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folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital and/or religious status. Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for festivals and formal wear.
Following the outbreak of
romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism.
In areas where contemporary Western fashions have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride.
In modern times, there are instances where traditional garments are required by law. In
Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of and gho kera for men, and kira toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.
West Africa [ edit ]
Benin - lace Dashiki suit and Aso Oke Hat (male), lace Buba and wrapper set (female)
Côte d'Ivoire - Kente cloth (male), Kente kaba and slit set or Kente cloth (female)
Gambia - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Ghana - Kente cloth or Ghanaian smock and Kufi (male), Kente kaba and slit set or Kente cloth (female)
Guinea - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Liberia - Dashiki suit and Kufi (male), Buba and skirt set (female)
Mali - Grand boubou and Kufi (male), Bògòlanfini-style Kaftan (female)
Mauritania - Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
Niger - Babban riga (male), Buba and wrapper set (female)
Nigeria - Agbada or Isiagu and Aso Oke Hat (male), Buba and wrapper set (female)
Senegal - Senegalese kaftan and Kufi (male), Kaftan (female)
North Africa [ edit ]
Algeria : Binouar ( Sétif), Bikhmar ( Ouargla), Blouza ( Oran), Burnous ( Algérie), Caftan ( Algérie), Caftan El-Bey ( Algérie), Chemsa ( Jijel), Fergani ( Constantine), Gandoura ( Algérie), Gandoura Annabiya ( Annaba), Ghlila ( Algiers), Haïek ( Algérie), Jellaba ( Algérie), Karakou ( ) ( fr Algiers), Kachabia ( Djelfa et Laghouat), Labsa Kbaylia ( Kabylie), Labsa M'zabia ( M'zab), Labsa Naïlia ( Ouled Naïl), Labsa Touratia ( Hoggar), Lefa we dlala ( Annaba), Melhfa Chaouïa ( Aures), Melhfa Sahraouia ( Tindouf), Mlaya (Est algérien), Sarouel ( Algérie), Sarouel Mdawer ( Algiers)
Egypt - Galabeya
Libya - Jellabiya
Morocco - Djellaba, Fez hat and Balgha (male), Takchita (female)
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic - Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
Sudan - Jalabiyyah, Taqiyyah, and Turban (male), Toob, a cotton women's dress (female)
Horn of Africa [ edit ]
woman in traditional attire
Central Africa [ edit ]
African Great Lakes [ edit ]
Indian Ocean Islands [ edit ]
Southern Africa [ edit ]
Americas [ edit ]
wearing seersucker suits associated with the Southern US
Argentina - Gaucho costume
Bermuda - Bermuda shorts
Bolivia - Poncho, Chullo, Andean pollera
Brazil - Each region has its own traditional costume. Cangaçeiro or Vaqueiro costumes for the northeast, Baiana and Abadá for Bahia, Brazilian carnival costumes for the southeast area, Amazonian clothes for many northern and central states and Gaucho costumes for Rio Grande do Sul. Caipiras (similar to the jíbaro of Puerto Rico), in Sao Paulo, Goiás and many rural areas, conserve traditional folk styles of clothing, imitated by participants of festas juninas.
Canada - Ceinture fléchée, Tuque, Parka, Capote
Chile - Huaso costume
Colombia - Sombrero Vueltiao, ruana, white shirt, trousers and espadrilles (male), Sombrero Vueltiao, blouse, pollera and espadrilles (female); every region has a distinct costume.
Cuba - Guayabera, Khaki pants, Panama hat (male), Bata cubana (female)
Dominican Republic - Chacabana
Dominica - Madras dress
Ecuador - Poncho
Guatemala - Huipil, Corte skirt, Tocado, Todosantero suit.
Guyana - Shirt jacket (male), Booboo (female)
Haiti - Karabela dress (female), Shirt jacket (male)
Jamaica - Madras-cloth Quadrille dress (female), Madras shirt and white trousers(male)
Mexico - Charro suit, Huipil, Rebozo, Sarape, Sombrero, Guayabera
Nicaragua - Trencilla dress (female), Sombrero, white shirt and trousers (male)
Panama - Pollera (female), Montuno (male)
Paraguay - Gaucho costume
Peru - Chullo, Poncho, Andean pollera
Puerto Rico - Guayabera, Pantalons, and Panama hat (male), Trajes (dress) (Female)
St. Lucia - Madras dress
Suriname - Kotomisse
Trinidad and Tobago - Shirt jacket (male), Booboo (female)
United States - Various styles of Native American clothing. Western wear, derived from original American pioneer garb is traditional dress in Texas, the Southwestern US, and many rural communities, including cowboy hats, Western shirts, cowboy boots, jeans, prairie skirts, and bolo ties. Traditional Southern US wear includes white seersucker suits and string ties for men, and sun hats and large Southern belle-style dresses for women. Historic European-American costume, especially in the Northeast US, includes clothing styles of the 18th and 19th centuries. Summer residents of Nantucket will often wear Nantucket Reds. Amish, the Pennsylvania Dutch and some sects of Mormon fundamentalism preserve traditional 19th century clothing styles for those groups.
Uruguay - Gaucho costume
Venezuela - Liqui liqui, pelo e' guama hat.
