National Science Board
||This article appears to be written like an advertisement. (April 2012)|
|National Science Board, NSF|
|Motto: Supporting Education and Research across all fields of Science and Technology
America's Investment in the Future
|Formed||10 May 1950|
|Agency executives||Dan E. Arvizu, Chairman
Kelvin K. Droegemeier, Vice-Chairman
Michael L. Van Woert, Executive Officer
The National Science Board (NSB) of the United States is composed of 25 members appointed by the President. Until October 2012, the members had to be confirmed by the United States Senate, representing the broad U.S. science and engineering community. The Board establishes the policies of the National Science Foundation (NSF) within the framework of applicable national policies set forth by the President and the Congress. The Board also serves as an independent policy advisory body to the President and Congress on science and engineering research and education issues and has a statutory obligation to "...render to the President and to the Congress reports on specific, individual policy matters related to science and engineering and education in science engineering, as the Board, the President, or the Congress determines the need for such reports," and to "...render to the President and the Congress no later than January 15 of each even numbered year, a report on indicators of the state of science and engineering in the United States."
The National Science Board was created through the National Science Foundation Act of 1950: "There is established in the executive branch of the Government an independent agency to be known as the National Science Foundation (hereinafter referred to as the “Foundation”). The Foundation shall consist of a National Science Board (hereinafter referred to as the “Board”) and a Director."
As an independent Federal agency, NSF does not fall within a cabinet department; rather NSF's activities are guided by the National Science Board (NSB or Board). The Board was established by the Congress to serve as a national science policy body, and to oversee and guide the activities of NSF. It has dual responsibilities to: a) provide independent national science policy advice to the President and the Congress; and b) establish policies for NSF.
The Board meets five times per year to review and approve major NSF awards and new programs, provide policy direction to NSF, and address significant science and engineering related national policy issues. It initiates and conducts studies and reports on a broad range of policy topics, and publishes policy papers or statements on issues of importance to U.S. science and engineering research and education enterprises. The Board identifies issues that are critical to NSF's future, and approves NSF's strategic plan and the annual budget submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Specifically, the Board analyzes NSF's budget to ensure progress and consistency in keeping with the strategic direction set for NSF and to ensure balance between new investments and core programs.
The Board has 24 members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, plus the NSF Director who serves as an ex officio member (for a total of 25 members). Every two years, one-third (eight) of the members rotate off of the Board and eight new members are appointed (or occasionally re-appointed) to serve for six-year terms. Board member nominations are based on distinguished service and eminence in research, education and/or public service. Members are drawn from academia and industry, and represent a diverse range of science, technology, engineering, and education disciplines and geographic areas.
- Terms expire May 10, 2014
- Ray M. Bowen - President Emeritus, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
- France A. Córdova – President Emeritus, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
- Esin Gulari – Dean of Engineering and Science, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina
- G.P. "Bud" Peterson – President, Georgia Institute of Technology
- Douglas D. Randall - Professor Emeritus, Thomas Jefferson Fellow, and Director Emeritus, Interdisciplinary Plant Group, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
- Diane L. Souvaine - Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts
- Arnold F. Stancell - Emeritus Professor and Turner Leadership Chairman; Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Atlanta
- Claude M. Steele - I. James Quillen Dean for the School of Education, Stanford University
- Terms expire May 10, 2016
- Dan E. Arvizu - NSB Chairman, Director and Chief Executive, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado
- Bonnie Bassler - Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Squibb Professor of Molecular Biology Princeton University
- Arthur Bienenstock - Professor Emeritus of Photon Science; Stanford University
- Kelvin K. Droegemeier – NSB Vice-Chairman, Vice President for Research, Regents' Professor of Meteorology and Weathernews Chair Emeritus University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
- Alan I. Leshner - Chief Executive Officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Executive Publisher, Science, Washington, D.C.
