Floral emblem

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In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas. Some countries have a country-wide floral emblem; others in addition have symbols representing subdivisions. Different processes have been used to adopt these symbols – some are conferred by government bodies, whereas others are the result of informal public polls. The term floral emblem, which refers to flowers specifically, is primarily used in Australia and Canada. In the United States, the term state flower is more often used.

Contents

National flowers[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Name Scientific name Picture Notes
 Afghanistan Tulip Genus Tulipa gesneriana Tulip - floriade canberra.jpg
 Egypt White Egyptian water lily Nymphaea lotus WhiteLotus.jpg
 Ethiopia Calla lily Zantedeschia aethiopica Zantedeschia aethiopica -1.jpg
 Lesotho Aloe polyphylla Aloe polyphylla Aloe polyphylla spiral.jpg
 Liberia Black pepper Piper nigrum Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) fruits.jpg
 Libya Pomegranate blossom Punica granatum Shoku.JPG
 Mauritius Trochetia boutoniana
(Boucle d'Oreille)[1]
Trochetia boutoniana
 Namibia Welwitschia Welwitschia mirabilis Welwitschia-mirabilis-female.jpg
 Nigeria Costus spectabilis Costus spectabilis
Flag of Sikkim (1967-1975).svg Sikkim Noble orchid Cymbidium goeringii Cattleya maxima.jpg
 South Africa King protea Protea cynaroides Protea flower02.jpg
 Tunisia Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum Jasminum grandiflorum (lean jasmine) at Madhurawada.JPG
 Zimbabwe Gloriosa superba Gloriosa superba Gloriosa superba 1.jpg

Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

The national flower and floral emblem of Bangladesh is the shapla (Bengali: শাপলা), or Nymphaea nouchali)[2][3] See also: National Emblem of Bangladesh.

Bhutan[edit]

Brunei[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Cambodia's national flower, the romduol

Cambodia formally adopted the romduol (Khmer: រំដួល) as it's national flower in the year 2005 by a royal decree.[5] The royal decree designates the taxon as Mitrella mesnyi, however this is a taxonomically illegitimate synonym for Sphaerocoryne affinis Ridley.[6]

India[edit]

The flower of India is also the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), a symbol of purity that keeps itself pure even when living in a rough environment.[7]

Lotus the national flower of India

Kerala's state floral emblem is the tree Cassia fistula. Tamil Nadu's floral emblem is Glory lily. Water-lily is the state flower of Andhra Pradesh. Bihar's floral emblem is kachnaar and that of Uttarakhand is the rhododendron (locally buransh).

Indonesia[edit]

Jasminum sambac, the national flower of Indonesia and the Philippines.

There are three types of floral emblems that symbolize Indonesia:

  • the puspa bangsa (national flower) of Indonesia is melati (Jasminum sambac)
  • the puspa pesona (flower of charm) is anggrek bulan (Moon Orchid, Phalaenopsis amabilis)[4]
  • the puspa langka (rare flower) is padma raksasa rafflesia (Rafflesia arnoldii).

All three were chosen on World Environment Day in 1990.[8] and enforced by law through Presidential Decree (Keputusan Presiden) No. 4 1993,[9] On the other occasion Bunga Bangkai (Titan arum) was also added as puspa langka together with Rafflesia.

Melati (jasminum sambac), a small white flower with sweet fragrance, has long been considered as a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolizes purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. For example, on her wedding day, a traditional Indonesian bride's hair is often adorned with arrangements of jasmine, while the groom's kris is often adorned with a lock of jasmine. However, jasmine is also often used as floral offering for spirits and deities, and also often present during funerals which gave it its mystical and sacred properties. Moon Orchid was chosen for its beauty, while the other two rare flowers, Rafflesia arnoldii and Titan arum were chosen to demonstrate uniqueness and Indonesian rich biodiversity.

Each of the 33 provinces of Indonesia also have native plants as their provincial flowers.

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Jordan[edit]

Black iris, national flower of Jordan

North Korea[edit]

South Korea[edit]

Kuwait[edit]

Laos[edit]

The national flower is the plumeria (champa),[4] despite it being no longer endemic.

Malaysia[edit]

National flower of Malaysia, the Chinese Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).

