National Rifle Association

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This article is about the National Rifle Association based in the United States. For the UK organization, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom.
National Rifle Association of America
National Rifle Association.svg
National Rifle Association logo
Type 501(c)(4)[1]
Tax ID No. 53-0116130
Founded November 17, 1871 (1871-11-17)
Founder(s) William Conant Church, George Wood Wingate
Predecessor Company A, 22d regiment, New York National Guard, C.O. Captain George Wingate[2]
Headquarters
Key people President, James W. Porter II; Executive Vice President, Wayne LaPierre
Area served United States of America
Service(s) Membership organization, magazine publisher, education/certification, museum curation
Focus(es) Civil Rights, Social Action, Advocacy[1]
Mission 1. To protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.
2. To promote public safety, law and order, and the national defense.
3. To train members of law enforcement agencies, the armed forces, the militia, and people of good repute in marksmanship and in the safe handling and efficient use of small arms.
4. To foster and promote the shooting sports.
5. To promote hunter safety.
[1]
Method(s) Lobbying, publications, outreach programs
Revenue $256 million (2012)[1]
Expenses $254 million (2012)[1]
Members 5 million (as of May 2013)[3]
Affiliations NRA Institute for Legislative Action (Lobbying arm)
NRA Political Victory Fund (PAC)
Subsidiaries NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund
NRA Foundation Inc.
NRA Special Contribution Fund
NRA Freedom Action Foundation
Website NRA.org

The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American nonprofit organization whose primary mission is "[to] protect and defend the Constitution of the United States...", especially the right to keep and bear arms.[1] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm related bills since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against legislation since 1975.[4]

Originally founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm competency and safety. It instructs civilians and law enforcement, youths and adults, in various programs. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[4] Its membership surpassed 5 million in May 2013.[3]

Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington.[5][6] Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates.

The NRA has four charitable subsidiaries: the NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund, the NRA Foundation Inc., the NRA Special Contribution Fund, and the NRA Freedom Action Foundation.[1][7][8][5] The NRA is also affiliated with the Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA), its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee, the Political Victory Fund (PVF).

History

Early history

The National Rifle Association was first chartered in the state of New York on November 17, 1871[4] by Army and Navy Journal editor William Conant Church and General George Wood Wingate. Its first president was Union Army Civil War General Ambrose Burnside, who had worked as a Rhode Island gunsmith, and Wingate was the original secretary of the organization. Church succeeded Burnside as president in the following year.

Union Army records for the Civil War indicate that its troops fired about 1,000 rifle shots for each Confederate soldier hit, causing General Burnside to lament his recruits: "Out of ten soldiers who are perfect in drill and the manual of arms, only one knows the purpose of the sights on his gun or can hit the broad side of a barn."[9] The generals attributed this to the use of volley tactics, devised for earlier, less accurate smoothbore muskets.[10][11]

Recognizing a need for better training, Wingate traveled to Europe and observed European armies' marksmanship training programs. With plans provided by Wingate, the New York Legislature funded the construction of a modern range at Creedmore, Long Island, for long-range shooting competitions. Wingate then wrote a marksmanship manual.[9]

After winning the British Empire championship at Wimbledon, London, in 1874, the Irish Rifle Team issued a challenge through the New York Herald to riflemen of the United States to raise a team for a long-range match to determine an Anglo-American championship. The NRA organized a team through a subsidiary amateur rifle club. Remington Arms and Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Company produced breech-loading weapons for the team. Although muzzle-loading rifles had long been considered more accurate, eight American riflemen won the match firing breech-loading rifles. Publicity of the event generated by the New York Herald helped to establish breech-loading firearms as suitable for military marksmanship training, and promoted the NRA to national prominence.[9]

Rifle clubs

The NRA organized rifle clubs in other states, and many state National Guard organizations sought NRA advice to improve members' marksmanship. Wingate's markmanship manual evolved into the United States Army marksmanship instruction program.[9] Former President Ulysses S. Grant served as the NRA's eighth President[12] and General Philip H. Sheridan as its ninth.[12] The U.S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice in 1901 to include representatives from the NRA, National Guard, and United States military services. A program of annual rifle and pistol competitions was authorized, and included a national match open to military and civilian shooters. NRA headquarters moved to Washington, D.C. to facilitate the organization's advocacy efforts.[9] In 1903, Congress authorized the Civilian Marksmanship Program, which was designed to train civilians who might later be called to serve in the U.S. military.[13] Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal began the manufacture of M1903 Springfield rifles for civilian members of the NRA in 1910.[14] The Director of Civilian Marksmanship began manufacture of M1911 pistols for NRA members in August 1912.[15]