- W. Carl Lineberger - Fellow of JILA, E. U. Condon Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, University of Colorado
- Anneila I. Sargent - Benjamin M. Rosen Professor of Astronomy and Vice President for Student Affairs, California Institute of Technology
- Robert J. Zimmer - President; University of Chicago
- Terms expire May 10, 2018
- Deborah Loewenberg Ball, William H. Payne Collegiate Chair; Arthur F. Thurnau Professor; Dean of the School of Education; The University of Michigan
- Vinton G. Cerf - Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google, Inc.
- Ruth David - President and CEO, Analytic Services, Inc (ANSER)
- Inez Fung - Professor of Atmospheric Science, UC Berkeley
- G. Peter Lepage - Professor of Phyics; Harold Tanner Dean, Cornell University College of Arts and Sciences
- Geraldine Richmond - Richard M. and Patricia H. Noyes Professor of Chemistry, University of Oregon
- Maria Zuber - Vice President for Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Mark R. Abbott - Dean and Professor, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University
- Camilla P. Benbow – Patricia and Rodes Hart Dean of Education and Human Development, Peabody College of Education and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
- John T. Bruer - President Emeritus, The James S. McDonnell Foundation, St. Louis, Missouri
- Patricia D. Galloway - Chief Executive Officer, Pegasus Global Holdings, Inc., Cle Elum, Washington
- José-Marie Griffiths - Vice President of Academic Affairs and University Professor, Bryant University, Smithfield, Rhode Island
- Arthur K. Reilly - Retired Senior Director (Retired), Strategic Technology Policy, Cisco Systems, Inc., Ocean, New Jersey[disambiguation needed]
- Thomas N. Taylor – Roy A. Roberts Distinguished Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Curator of Paleobotany in the Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas
- Richard F. Thompson - Keck Professor of Psychology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
- Ex-Officio Member
- Executive Officer and NSB Office Director
- Michael L. Van Woert, National Science Board Office, Arlington, Virginia
Activities/Work of the National Science Board 
The Board has two overarching roles: 1) Provide oversight and policy guidance to the National Science Foundation; and 2) Serve as advisers to Congress and the President on matters concerning science and engineering in the U.S.
Much of the background work of the National Science Board is done through its committees. By statute, the Board has an Executive Committee (EC), which exercises such functions as are delegated to it by the Board, and such other committees as the Board deems necessary. As of January 2009, the Board has five other standing committees.
- Statutory Committees
- Executive Committee
- Standing Committees
- Audit and Oversight (A&O)
- Education and Human Resources (CEH)
- Programs and Plans (CPP)
- Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI)
- Strategy and Budget (CSB)
- Subcommittees, Task Forces and ad hoc Committees
- CSB Subcommittee on Facilities (SCF)
Recent Activities 
In 2009-10, the Board authorized three new activities. As of May 4, 2012, these three activities have been completed:
- Task Force on Merit Review (MR). On January 9, 2012, the NSB released its report, National Science Foundation's Merit Review Criteria: Review and Revisions. The NSB concluded that the two current Merit Review Criteria of Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts remain appropriate for evaluating NSF proposals. In the report, the NSB did not recommend changing the two criteria, but it did recommend that NSF better define the two criteria for the benefit of the science community. In addition, the report contains three principles governing NSF's approach to utilizing these criteria and guidance addressing several issues associated with their implementation.
- Task Force on Data Policies (DP). How data collected with National Science Foundation funding are shared and managed to ensure broad, timely, and long-term availability and accessibility to the entire research community is an important issue. The NSB Task Force on Data Policies was charged with determining what, if any, NSF policies related to data sharing and management would be in the best interests of the Nation’s scientific and engineering enterprise. The NSB approved the its report, Digital Research Data Sharing and Management on December 14, 2011 subject to final edits made in response to public comments.
- Task Force on Unsolicited Mid-Scale Research (MS). This NSB task force was charged with determining whether NSF effectively supports unsolicited mid-scale research—that is, research not responding to a specific NSF solicitation and with an annual budget falling between an amount substantially higher than a typical single investigator grant and an NSF center in a given field. The NSB approved its report on this topic on May 4, 2012.
