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Folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital and/or religious status. Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for festivals and formal wear.
Following the outbreak of
romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted it as part of their symbolism.
In areas where contemporary Western fashions have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride.
In modern times there are instances where traditional garments are required by law. In
Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of and gho kera for men, and kira toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.
West Africa [ edit ]
Benin - lace Dashiki suit and Aso Oke Hat (male), lace Buba and wrapper set (female)
Gambia - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Ghana - Kente cloth, Ghanaian smock, and Fila (male), Kente kaba and slit set and Kaftan (female)
Guinea - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Liberia - Dashiki suit and Kufi (male), Buba and skirt set, Buba and wrapper set, and Kaftan (female)
Mali - Grand boubou and Kufi (male), Bògòlanfini-style Kaftan (female)
Niger - Babban riga (male), Kaftan (female)
Nigeria - Agbada and Aso Oke Hat (male), Iro (female)
Senegal - Senegalese kaftan and Kufi (male), Kaftan (female)
North Africa [ edit ]
Algeria : Binouar ( Sétif), Bikhmar ( Ouargla), Blouza ( Oran), Burnous ( Algérie), Caftan ( Algérie), Caftan El-Bey ( Algérie), Chemsa ( Jijel), Fergani ( Constantine), Gandoura ( Algérie), Gandoura Annabiya ( Annaba), Ghlila ( Algiers), Haïek ( Algérie), Jellaba ( Algérie), Karakou ( Algiers), Kachabia ( Djelfa et Lagouat), Labsa Kbaylia ( Kabylie), Labsa M'zabia ( M'zab), Labsa Naïlia ( Ouled Naïl), Labsa Touratia ( Hoggar), Lefa we dlala ( Annaba), Melhfa Chaouïa ( Aures), Melhfa Sahraouia ( Tindouf), Mlaya (Est algérien), Sarouel ( Algérie), Sarouel Mdawer ( Algiers)
Egypt - Galabeya
Libya - Jellabiya or Thawb (male), Melia (female)
Morocco - Djellaba, Fez hat and Balgha (male), Takchita (female)
Mauritania - Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
Sudan - Jalabiyyah, Taqiyyah, and Turban (male), Toob, a cotton women's dress (female)
Tunisia - Caftan, Fez hat (male), Melia (female)
Horn of Africa [ edit ]
woman in traditional attire
Djibouti - Macawiis (male), Koofiyad (male), Jilbab (female), Dirac (female)
Eritrea - Kidan Habesha (male), Zuria (female)
Ethiopia - Ethiopian suit (male), Habesha kemis (female)
Somalia - Macawiis (male), Koofiyad (male), Jilbab (female), Dirac (female), Guntiino (female), Garbasaar (female), thawb male
Central Africa [ edit ]
African Great Lakes [ edit ]
Southern Africa [ edit ]
Americas [ edit ]
Argentina - Gaucho costume
Bermuda - Bermuda shorts and Gombey costumes
Brazil - Each region has its own traditional costume. Cangaçeiro costumes for the northeast, "Baiana" and Abadá for Bahia, Brazilian carnival costumes for the southeast area, Amazonian clothes for many northern and central states and Gaucho costumes for Rio Grande do Sul.
Canada - Tuque, Parka, Ceinture fléchée, Red Serge
Chile - Huaso costume
Colombia - Sombrero Vueltiao, ruana, white shirt, trousers and espadrilles (male), Sombrero Vueltiao, blouse, pollera and espadrilles (female); every region has its own specific design of a national costume.
Cuba - Guayabera, Khaki pants, Panama hat or Fedora (male), Guayabera dress (female)
Dominican Republic - Chacabana
Guatemala - Huipil, Corte skirt, Tocado, Todosantero suit.
Guyana - Shirt jacket (male), Booboo (female)
Haiti - Karabela dress (female), Shirt jacket (male)
Jamaica - Bandana skirt and peasant blouse (female), Bush jacket (male)
Mexico - Charro suit, Huipil, Rebozo, Sarape, Sombrero; each state has its own design of a national costume; the China Poblana of Puebla, the Guayabera and Huipil of Yucatán, and the representative Mariachi suit of Jalisco are good examples.
Panama - Pollera (female), Camisilla shirt (male)
Peru - Chullo, Poncho
Puerto Rico - Guayabera, Pantalons, and Panama hat (male), Trajes (dress) (Female)
St. Lucia - Madras dress
Trinidad - Shirt-jac (male), Booboo (female) and Carnival costumes
United States - Various forms of Native American clothing. Western wear derived from original American pioneer garb is traditional dress in Texas, the Southwest, and many rural communities, including cowboy hats, Western shirts, boots, jeans, prairie skirts, and bolo ties. Traditional Southern wear includes white seersucker suits and string ties for men, and sun hats and large dresses for women. Summer residents of Nantucket will often wear Nantucket Reds. Amish and some sects of Mormon fundamentalism preserve traditional 19th century clothing styles. The Pennsylvania Dutch of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania also maintain traditional costume.
Venezuela - Liqui liqui, pelo e' guama hat.
East Asia [ edit ]
South Asia [ edit ]
Afghanistan - Afghan cap, turban, Shalwar Kameez in grey, blue or olive green. See also Pashtun dress.