The national flower of Malaysia is the bunga raya (Chinese Hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).[4][11]

The flower of the eastern Malaysian state of Sarawak is the orchid Phalaenopsis bellina, while that of the state of Kedah is the pokok padi.

Malacca's state flower is the bread-flower, Vallaris glabra (local name bunga kesidang).

Maldives[edit]

Myanmar[edit]

Nepal[edit]

The rhododendron, the National flower of the himalayan Republic of Nepal.

Pakistan[edit]

Poet's Jasmine (Chameli) in full bloom, the National flower of Pakistan.
The State flower of Kashmir.

Plant symbols include: Poet's Jasmine (national flower), Rhododendron ponticum (state flower of Jammu and Kashmir), the chinar (state tree of Jammu and Kashmir), deodar (national tree), mango (national fruit),

For thousands of years, the jasmine plant has been cultivated not only for the beauty of its small, white, star-like flowers, but it has also been prized for its intoxicating scent. Originating in the foot hills of the Western Himalayas and the Indus Valley plains of the Punjab, the plant was cultivated and brought to the rest of the Indian subcontinent, China, the Middle East and other regions of Asia. From there, it spread into France, Italy and the Mediterranean, and eventually it was introduced to the rest of Western Europe and Britain. Today, jasmine is grown and cultivated all over the world in its many varieties. Since jasmine has been cultivated all over the world for its flowers and scent, there are different varieties, and each type of jasmine is associated with different meanings. In Pakistan, Jasmine is a very common plant and one can find it in any garden. Because of its attractive scent, the white jasmine symbolizes attachment and represents amiability and modesty.

The Philippines[edit]

The Philippines adopted the sampaguita (Arabian jasmine, Jasminum sambac) as its national flower because it symbolises purity and cleanliness due to its colour and sweet smell.[4]

Singapore[edit]

The national flower for Singapore is the orchid Vanda Miss Joaquim.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Nymphaea nouchali is the national flower of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka – Nil mānel, blue-star water-lily (Nymphaea stellata).[14][15] Although nil means ‘blue’ in Sinhala, the Sinhalese name of this plant is often rendered as "water-lily" in English.

This beautiful aquatic flower appears in the Sigiriya frescoes and has been mentioned in ancient Sanskrit, Pali and Sinhala literary works. Buddhist lore in Sri Lanka claims that this flower was one of the 108 auspicious signs found on Prince Siddhartha's footprint.[16][17]

State of Israel[edit]

The calanit, Israel's national flower.

The Israeli national flower is the calanit (Anemone coronaria; כלנית מצויה in Hebrew), chosen in 2013 to replace Cyclamen persicum.[18]

Republic of China and Taiwan[edit]

The national flower was officially designated as the plum blossom by the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China on July 21, 1964.[19] The plum blossom, known as the meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum trees often bloom most vibrantly even during the harshest winters.[20][21] The triple grouping of stamens represents Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People, while the five petals symbolize the five branches of the government.[19][20]

Thailand[edit]

The national flower for Thailand is Golden Shower Tree (Cassia fistula), locally known as dok khuen or rachapruek.[4]

Vietnam[edit]

Lotus – Floral emblem of India, Macau and Vietnam.

Eurasia[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Cyprus[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Russia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Albania[edit]

Red poppy

The floral emblem of Albania is the red and black poppy. The poppy can be found everywhere in the country, though they originate from Anatolia. Poppies are recognized for their beauty, medicinal value, and seeds. Its colors are red and black, just as in the flag of Albania.

Austria[edit]

Belarus[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Brussels[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Faroe Islands[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

The Iris is the national flower of France as represented in Fleur-de-lis emblem, the symbol of French monarchy.

Germany[edit]

The cornflower (or cyani flower) became a German symbol for its Prussian blue color in the 19th century, although it is not as common as the Oak as a national plant.

Gibraltar[edit]

  • Gibraltar – Candytuft (Iberis gibraltarica)

Greece[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Iceland[edit]

Ireland[edit]

  • The shamrock (or trefoil) is widely used as an official symbol for Ireland.

Italy[edit]

Strawberry tree (Corbezzolo in Italian)

Latvia[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

Macedonia[edit]

All three of them appear on the Macedonian coat of arms.