Activities Relating to Policy Guidance for NSF 
Over the past several years, the Board completed several items responsive to its mission to provide policy direction to the NSF. For example, Enhancing Support of Transformative Research at the National Science Foundation, provided guidance on the creation of a new NSF Transformative Research Initiative. In 2009, the Board released, Investing in the Future: NSF Cost Sharing Policies for a Robust Federal Research Enterprise. The recommendations in this report were intended to "improve consistency and clarity of NSF cost sharing practices and policy and to maximize the effectiveness of institutional dollars invested in research." 
Activities as Policy Advisers to Congress and the President 
- Science & Engineering Indicators
Science & Engineering Indicators (SEI) is prepared by the National Science Foundation's National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) on behalf of the National Science Board as required by law. It is subject to extensive review by outside experts, interested federal agencies, NSB members, and SRS internal reviewers for accuracy, coverage, and balance.
SEI comprise quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. It objectively reviews science and engineering progress in US and international arena. Though the report does not offer policy options and recommendations, it is used by different governmental and non-governmental entities to formulate their own policies and recommendations. SEI employs a variety of presentational styles—tables, figures, narrative text, bulleted text, web-based links, highlights, introductions, conclusions, reference lists—to make the data accessible to readers with different information needs and different information processing preferences.
Chapters: SEI includes seven chapters that follow a generally consistent pattern; an eighth chapter, on state indicators, presented in a unique format; and an overview that precedes these eight chapters. The chapter titles are:
- Elementary and Secondary Education
- Higher Education in Science and Engineering
- Science and Engineering Labor Force
- Research and Development: National Trends and International Linkages
- Academic Research and Development
- Industry, Technology, and the Global Marketplace
- Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding
- State Indicators
An appendix volume, available online contains detailed data tables keyed to each of the eight chapters listed.
Digest of Key Science and Engineering Indicators: In 2006, the Board produced a pilot "digest" or condensed version of SEI comprising a small selection of important indicators. The Digest serves two purposes: (1) to draw attention to important trends and data points from across the chapters and volumes of SEI and (2) to introduce readers to the data resources available in the main volumes of SEI.
Controversy : The National Science Board's publication concerning "Science and Engineering Indicators" is supposed to give an evaluation of science and technology knowledge and attitudes of U.S. citizens. However, in 2010 without any explanation, the National Science Board eliminated from its “Science and Engineering Indicators 2010” data that showed that about half of all Americans surveyed did not believe in evolution. The NSB edited out this important and embarrassing piece of information, showing that the American public was poorly informed on this and " big bang" theory (two important scientific matters), as compared to the European and Japanese public.
In previous National Science Foundation “Science and Engineering” reports, a survey on scientific knowledge showed that 45% of Americans believed in evolution, as compared to 78% of Japanese and 70% of Europeans who accepted evolution. A similar statistic was reported with regard to Americans lack of knowledge of big bang theory. In 2010, the NSB, which is responsible for the “Indicators” publication, decided to take out these statistics in the report’s section measuring the public’s understanding of scientific issues. An NSB supporter, Astrophysicist Louis Lanzelottti, explained that the questions that led to these statistics “conflated knowledge and beliefs”. (Science Magazine, April 9, 2010, page 150, "NSF Board Draws Flak for Dropping Evolution from Indicators") NSB member John Bruer said that the question concerning evolution was poorly constructed and led to an answer that does not measure scientific knowledge. Bruer observed that when the question concerning evolution began with the statement, “according to the theory of evolution” 72% of Americans understood evolution. (NSF Board Draws Flak for Dropping Evolution from Indicators)
Others argued that the cure for these survey problems is not hiding the statistics, but explaining them. “Evolution and big bang are not matters of opinion”, according a scientific literacy researcher Jon Miller. (NSF Board Draws Flak for Dropping Evolution from Indicators) These are facts and a survey showing how Americans responded are valuable information in understanding American scientific knowledge and attitudes.
While the 2012 version of "Science and Engineering Indicators" notes this survey data and the survey problem, the NSB continues to minimize this data and does not draw attention to the unfavorable comparison to European and Japanese public understanding of these scientific issues.
