National Revival of Poland
|National Rebirth of Poland|
|Founded||10 November 1981|
|Headquarters||ul. Kredytowa 6/22 00-062 Warsaw|
Social authoritarianism
|International affiliation||International Third Position|
|European affiliation||European National Front|
|Politics of Poland
National Rebirth of Poland (Polish: Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski), abbreviated to NOP, is a nationalist and national-revolutionary (or Third Position) political party in Poland registered by the District Court in Warsaw and National Electoral Commission. The party has no seats in the Polish parliament. It was a member of European National Front.
History and politics
National Rebirth of Poland was founded as a nationalist discussion group for young people on 10 November 1981. It joined the Christian National Union when that party was founded in 1989, before leaving in February 1990. The NOP registered as a political party in 1992. The party is the only far-right organisation to claim to be a successor to the National Radical Camp Falanga (RNR), the pre-war nationalist youth organisation, which was banned in 1934.
NOP publishes the magazines Szczerbiec (the name of the Polish royal coronation sword), which lists neofascists Derek Holland and Roberto Fiore among the members of its editorial board, Młodzież Narodowa (National Youth), Myśl (The Thought), and 17 – Cywilizacja Czasów Próby (17 – The Civilization of the Times of Trial).
In 2009, NOP membership in Poland was estimated at 1000. NOP also has supporters outside Poland, notably among the United States Polish community, including Polish Patriots’ Association residing in New York City, and the revisionist Polish Historical Institute in Chicago.
In 2001, the NOP tried to enter parliamentary politics for the first time. The newly created NOP front organization, the New Forces Alliance (Sojusz Nowych Sił), joined the nationalist electoral bloc, Alternative Social Movement (Alternatywa Ruch Społeczny). Among the NOP candidates were Marcin Radzewicz, the leader of the openly neo-Nazi National Socialist Front (Front Narodowo-Socjalistyczny). ARS gained just below 0.5% of the votes, and the alliance was dissolved.
In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the NOP received 0.06% of the vote. In the 2006 self-government regional elections, it received 0.30%, or about 41 000 votes. In the 2007 parliamentary election, the NOP received 42 407 votes in four electoral districts. In the self-government regional elections in 2010, the party received 0.24% of the vote.
In the 2011 parliamentary elections, NOP senate candidate Anetta Stemler, running in the 1st electoral district, received 2934 votes, or 3.10%.
The NOP is known for trying to get media attention with its shock value campaigns. During the 2007 parliamentary election, the NOP distributed election campaign posters with the slogan "Fascism? We are worse."
Another, openly homophobic shock value campaign conducted by the NOP was called Zakaz Pedałowania (Faggotry Forbidden). On 17 May 2006 in Toruń, the NOP organized a counter-demonstration against a public LGBT rights supporters' meeting. NOP members chanted slogans, including "gas the queers" (pedały do gazu) and "there will be a baton for each queer face" (znajdzie się kij na pedalski ryj).
|This section may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. (June 2013)|
- Minimal government bureaucracy.
- The party seeks to end conscription and, thus, introduce a voluntary army. This part of the program has been realized by Donald Tusk's cabinet in 2007
- Opposition to euthanasia and abortion
- Opposition to same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption.
- Strong opposition to membership of the EU and NATO.
- Decommunization and Lustration.
- Adoption of Falangist principles and a political system of National Syndicalism.
- A return of capital punishment (for murderers, rapists, pedophiles, drug trafficking, organized crime and for acting against the state of Poland) as well as large penalties for any immoral acts such as corruption.
- Opposition to socialism and liberalism with respect to moral and economic conduct.
- The National Rebirth of Poland says that the party's ideology does not fit in with any form of left-wing and right-wing politics, preferring to call itself the "Third Position movement".
- Nationalization of strategical areas.
- Suspension of external debt payment
Anti-Semitism and racism
The NOP is stated to be an anti-Semitic organisation by a number of government bodies, nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions and individual experts worldwide, such as the United States Department of State, and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). According to The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism, the NOP is promoting violent forms of neo-fascism and antisemitism, including Holocaust denial. According to the British historian, Dr John Pollard, neo-Nazi elements in the NOP and their racism and homophobia continue to give rise to concern in other member countries of the European Union. NOP actions were also condemned by the Anti-Defamation League, which claims that the NOP is an openly anti-Semitic extremist organization. According to the magazine The Warsaw voice, the manifesto of the National Revival of Poland, which contains a sentence stating that "Jews will be removed from Poland, and their possessions will be confiscated", is taken directly from Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf. The magazine also claims that the official greeting gesture used in the party is the Nazi-like gesture of the raised arm.
A number of NOP-related incidents received some media coverage in Poland and abroad. According to the European Roma Rights Centre, on July 3, 1998, NOP supporters vandalised the Roma community centre in Łódź. Along with racist graffiti, swastikas were sprayed onto the office walls. The perpetrators also left behind their signature as NOP – Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski. During the same night, the same group reportedly vandalised the premises of the Jehovah's Witnesses religious group.