Contemporary history

The NRA formed its Legislative Affairs Division to update members with facts and analysis of upcoming bills,[16] after the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA) became the first federal gun-control law passed in the U.S.[17] The NRA supported the NFA along with the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA), which together created a system to federally license gun dealers and established restrictions on particular categories and classes of firearms.[18]

Until the middle 1970s, the NRA mainly focused on sportsmen, hunters and target shooters, and downplayed gun control issues. However, passage of the GCA galvanized a growing number of NRA gun rights activists, including Harlon Carter. In 1975, it began to focus more on politics and established its lobbying arm, the Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA), with Carter as director. The next year, its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund, was created in time for the 1976 elections.[19]:158 The 1977 annual convention was a defining moment for the organization and came to be known as "The Cincinnati Revolution."[20] Leadership planned to relocate NRA headquarters to Colorado and to build a $30 million recreational facility in New Mexico, but activists within the organization whose central concern was Second Amendment rights defeated the incumbents and elected Carter as executive director and Neal Knox as head of the NRA-ILA.[21][22]

Shift to politics

After 1977, the organization expanded its membership by focusing heavily on political issues and forming coalitions with conservative politicians, most of them Republicans.[23] With a goal to weaken the GCA, Knox's ILA successfully lobbied Congress to pass the Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) of 1986 and worked to reduce the powers of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF). In 1982, Knox was ousted as director of the ILA, but began mobilizing outside the NRA framework and continued to promote opposition to gun control laws.[24]

At the 1991 national convention, Knox's supporters were elected to the board and named staff lobbyist Wayne LaPierre as the executive vice president. The NRA focused its attention on the gun control policies of the Clinton Administration.[25] Knox again lost power in 1997, as he lost reelection to a coalition of moderate leaders who supported movie star Charlton Heston, despite Heston's past support of gun control legislation.[26] In 1994, the NRA unsuccessfully opposed the Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB), but successfully lobbied for the ban's 2004 expiration.[27] Heston was elected president in 1998 and became a highly visible spokesman for the organization. In an effort to improve the NRA's image, Heston presented himself as the voice of reason in contrast to Knox.[28]:262-268

Public opinion

In six of seven Gallup polls between 1993 and 2013, a majority of Americans reported holding a favorable opinion of the NRA.[29] A Reuters/Ipsos poll in April 2012 found that 82 percent of Republicans and 55 percent of Democrats saw the NRA "in a positive light."[30] In December 2012, 54 percent of Americans held a favorable opinion of the NRA, though there was a wide spread among party affiliations: 83 percent of Republicans, 54 percent of independents, and 36 percent of Democrats.[29] A Washington Post/ABC News poll in January 2013 showed that only 36 percent of Americans had a favorable opinion of NRA leadership.[31]

Criticism of the NRA and some of its leaders has grown since the December 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Business Insider, The Des Moines Register, and other news organizations have quoted one of the NRA's harshest critics:

"Today's NRA is a virtual subsidiary of the gun industry," said Josh Sugarmann, executive director of the Violence Policy Center. "While the NRA portrays itself as protecting the 'freedom' of individual gun owners, it's actually working to protect the freedom of the gun industry to manufacture and sell virtually any weapon or accessory."[32][33]

Political activity

The primary goal of the National Rifle Association when founded in 1871 was to "promote and encourage rifle shooting on a scientific basis." Then in 1934 it created its Legislative Affairs Division to officially work on Second Amendment issues.[34] According to its present-day bylaws, the NRA's first purpose and objective is:

"To protect and defend the Constitution of the United States, especially with reference to the inalienable right of the individual American citizen guaranteed by such Constitution to acquire, possess, collect, exhibit, transport, carry, transfer ownership of, and enjoy the right to use arms...."[1]

The Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA), the lobbying branch of the NRA, was established in 1975. According to political scientists John M. Bruce and Clyde Wilcox, the NRA shifted its focus in the late 1970s to incorporate political advocacy, and started seeing its members as political resources rather than just as recipients of goods and services. Despite the impact on the volatility of membership, the politicization of the NRA has been consistent and its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund established in 1976, ranked as "one of the biggest spenders in congressional elections" as of 1998.[35]