Companion to SEI: A National Science Board policy statement, or "companion," authored by the Board, draws upon the data in SEI and offers recommendations on issues of concern for national science and engineering research or education policy, in keeping with the Board's statutory responsibility to bring attention to such issues.
Recent SEI Companions
- 2004: An Emerging and Critical Problem of the Science and Engineering Labor Force
- 2006: America's Pressing Challenge — Building a Stronger Foundation
- 2008: Research and Development: Essential Foundation for U.S. Competitiveness in a Global Economy
- 2010: Globalization of Science and Engineering Research
- 2012a: Research & Development, Innovation, and the Science & Engineering Workforce
- 2012b: Diminishing Funding and Rising Expectations: Trends and Challenges for Public Research Universities
- STEM Education
The NSB has produced policy guidance in the area of STEM education for several decades. In 2007/2008 the NSB developed a national action plan for addressing the critical STEM education needs of our Nation while providing specific guidance for the role of NSF in the national STEM education enterprise (STEM Action Plan).
In January 2009, the NSB approved and transmitted a set of six recommendations to the Barack Obama Administration. These recommendations outline a series of steps to improve STEM education and foster innovation to ensure both scientific literacy among the public and ensure global competitiveness in the 21st century. From the STEM education recommendations:
- The National Science Board (Board) recommends a set of actions for the new Administration to implement starting in early 2009 to advance STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education for all American students, to nurture innovation, and to ensure the long-term economic prosperity of the Nation. The urgency of this task is underscored by the need to ensure that the United States continues to excel in science and technology in the 21st century. It must develop the ideas that could transform and strengthen the economy, ensure a skilled workforce for American industry, and guarantee that all American students are provided the educational resources and tools needed to participate fully in the science and technology based economy of the 21st century. The solutions we offer here are derived from studies by the Board over the past decade and reflect our continued commitment to a high quality STEM education system for America.
On August 24–25, 2009, the Board held a two-day expert panel discussion on, Preparing the Next Generation of STEM Innovators. The discussion featured a number of experts from around the U.S. including, Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Nicholas Colangelo, Stephanie Pace Marshall, Dean Kamen, Joshua Wyner and U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan. The goal of the expert panel discussion was to inform the Board's thinking on recommendations to NSF and perhaps the federal government on how to identify and develop U.S. children and young adults who are talented and motivated and have the potential to become future leaders in STEM fields. The STEM Innovators report was approved by the full Board on May 5, 2010 and released on September 15, 2010.
- Sustainable Energy
In August, 2009, the Board released a report on sustainability, Building a Sustainable Energy Future: U.S. Actions for an Effective Energy Economy Transformation.
In 2007, the Board published, HURRICANE WARNING: The Critical Need for a National Hurricane Research Initiative. This report provides broad recommendations regarding the United States' hurricane research enterprise, as well as specific guidance for the role that NSF should play in these efforts.
Approval of Major NSF Awards 
Depending on the size of the proposed award, the Board will review funding of major facilities and projects. The following is a non-comprehensive list of the types of large-scale projects the Board has reviewed and approved:
- ODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program)
- TCS (Terascale Computing System) at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center
- LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
- ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array)
- HIAPER (High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research)
- LHC (Large Hadron Collider)
- NEES (George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation)
- NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network)
- Polar Cap Observatory
The NSB sponsors national honorary awards:
Vannevar Bush Award - established by the board in 1980, awarded to senior scientists for public service in science and technology;
NSB Public Service Award - established by the board in 1996, presented to one or more individuals, or to a company, corporation or organization, in recognition of their contributions to increasing public understanding of science or engineering.
See also 
- American Association for the Advancement of Science
- National Science Foundation
- Office of Science and Technology Policy
- (42 U.S.C. Section 1863) SEC. 4.(j)(2)
- (42 U.S.C. Section 1863) SEC. 4.(j)(1)
- Cost Sharing Full Report (PDF)
- National Science Board STEM Education Recommendations to the new Administration