Malta[edit]

Monaco[edit]

The Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

Slovenia[edit]

Spain[edit]

The national flower of Spain is the carnation (clavel).

The national flower of Spain is considered to be the carnation (Spanish: clavel). Essentially it is associated with Spanish folklore, especially in southern Spain, or Andalusia.

In Spain and Hispanic America it symbolizes passion, and it is a very common gesture to hold the clavel between one's teeth. In the Spanish language of flowers represents caprice, passion and desire.

Switzerland[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

North America[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

The national flower of Antigua and Barbuda is Agave karatto, also known as ‘dagger log’ or ‘batta log’.[26]

The Bahamas[edit]

The national flower of the Bahamas is the Yellow Elder (Tecoma stans).[27]

Barbados[edit]

The national flower of Barbados is the known locally as the Pride of Barbados (Caesalpinia pulcherrima).[28]

Belize[edit]

The national flower of Belize is the Black Orchid (Prosthechea cochleata)[29]

Bermuda[edit]

Canada[edit]

The maple leaf is widely used as a symbol for Canada. Many Canadian flags and coat of arms have floral emblems on them. The flag of Montreal has four floral emblems. On the right side of the flag of Saskatchewan overlapping both green and gold halves is the western red lily, the provincial floral emblem. The coat of arms of Port Coquitlam has the City's floral emblem, the azalea displayed on a collar. The coat of arms of Prince Edward Island displays Lady's Slippers, the floral emblem of the Island. The coat of arms of Nova Scotia has the trailing arbutus or mayflower, the floral emblem of Nova Scotia, added when the arms were reassumed in 1929.

Costa Rica[edit]

Guarianthe skinneri, the national flower of Costa Rica

Cuba[edit]

Dominica[edit]

Dominican Republic[edit]

The Bayahibe Rose, national flower of the Dominiican Republic.

The Dominican Republic's national flower was the flower of the caoba (mahogany tree, Swietenia mahagoni). In 2011, the mahogany was dubbed the national tree, vacating the national flower spot for the Bayahibe rose (Pereskia quisqueyana) in order to bring attention to its conservation.[30]

El Salvador[edit]

The national flower of El Salvador is the izote (yucca flower).

Guatemala[edit]

Honduras[edit]

Jamaica[edit]

The national flower of Jamaica is the lignum vitae (Guaiacum officinale).[31]

Mexico[edit]

The national flower of Mexico, the Dahlia.

Nicaragua[edit]

Nicaragua's national flower is the sacuanjoche (Plumeria alba) since August 17, 1971. Its name is derived from the Nicarao, a Nahuatl-speaking tribe: xacuan (sacuan) means ‘beautiful yellow petals’ and xochilt (joche) means ‘flower’. The flower can be found in the Masaya Volcano National Park, among other places.

Panama[edit]

The national flower of Panama, the Holy Ghost Orchid (Peristeria elata).

Panama's national flower is the Holy Ghost Orchid (Peristeria elata), or the flor del Espiritu Santo. It is best known for its ivory color petals and beautiful blossoms.

Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

  • Trinidad and Tobago – Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea)

United States[edit]

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose[32] the floral emblem of the United States.[33] In the United States, state flowers and trees have been adopted as symbols by state legislatures.

Oceania[edit]

Golden Wattle, the floral emblem of Australia since 1988
New Zealand's floral emblem, the Kowhai

Australia[edit]

The Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) was officially proclaimed the floral emblem of Australia on 1 September 1988.[34]

French Polynesia[edit]

The Tahitian gardenia (tiare flower) is the national flower of Tahiti, French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

Fiji[edit]

The national flower is tagimaucia (Medinilla waterhousei), a vine with red and white flowers endemic to the highlands of the island of Taveuni.

New Zealand[edit]

The Silver Fern (foliage) is acknowledged as a national emblem in New Zealand. The Kowhai (Sophora spp., native trees with yellow cascading flowers) is usually regarded as the national flower. Other plant emblems are: Koru (a curled fern symbol) and the crimson-flowered Pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa), also called New Zealand's Christmas tree.

Tonga[edit]

The heilala (Garcinia sessilis) is Tonga's national flower. The name of Tonga's beauty pageant, the Heilala Festival, is taken from this flower. Resorts, as well as products, are also often named after this flower, such as the Heilala Lodge and Heilala Vanilla. The flower is also used in Tonga for medicinal and ornamental purposes.