In March 2000, in Łódź, swastikas and the slogan "Jews out!" along with NOP symbols were spray-painted on the home of Marek Edelman, who was the deputy commander in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising and the last of the leaders of the uprising still alive. The incident was condemned by the president and prime minister of Poland, who sent Edelman letters of support and apology.
NOP front organization National-Radical Institute (Instytut Narodowo-Radykalny, INR) was involved in publishing Western and Polish Holocaust denial literature. In 1997, INR published a volume of translated works of Western Holocaust deniers under the title The Myth of the Holocaust. The same year, INR announced that there were no exterminations in gas chambers at Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.
In 2006, the NOP was involved in campaigning to free convicted British Holocaust denier David Irving from prison in Austria, and produced a poster containing the slogan "David Irving – Uwolnić prawdę" ("David Irving – Free the truth".)
The party also expressed support for the bombing of Israel at the time of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, with a poster image stating, "Bomby na Izrael – Już czas !!!" ("Bombs against Israel – it's about time!!!"). On August 13, 2006, NOP leader Adam Gmurczyk published a declaration on behalf of the NOP Executive Council titled Izrael musi zostać zniszczony! (Israel must be destroyed!), calling for the international military takeover of Israel, and offering to put administrative control of Jerusalem in the hands of Pope Benedict XVI and his successors.
On April 14, 2007, in Krakow, anti-Semitic slogans were shouted and fascist-like gestures made by the participants of an NOP demonstration. Investigations by the Public Prosecutor's Office were discontinued on November 26, 2007, as no perpetrators were identified and the case was not classified as an offense.
- Bugajski, Janusz (1995), Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe: A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations and Parties, M. E. Sharpe, p. 378
- Pankowski, Rafal (2006), "Poland", World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO) 1: 523
- Minkenberg, Michael (2007), "Between Tradition and Transition: the Central European Radical Right and the New European Order", Europe for the Europeans: The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right (Ashgate): 265
- Shafir, Michael (2012), "Denying the Shoah in Post-Communist Eastern Europe", Holocaust Denial: The Politics of Perfidy (de Gruyter): 36
- Jakubowicz, Andrew (2007), Notes for a Grave under Snow, University of Nebraska Press, p. 71
- Szajkowski, Bogdan (2004). Revolutionary and Dissident Movements of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-9543811-2-7.
- Berglund, Sten; Ekman, Joakim; Aarebrot, Frank H. (2004). The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe. London: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-84064-854-6.
- Borejsza et al (2006), p. 359
- Michael Shafir Varieties of Antisemitism in Post-communist East Central Europe: Motivations and Political Discourse
- Rafal Pankowski and Marcin Kornak. Poland. Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe, Cas Mudde (Editor), pp. 156–183. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 978-0-415-35593-3
- Cas Mudde (2005). Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge. p. 162. ISBN 0-415-35593-1. OCLC 55228719.
- Elections 2005 on Gazeta Wyborcza website (en)
- Wyborczy slogan NOP-u: "Jesteśmy gorsi od faszyzmu" – Wiadomości24
- « Zakaz Pedałowania » on NOP's website (pl)
- http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session1/PL/AI_POL_UPR_S1_2008anx_EUR%2001_017_2006.pdf United Nations Human Rights Council
- http://amnesty.org.pl/archiwum/aktualnosci-strona-artykulu/article/4969/71/category/6/neste/1.html?cHash=adf146462f Amnesty International Polska
- NOP's official program(pl)
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2006, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor US State Dept.
- International Religious Freedom Report 2007 US State Dept.
- European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) Third report on Poland Adopted on 17 December 2004
- Poland 2006, by Stephen Roth Institute
- John Pollard ‘Clerical Fascism’: Context, Overview and Conclusion in: Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, Vol. 8, No. 2, p. 11, June 2007
- Poland: Democracy and the Challenge of Extremism, by Anti-Defamation League, 2006
- RACE: Fighting Fascism, Warsaw Voice, 31 July 2003
- European Roma Rights Centre
- Anti-Semitic Incidents – March 2000, by the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Kwiet, Konrad; Jürgen Matthäus (2004). Contemporary Responses to the Holocaust. Greenwood Publishing. p. 160. ISBN 0-275-97466-9.
- Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski, Izrael musi zostać zniszczony!
- « Anti-Semitic Incidents In Poland », The Jewish Press, March 26, 2008
- NOP - official website
- National Rebirth of Poland - presentation of the movement
- Nacjonalista.pl - news portal related to NOP
- Rudnicki, Szymon (2006). "Right-wing Radicalism in Contemporary Poland". Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons From the Twentieth Century (Oxford: Berghahn Books). pp. 354–372. ISBN 978-1-57181-641-2.