "PRI And NPR Announce Deal To Grow Public Interactive, Public Media's Leading Web Services Company". NPR. July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  43. ^ "Public Interactive Press Area". NPR. June 2, 2004. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  44. ^ a b c Everhart, Karen (March 7, 2011). "Web infrastructure for pubmedia, 2011". Current.org. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  45. ^ Spiegel, Rachel. "Research: Thalido…". Retrieved April 30, 2006. 
  46. ^ Campbell, Geoff. "Mount Allison student gets Facebook ball rolling for American media organization, NPR". Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  47. ^ Campbell, Geoff. "How Andy Carvin took over NPR's Facebook Page from Student/Creator Geoff Campbell". Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  48. ^ Tenore, Mallary Jean. "Carvin: Facebook Lets NPR Empower Those Who Love Us, Listen to Those Who Don’t". Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Does Public Radio Have A Liberal Bias? The Finale!" (Radio Transcript). On The Media. WNYC. 25 March 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2011. 
  50. ^ Listeners Hear Same Israeli-Palestinian Coverage Differently; NPR Ombudsman; June 18, 2010
  51. ^ Published Articles – 2003; University of Texas, Robert Jensen
  52. ^ Public Perceptions of Public Broadcasting; Corporation for Public Broadcasting; December 2003
  53. ^ "The still-growing NPR "torture" controversy" Salon.com July 2, 2009
  54. ^ Torturous Wording NPR (transcript) June 26, 2009
  55. ^ "Calling a Spade a Spade: Use of the Word 'Torture'", KPCC June 26, 2009
  56. ^ McQuaid, John."The semantics of torture" guardian.co.uk – Comment-is-free May 13, 2009.
  57. ^ "The NYT's nice, new euphemism for torture", Salon.com June 6, 2009
  58. ^ "Judge Dismisses Inmate's Suit Against NPR". The Washington Post. August 22, 1997. 
  59. ^ Stanglin, Doug (October 21, 2010). "Update: NPR exec says Juan Williams crossed the line before". USA Today. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  60. ^ Hagey, Keach (March 8, 2011). "NPR exec: tea party is ‘scary,’ ‘racist’". Politico. 
  61. ^ Mark Memmott (March 9, 2011). "NPR CEO Vivian Schiller resigns". NPR. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 

External links[edit]