A 1999 Fortune magazine survey said that lawmakers and their staffers considered the NRA the most powerful lobbying organization three years in a row.[5] Chris W. Cox is the NRA's chief lobbyist and principal political strategist, a position he has held since 2002. In 2012, 88 percent of Republicans and 11 percent of Democrats in Congress had received an NRA PAC contribution at some point in their career. Of the members of the Congress that convened in 2013, 51 percent received funding from the NRA PAC within their political careers, and 47 percent received NRA money in their most recent race. According to Lee Drutman, political scientist and senior fellow at the Sunlight Foundation, "It is important to note that these contributions are probably a better measure of allegiance than of influence."[36]

The National Rifle Association says it is "America's longest-standing civil rights organization";[37][38] the National Association of the Deaf and the NAACP make similar claims.[34][39] The NRA supports privacy rights for gun owners and, additionally, has invoked the Tenth Amendment to defend gun rights.[citation needed] The modern NRA opposes most new gun-control legislation, calling instead for stricter enforcement of existing laws and increased sentencing for gun-related crimes. The NRA also advocates for concealed carry in the United States and takes positions on non-firearm hunting issues, such as supporting wildlife management programs that allow hunting and opposing restrictions on devices like crossbows and leg hold traps.[citation needed]

Internationally, the NRA opposes the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT).[40] As of January 2014, it supported efforts by Republican Sen. Jerry Moran to prevent funding the treaty unless ratified by the Senate, which opposes the treaty.[41] It has opposed Canadian gun registry,[42] supported Brazilian gun rights,[43][44] and criticized Australian gun laws.[45]

Elections

The NRA Political Victory Fund (PVF) PAC was established in 1976 to challenge gun-control candidates and to support gun-rights candidates.[46] The NRA is a single-issue organization with regard to advising its members and gun owners on Second Amendment issues. The PVF also grades Congressional and state legislature candidates based on their positions on gun rights, not on party affiliations.[47] An NRA "A+" candidate is one who has "not only an excellent voting record on all critical NRA issues, but who has also made a vigorous effort to promote and defend the Second Amendment," whereas an NRA "F" candidate is a "true enemy of gun owners' rights."[48] It also helps its members locate an NRA Election Volunteer Coordinator (EVC) for their area and to register to vote.[49]

The NRA endorsed a presidential candidate for the first time in 1980 backing Ronald Reagan over Jimmy Carter.[50][51] The NRA's policy is to endorse pro-gun incumbents because of their established record.[47] For example, in the 2006 Senate Elections the NRA endorsed Rick Santorum over Bob Casey, Jr.,[52] even though they both had an "A" rating.

The NRA spent $40 million on U.S. elections in 2008,[53] including $10 million in opposition to the election of Senator Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential campaign.[54]

The NRA spent over $360,000 in the Colorado recall election of 2013, which resulted in the ouster of state senators John Morse and Angela Giron.[55] The Huffington Post called the recall "a stunning victory for the National Rifle Association and gun rights activists."[55] Morse and Giron helped to pass expanded background checks and ammunition magazine capacity limits after the 2012 Aurora, Colorado, and Sandy Hook, Connecticut, shootings.[56]

Senate confirmations

In 2006, the NRA lobbied U.S. Representative F. James Sensenbrenner to add a provision to the Patriot Act reauthorization that requires Senate confirmation of ATF director nominees.[57] For seven years after that, the NRA lobbied against and "effectively blocked" every presidential nominee.[57][58][59] First was President George W. Bush's choice, Michael J. Sullivan, whose confirmation was held up in 2008 by three Republican Senators who said the ATF was hostile to gun dealers. One of the Senators was Larry Craig, who was an NRA board member during his years in the Senate.[60] Confirmation of President Obama's first nominee, Andrew Traver, stalled in 2011 after the NRA expressed strong opposition.[57][61] Some Senators resisted confirming another Obama nominee, B. Todd Jones, because of the NRA's opposition,[59] until 2013, when the NRA said it was neutral on Jones' nomination and that it would not include the confirmation vote in its grading system.[57] Dan Freedman, national editor for Hearst Newspapers' Washington D.C. bureau, stated that it, "clears the way for senators from pro-gun states - Democrats as well as at least some Republicans - to vote for Jones without fear of political repercussions".[62]