Bangladesh - Kurta (men), Lungi (men), Sari (women), Dupatta (women), Sherwani (men)
Sri Lanka - Dhoti, Sari
Maldives - Dhivehi libaas (women) Sarong, long sleeved white shirt (men)
Bhutan - Gho (male) and Kira (female)
Nepal - Daura-Suruwal, (male) and Gunyou Cholo (female); Traditional Newar clothing
Pakistan - Churidar, Peshawari pagri, Sherwani, [1 ] Shalwar Kameez [2 ]
India - Achkan, Dhoti, Kurta (male) and Sari (female), Shalwar Kameez and Khara Dupatta.
Southeast Asia and Pacific [ edit ]
Australia - Khaki shorts, slouch hat, Aboriginal Australian tribal dress
Brunei - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kurung, Baju Kebaya (female), Songket, Sarong
Cambodia - Sampot, Apsara, Sabai.
Cook Islands - Pareo
Fiji - Sulu, Tapa cloth
French Polynesia - Pareo
Hawaii - Hawaiian Shirt, Hawaiian Skirt
Indonesia - National costume of Indonesia
Laos - xout lao, suea pat, pha hang, pha biang, sinh
Malaysia - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kurung (female), Baju Kebaya (female), Songket, Sarong
Myanmar - Longyi
New Zealand - Māori Flax Skirts
Papua New Guinea - Indigenous costumes, especially that of the Huli people.
Philippines - Barong Tagalog (male) and Baro't saya (female)
Samoa - Lavalava, Puletasi
Thailand - chut thai, Thai female: Thai Chakkri, Thai Boromphiman, Thai Siwalai, Thai Chakkraphat, Thai Amarin, Thai Chitlada, Thai Ruean Ton, pha nung, and sinh, Thai male: suea phraratchathan, Both genders: chong kraben and sabai. Northern Thai male: sado, and khian hua
Tonga - tupenu and ta'ovala
Vietnam - Áo Dài, Áo Tứ Thân, Áo Bà Ba.
Costumes of peasants from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Germany
Albania - Albanian Traditional Clothing
Austria - Tracht, Dirndl
Bulgaria - Nosia
Croatia - Croatian national costume, Lika cap, Sibenik cap
Czech Republic - Kroje
England - morris costumes, Pearly kings and queens
Faroe Islands - Føroysk klæði
Finland - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka
France - Breton shirt, Beret, Alsatian costume
Georgia - Chokha (Every region has its own specific design of Chokha)
Germany - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. Examples for Bavaria: Tracht, Lederhosen, Dirndl
Greece - Fustanella, Peplos, Chiton
Hungary - Dolman, Pellisse
Iceland - Þjóðbúningurinn
Ireland - Aran sweater, Grandfather shirt, Flat cap, Irish walking hat, Aran Island Tam, Leine
Italy - Italian folk dance costumes, Tarantella costumes
Macedonia - Macedonian national costume
Malta - Għonnella (Faldetta)
Netherlands - Dutch cap, sabot, poffer
Norway - Bunad; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka
Poland - National costumes of Poland, Kontusz, Czapka
Portugal - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. Nazarena and minhota are two examples.
Romania - Romanian dress
Ancient Rome - Toga, Stola
Russia - Sarafan, Kokoshnik, Kosovorotka, Ushanka, Valenki; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka
Serbia - Serbian dress, Šajkača, Opanci
Scotland - Highland dress: Kilt, tam o'shanter, doublet, trews, Aboyne dress, Brogues or ghillies
Sicily - Coppola (cap), black or dark brown Waistcoat
Slovakia - Kroj ( embroidered traditional dress)
Slovenia - Gorenjska noša ( Upper Carniola)
Spain - every autonomous region has its own national costume. The bata de cola or "flamenco tail gown" is the really national costume; with "Manila shawl" and "spanish high comb".
Sweden - Sverigedräkten; 18th century: Nationella dräkten; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka
Ukraine - National costumes of Ukraine, Vyshyvanka, Sharovary, Żupan, Ukrainian wreath
Wales - Traditional Welsh costume, Welsh hat
Greater Middle East [ edit ]
Modern Bedouin from Saudi Arabia with turban and
Chechnya - Chokha, Taqiyah (cap)
Gulf States - Similar to Saudi Arabia, but with the addition of a "batula" mask for the women's costume.
Israel - Tembel hat, Biblical sandals, Jewish religious clothing, Rekel, Bekishe, Homburg hat, Kippah.
Iran - Kurta, Pajama, Sherwani, Turban, Niqab.
Iraq - Assyrian clothing
Jordan - Keffiyeh, Royal Guard costume.
Lebanon - Tantour, Druze clothing
Kurdistan - Shalwar (pants), Islamic dress.
Palestine - Taqiyah (cap), Palestinian costumes.
Saudi Arabia - Thawb, Agal, Bisht, Jilbab, Hijab.
Turkey - Fez, Kaftan, Shalvar .
Yemen - Similar to Saudi Arabia, but with the addition of an ornate jambiya and leather bandoliers for the men's costume.
See also [ edit ]
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Gallery [ edit ]
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