Central Asia [ edit ]
East Asia [ edit ]
South Asia [ edit ]
Bangladesh - Kurta (men), Lungi (men), Sari (women), Dupatta (women), Sherwani (men)
Bhutan - Gho (male) and Kira (female)
India - Achkan, Dhoti, Kurta (male) and Sari (female)
Maldives - Dhivehi libaas (women) Sarong, long sleeved white shirt (men)
Nepal - Daura-Suruwal, (male) and Gunyou Cholo (female); Traditional Newar clothing
Pakistan - Peshawari pagri, Shalwar Kameez and Sherwani (male), Qemis (female)
Sri Lanka - Dhoti and Mul Anduma (men), Ossariya (women)
Southeast Asia and Pacific [ edit ]
Australia - Khaki shorts, slouch hat, Aboriginal Australian tribal dress
Brunei - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kurung, Tudung (female)
Cambodia - Sampot, Apsara, Sabai, Krama
Cook Islands - Pareo
East Timor - Tais cloth clothing
Fiji - Sulu, Tapa cloth
French Polynesia - Pareo
Hawaii - Aloha shirt, Muumuu
Indonesia - Songkok or Blangkon, Kain Batik, Beskap and Bakiak and (male) and Kebaya, Kain Songket, Bakiak and Tudung (female)
Laos - xout lao, suea pat, pha hang, pha biang, sinh
Malaysia - Baju Melayu and Songkok (male), Baju Kurung and Tudung(female)
Myanmar - Longyi, Gaung baung
New Zealand - Māori Flax Skirts
Papua New Guinea - Various Indigenous costumes.
Philippines - Barong Tagalog (male) and Baro't saya (female)
Samoa - Lavalava, Puletasi
Singapore - Baju Melayu or Batik shirt (male) and Nyonya-style Kebaya (female)
Thailand - chut thai: Thai female: Thai Chakkri, Thai male: Suea Phraratchathan, Both genders: chong kraben and sabai.
Tonga - tupenu and ta'ovala
Vietnam - Áo Dài, Áo Tứ Thân, Áo Bà Ba.
Northern caucasus folk costumes
Costumes of peasants from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Germany
Abkhazia - Chokha
Albania - Albanian Traditional Clothing
Andorra - Barretina, espadrilles
Austria - Tracht and Dirndl
Belarus - Slutsk stash, the national type of wimple ( namitka)
Bulgaria - Every town has its own design of a national costume ( nosia), with different types of clothing items traditional for each of the ethnographic regions of the country. [1 ] [2 ]
Chechnya - Chokha, Taqiyah (cap), Ushanka in cold weather
Croatia - Croatian national costume, Lika cap, Sibenik cap
Czech Republic - Kroje
Denmark - Folkedragt
Faroe Islands - Føroysk klæði
Finland - Every region has its own specific design of national costume ( kallinsispuku, nationaldräkt). ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
France - Regional costumes famous outside France are those of Alsace, Provence and Brittany; the latter one is one most associated with France.
Georgia - Chokha (Every region has its own specific design of Chokha)
Germany - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. For example, Bavaria: Tracht, Lederhosen, Dirndl
Greece - Fustanella; Ancient Greek clothing: Peplos, Chiton
Greenland - Parka
Hungary - National costumes of Hungary
Iceland - Þjóðbúningurinn
Italy - Italian folk dance costumes; Roman clothing: Toga, Stola
Kosovo - Traditional clothing of Kosovo
Ireland - Aran sweater, Grandfather shirt, flat cap, Irish walking hat, Irish dance costumes
Liechtenstein - Tracht, Dirndl
Macedonia - Macedonian national costume
Malta - Għonnella (Faldetta)
Netherlands - Dutch cap, Klompen; poffer ( North Brabant)
Norway - Bunad; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
Ossetia - Chokha
Poland - National costumes of Poland (especially that of Kraków), Kontusz, Czapka Rogatywka
Portugal - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume.
Romania - Romanian dress
Russia - Sarafan, Kokoshnik, Kosovorotka, Ushanka, Valenki; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
Serbia - Serbian dress, Šajkača, Opanci
Slovakia - Kroj ( embroidered traditional dress)
Slovenia - Gorenjska noša ( Upper Carniola)
Spain - Every autonomous region has its own national costume.
Sweden - Sverigedräkten has varied from region to region but since 1983 is the official National Costume in one common version; 18th century: Nationella dräkten; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
Switzerland - Every canton has its own specific design of a national costume.
Ukraine - National costumes of Ukraine: Vyshyvanka, Sharovary, Żupan, Ukrainian wreath
England - Morris dance costumes are common in Cotswolds, Welsh Borders, and Northwest England. Pearly kings and queens for London's East End. Flat caps and wooden English clogs in the North, and smocks in rural areas.
Northern Ireland - Similar to Ireland.
Scotland - Highland dress: Kilt or trews, tam o'shanter, Balmoral bonnet, doublet, Aboyne dress, Brogues or ghillies
Wales - Traditional Welsh costume, Welsh hat, knit cap derived from Monmouth cap.
Greater Middle East [ edit ]
Palestinian family wearing typical
Modern Bedouin from Saudi Arabia with turban and
Gulf States - Similar to Saudi Arabia; these states have elaborate women's dresses known as Thobe al-Nashal.
Israel - Tembel hat, Biblical sandals, Jewish religious clothing, Rekel, Bekishe, Homburg hat, Kippah, Tichel.
Iran - Kurta, Pajama, dark-colored Sherwani, Turban, chador
Iraq - Assyrian clothing, Keffiyeh, Bisht
Jordan - Keffiyeh, Bisht, Bedouin clothing.
Lebanon - Tantour
Kurdistan - Sirwal (pants), kurta, Kurdish clothing, gold coin belt and necklace for women.
Palestine - Keffiyeh, Taqiyah (cap), Palestinian costumes.
Saudi Arabia - Thawb, Ghutrah, Agal, Bisht, Abaya
Turkey - Fez, Kaftan, Shalvar.
Yemen - Similar to Saudi Arabia, but with the addition of an ornate jambiya and leather bandoliers for the men's costume.
See also [ edit ]
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Gallery [ edit ]
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