In 2014, Obama weighed the idea of delaying a vote on his nominee for Surgeon General, Vivek Murthy, when Republicans and some conservative Democrats criticized Murthy, after the NRA opposed him.[63] In February, the NRA wrote to Senate leaders Harry Reid and Mitch McConnell to say that it "strongly opposes" Murthy's confirmation, and told The Washington Times' Emily Miller that it would score the vote in its PAC grading system. "The NRA decision," wrote Miller, "will undoubtedly make vulnerable Democrats up for reelection in the midterms reconsider voting party line on this nominee."[64] The Wall Street Journal stated on March 15, "Crossing the NRA to support Dr. Murthy could be a liability for some of the Democrats running for re-election this year in conservative-leaning states."[65]

The NRA also opposed the appointments of Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan as Supreme Court justices.[66]

Legislation

National Rifle Association Position on Federal U.S. Legislation
Bill/Law Year Supported Opposed
National Firearms Act 1934 NoN
Federal Firearms Act 1938 NoN
Gun Control Act 1968 NoN NoN
Federal Assault Weapons Ban 1994 NoN
Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act 2005 NoN
Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act 2006 NoN
Assault Weapons Ban 2013 NoN

The NRA supported the 1934 National Firearms Act (NFA),[67] which regulated what were considered at the time "gangster weapons" such as machine guns, sawed-off shotguns, and sound suppressors.[68] However, the organization's position on suppressors has since changed.[69]

The NRA supported the 1938 Federal Firearms Act (FFA) which established the Federal Firearms License (FFL) program. The FFA required all manufacturers and dealers of firearms who ship or receive firearms or ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce to have a license, and forbade them from transferring any firearm or most ammunition to any person interstate unless certain conditions were met.[70]

The NRA supported and opposed parts of the Gun Control Act of 1968, which broadly regulated the firearms industry and firearms owners, primarily focusing on regulating interstate commerce in firearms by prohibiting interstate firearms transfers except among licensed manufacturers, dealers and importers. The law was supported by America's oldest manufacturers (Colt, S&W, etc.) in an effort to forestall even greater restrictions which were feared in response to recent domestic violence. The NRA supported elements of the law, such as those forbidding the sale of firearms to convicted criminals and the mentally ill.[71][72]

The NRA influenced the writing of the Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) and worked for its passage.[73]

In 2000, when evidence surfaced that the Pittman-Robertson Act sportsman's conservation trust funds were being mismanaged, NRA board member and sportsman, U.S. Representative Don Young (R-Alaska) introduced the Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs Improvement Act. The NRA backed bill passed the House 423-2 and became law on Nov. 1, 2000 and defines in what manner the monies can be spent.[74]

In 2004, the NRA opposed renewal of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994. The ban expired on September 13, 2004.[75]

In 2005 President Bush signed into law the NRA backed Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act which prevent firearms manufacturers and dealers from being held liable for negligence when crimes have been committed with their products.[76]

The NRA-backed Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act of 2006 prohibited the confiscation of legal firearms from citizens during states of emergency.[77]

In 2012, following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the NRA called on the United States Congress to appropriate funds for a "National School Shield Program," under which armed police officers would protect students in every U.S. school.[78][79] The NRA also announced the creation of a program that would advocate for best practices in the areas of security, building design, access control, information technology, and student and teacher training.[79][80][81][82]

Litigation

In November 2005, the NRA and other gun advocates filed a lawsuit challenging San Francisco Proposition H, which banned the ownership and sales of firearms. The NRA argued that the proposition overstepped local government authority and intruded into an area regulated by the state. The San Francisco County Superior Court agreed with the NRA position.[83] The city appealed the court's ruling, but lost a 2008 appeal.[84] In October 2008, San Francisco was forced to pay a $380,000 settlement to the National Rifle Association and other plaintiffs to cover the costs of litigating Proposition H.[85]

In April 2006, New Orleans, Louisiana, police began returning to citizens guns that had been confiscated after Hurricane Katrina. The NRA, Second Amendment Foundation (SAF), and other groups agreed to drop a lawsuit against the city in exchange for the return.[86]

In 2009 the NRA filed suit again (Guy Montag Doe v. San Francisco Housing Authority) in the city of San Francisco challenging the city's ban of guns in public housing. On January 14, 2009, the San Francisco Housing Authority reached a settlement with the NRA, which allows residents to possess legal firearms within a SFHA apartment building.[87]

In 2010, the NRA sued the city of Chicago, Illinois (McDonald v. Chicago) and the Supreme Court ruled that like other substantive rights, the right to bear arms is incorporated via the Fourteenth Amendment to the Bill of Rights, and therefore applies to the states.[88][89]

The NRA supported the case of Brian Aitken, a New Jersey resident sentenced to seven years in state prison for transporting guns without a carry permit.[90] The organization's Civil Rights Defense Fund helped to pay Brian Aitken's legal bills.[91] On December 20, 2010, Governor Chris Christie granted Aitken clemency and ordered Aitken's immediate release from prison.[92]

In November 2013, the city of Sunnyvale, California, passed an ordinance banning certain ammunition magazines along with three other firearm related restrictions. The new ordinance requires city residents to "dispose, donate, or sell" any magazine capable of holding more than ten rounds within a proscribed period of time once the measure took affect. Measure C also requires: 1) city residents to report firearm theft to the police within 48 hours, 2) residents to lock up their guns at home, and 3) gun dealers to keep logs of ammunition sales.[93] The city of San Francisco then passed similar ordinances a short time later. The NRA has joined with local citizens to file suit and challenge these ordinances on Second Amendment grounds.[94] Additionally, the San Francisco Veteran Police Officers Association (SFVPOA) filed a lawsuit challenging San Francisco’s ban on the possession of standard-capacity magazines.[95]

Safety and sporting programs

NRA firearms safety programs

NRA headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia

The NRA sponsors a range of programs designed to encourage the safe use of firearms. NRA hunting safety courses are offered in the United States for both children and adults. Classes focusing on firearm safety, particularly for women, have become popular. Intended for school-age children, the NRA's "Eddie Eagle" program encourages the viewer to "Stop! Don't touch! Leave the area! Tell an adult!" if the child ever sees a firearm lying around.[96] The NRA has also published an instructional guide, called The Basics of Personal Protection In The Home (published in 2000).[97]

Shooting sports

Instigated on by the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, the NRA mandated the establishment of National Teams and National Development Teams, a national coaching staff, year-round training programs, and a main training site for Olympic shooting sports. In 1992, USA Shooting replaced the NRA as the National governing body for Olympic shooting.

The NRA hosts the National Rifle and Pistol Matches at Camp Perry, events which are considered to be the "world series of competitive shooting."[98] Commonly known as Bullseye or Conventional Pistol, shooters from the military as well as many top-ranked civilians gather annually in July and August for this competition. The NRA also sponsors its National Muzzle Loading Championship at the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association's Friendship, Indiana facility and the Bianchi Cup in Columbia, Missouri.

The current NRA competitions division publishes its own rulebooks, maintains a registry of marksmanship classifications, and sanctions matches. The NRA also represents the United States on the International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations (ICFRA) which administers the World Long-Range Rifle Team Championships, contested every four years for the PALMA trophy.

Instructors

The National Rifle Association issues credentials and trains firearm instructors in a variety of disciplines. NRA-credentialed instructors teach marksmanship, maintenance, and legalities.[99] NRA Instructors are commonly found at privately owned firearms ranges, and are often employed by the Boy Scouts of America on their summer camps.[citation needed]

Relationship with other organizations

The National Rifle Association maintains ties with other organizations such as the Boy Scouts of America and 4-H.[100] Involvement includes monetary donations, equipment to supply firearms ranges, and instructors to assist in their programs. Notably, the Boy Scouts of America has strict guidelines on who is allowed to operate their ranges, the recognized personnel groups including NRA Certified Instructors along with military and law enforcement.[101]

The NRA joined the American Civil Liberties Union and several other civil liberties organizations in joint letters to President Clinton on 10 January 1994 and to the House Committee on the Judiciary on 24 October 1995 calling for federal law enforcement reforms citing the 1992 Ruby Ridge and 1993 Waco siege incidents involving the BATF, FBI, and the U.S. Marshalls Service.[102]

In 2013, the NRA joined the ACLU in a lawsuit against the federal government over the National Security Agency's surveillance of Americans, citing concerns that the NSA's data collection violates gun owners' privacy and could potentially be used to create a national gun registry.[103]

Fundraising and shooting support

Friends of NRA is a grassroots program that raises money for The NRA Foundation, the organization's 501(c)(3).[104] As part of Friends of NRA activities, volunteers in the United States organize committees and plan events in their communities.

Established in 1990, The NRA Foundation raises tax-deductible contributions in support of a wide range of firearm related public interest activities. These activities are designed to promote firearms and hunting safety, to enhance marksmanship skills of those participating in the shooting sports, and to educate the general public about firearms in their historic, technological and artistic context. Funds granted by The NRA Foundation benefit a variety of constituencies throughout the United States including children, youth, women, individuals with disabilities, gun collectors, law enforcement officers, hunters, and competitive shooters.[105]

Organizational structure and finances

The National Rifle Association is composed of four financially interconnected organizations under common leadership.[106]

  • The National Rifle Association is a 501(c)(4) membership association. It raises money, recruits members and volunteers, and engages in various activities primarily relating to firearms.
  • The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) manages the NRA's Political Action Committee (PAC). Some of its activities include retaining lobbyists to support gun-rights legislation and election operations such as the purchase of campaign advertising.
  • The NRA Civil Defense Fund is a 501(c)(3) that does pro-bono legal work for people with cases involving Second Amendment rights. As of December 2012, it was litigating in 35 states cases concerning the possession, use, and carrying of firearms.
  • The NRA Foundation is also a 501(c)(3) that raises and donates money to outdoors groups and others such as ROTC programs, 4-H and Boy Scout groups. The NRA Foundation has no staff and pays no salaries.[107]

Two other NRA 501(c)(3) charities are the NRA Special Contribution Fund (dba NRA Whittington Center) and the NRA Freedom Action Foundation.[1]

As of May 2013, NRA membership exceeded 5 million.[3]

Leadership and notable members

The NRA is governed by a board of 76 elected directors. Of these, 75 serve three-year terms and one is elected to serve as a cross-over director who "holds office from the adjournment of the Annual Meeting of Members at which [this person] was elected until the adjournment of the next Annual Meeting of Members, or until a successor is elected and qualified." The directors choose a president, one or more vice presidents, an executive vice president (the leading spokesperson for the organization), a secretary, and treasurer from among their fellows. Two other officers are also elected by the board: the executive director of the NRA General Operations and the executive director of the NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA).[108]

Notable leaders

James W. "Jim" Porter, an attorney, became president on May 6, 2013, replacing David Keene.[109] Prior to Keene was Ron Schmeits, who served from 2009–2011. John C. Sigler served 2007–2009. Sandra Froman served 2005–2007.

Notable past presidents include Hollywood actor Charlton Heston, who was the NRA's president from 1997 to 2003. Marion P. Hammer was the first female president, serving from 1995 to 1998.[110][111] Early presidents included Civil War Union Army generals Ambrose Burnside, Philip H. Sheridan, and Ulysses S. Grant.

Since 1991 Wayne LaPierre has been the organization's executive vice president functions as chief executive officer.[112] Chris W. Cox is the executive director of the NRA's lobbying branch, the Institute for Legislative Action. Kyle Weaver is executive director of general operations.[113]

Notable members

Eight U.S. Presidents have been NRA members. In addition to Grant, they are: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush.[114] Two U.S. Vice Presidents, two Chief Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court, and several U.S. Congressmen, as well as legislators and officials of state governments are members.[115]

Celebrity leaders

Rock star Ted Nugent was elected to the Board of Directors in 1995.[116] Retired Marine and actor R. Lee Ermey,[117] former UN ambassador John Bolton,[118] screenwriter John Milius,[119] former NBA player Karl Malone,[120] actor Tom Selleck[121] and journalist Oliver North[122] serve as members of the NRA leadership.

Actor Chuck Norris serves as a celebrity spokesperson for the association.[123]

Finances

Less than half of the NRA's income is from membership dues and program fees. The majority is from contributions, grants, royalties, and advertising, and the firearms industry.[32] According to the National Shooting Sports Foundation (NSSF), the industry has "more than 10,000 manufacturers, distributors, firearms retailers, shooting ranges, sportsmen's organizations and publishers."[124]

Since 2005, the organization has received at least $14.8 million from more than 50 firearms-related firms.[125] In 2008, Beretta exceeded $2 million in donations to the NRA, and in 2012, Smith & Wesson gave more than $1 million. Sturm, Ruger & Company raised $1.25 million through a program in which it donated $1 to the NRA-ILA for each gun it sold from May 2011 to May 2012. In a similar program, gun buyers and participating stores are invited to "round up" the purchase price to the nearest dollar as a voluntary contribution. According to the NRA's 2010 tax forms, the "round-up" funds have been allocated to both public interest programs and lobbying.[107]

The NRA's total revenue for 2011 was $218.9 million, with total expenses of $231 million.[126] In 2010, it reported revenue of $227.8 million and expenses of $243.5 million,[127] with revenue including roughly $115 million generated from fundraising, sales, advertising and royalties, and most of the rest from membership dues.[125] Corporate sponsors include a variety of companies such as outdoors supply, sporting goods companies, and firearm manufacturers.[125][128]

In 2010, the NRA Foundation distributed $21.2 million in grants for gun-related training and education programs: $12.6 million to the NRA itself, and the rest to community programs for hunters, competitive shooters, gun collectors, and law enforcement, and to women and youth groups, such as the Boy Scouts and 4-H clubs.[107]

Criticism

The National Rifle Association has been criticized by newspaper editorial boards, politicians, political commentators, and gun control and gun rights advocacy groups. Democratics and liberals frequently criticize the organization, along with Republicans and conservatives.[129][130][131]

In 1969, U.S. President Richard M. Nixon resigned his honorary life membership to the NRA.[132] In 1995, former U.S. President George H. W. Bush also resigned his life membership to the organization after receiving an NRA-ILA fund-raising letter, signed by executive vice president Wayne LaPierre, that referred to ATF agents as "jack-booted government thugs."[133][134] The NRA later apologized for the letter's language.[135]

In December 2008, the New York Times editorial board criticized the NRA's attacks, which it called false and misleading, on Barack Obama's presidential campaign.[136] In December 2012, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette board said the NRA spoke for gun makers, not gun owners.[137] In February 2013, USA Today editors criticized the NRA for flip-flopping on universal background checks for gun purchases.[138] In March 2014, the Washington Post criticized the NRA's interference in government research on gun violence,[139] and both Post and Los Angeles Times editors criticized its opposition of Vivek Murthy for U.S. Surgeon General.[140]

After the 2012 Sandy Hook shooting, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie called an online video created by the NRA "reprehensible" and said that it demeaned the organization.[141] A senior lobbyist for the organization later characterized the video as "ill-advised."[142]

The NRA's oldest organized critics include the gun control advocacy groups the Brady Campaign, the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, and the Violence Policy Center. Twenty-first century groups include Mayors Against Illegal Guns, Moms Demand Action, and Americans for Responsible Solutions.

Pro-gun rights critics include Gun Owners of America (GOA), founded in the 1970s because some gun rights advocates believed the NRA was too flexible on gun issues.[143]:110–111 Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership (JPFO) has also disagreed with NRA for what it perceives as a willingness to compromise on gun control.[144] In June 2014, an open carry group in Texas threatened to withdraw its support of the NRA if it did not retract its statements critical of the practice. The NRA-ILA's Chris Cox said the statements were a staffer's personal opinion and a mistake.[145]

Museum and publications

The National Rifle Association owns and operates the National Firearms Museum. It was located in Washington, D.C., from 1935 until 1998, when it moved to Fairfax, Virginia. The museum is focused on the evolution of firearms and the history of firearms in America.

In August 2013, the NRA National Sporting Arms Museum opened at an expansive Bass Pro Shops retail store in Springfield, Missouri, after 10 years of planning. It displays almost 1,000 firearms, including some historically significant firearms from the NRA and other collections.[146]

The NRA publishes a number of periodicals including American Rifleman, American Hunter, America's 1st Freedom, Shooting Illustrated, Shooting Sports USA, and NRA Family InSights.[147]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Windgate, George Wood (1874). Manual for Rifle Practice; Including a Complete Guide to Instruction in the Use and Care of the Modern Breech-Loader. Secaucus, NJ, U.S.A.: GENERAL BOOKS. ISBN 9781230465593. 
  3. ^ a b c Korte, Gregory (2013-05-04). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today. 
  4. ^ a b c "A Brief History of NRA". nrahq.org. National Rifle Association. Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  5. ^ a b c "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. 1999-11-15. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
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