South America[edit]

Argentina[edit]

The national flower of Argentina, and Uruguay.

The national flower of Argentina is the flower of the ceibo tree (Erythrina crista-galli), also known as seibo or bucaré[35]

Bolivia[edit]

Bolivian national flowers are the kantuta (Cantua buxifolia) and patujú (Heliconia rostrata).

Brazil[edit]

The nation flower of Brazil is the flower of the Golden Trumpet Tree (Handroanthus albus).

Chile[edit]

  • Chile – Copihue (Lapageria rosea)
Copihue, the national flower of Chile

Colombia[edit]

Cattleya trianae is the national flower of Colombia and is the orchid which flowers in May. The May flower was chosen because the colors are the same as those of the Colombian flag.

Guyana[edit]

Peru[edit]

The national flower of Peru is the cantuta (also spelled kantuta or qantuta, from Quechua qantu). It can be found at the high valleys of the Andean territory, in Peru and Bolivia.

Paraguay[edit]

Uruguay[edit]

Cattleya mossiae, Venezuela.

Venezuela[edit]

Subnational flowers[edit]

Country Subdivision Name Pictures Notes
 Canada Alberta Wild Rose[36]
British Columbia Pacific Dogwood
Manitoba Prairie Crocus
New Brunswick Purple Violet
Newfoundland and Labrador Pitcher plant The pitcher plant was officially declared as the provincial flower in 1954, but had appeared on the colony's coinage as early as the 1880s. It can be found in the marshlands of the province feeding on insects that fall into its leaves and drown.
Northwest Territories Mountain Avens
Nova Scotia Mayflower
Nunavut Purple Saxifrage
Ontario White Trillium
Prince Edward Island Pink Lady's Slipper
Quebec Blue Flag Iris The Blue Flag Iris replaced the Madonna Lily in 1999, since the lily was not native to Quebec.
Saskatchewan Western Red Lily
Yukon Fireweed EpilobiumAngustifolium 6184.jpg
 Sweden Småland Linnaea borealis Linnaea borealis 1190.JPG The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, sw. Carl von Linné (1707–1778), often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in Älmhult in Småland. He gave the Twinflower its Latin name based on his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower.
 China  Hong Kong Bauhinia blakeana The Bauhinia, the national flower of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The blossom, native to the territory was chosen as the logo of the Urban Council in 1965 and was later incorporated into the flag and emblem of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty.
 Macau Nelumbo nucifera Sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.jpg A stylised depiction of the flower can be seen in the territory's flag.
 Ireland County Offaly Bog-rosemary[37] Andromeda polifolia bloom.jpg
 Pakistan Islamabad Capital Territory Paper mulberry (tree)
Rose (flower)
The floral emblems of the four constituting provinces of Pakistan; however, they are all unofficial and are not recognised by the new government of Pakistan.
Balochistan Date palm (tree)
Ephedra (genus) (flower)
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Juniperus squamata (tree)
Morina (flower)
Punjab Dalbergia sissoo (tree)
Justicia adhatoda (flower)
Sindh Prosopis cineraria (tree)
Water hyacinth (flower)
 Spain Catalonia Weaver's Broom[38]
(Spartium junceum)
Usually along with red poppies
Galicia Gorse flower[39]
(Ulex europaeus)

Australia[edit]

Norway[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has a traditional floral emblem.

County flowers in the United Kingdom[edit]

A county flower is a flowering plant chosen to symbolise a county. They exist primarily in the United Kingdom, but some counties in other countries also have them.

One or two county flowers have a long history in England – the red rose of Lancashire dates from the Middle Ages, for instance. However, the county flower concept was only extended to cover the whole United Kingdom in 2002, as a promotional tool by a charity. In that year, the plant conservation charity Plantlife ran a competition to choose county flowers for all counties, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.

Plantlife's scheme is loosely based on Britain's historic counties, and so some current local government areas are not represented by a flower, and some of the counties included no longer exist as administrative areas. Flowers were also chosen for thirteen major cities: Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastele upon Tyne, Nottingham and Sheffield. The Isles of Scilly was also treated as a county (distinct from Cornwall) for the purpose of the scheme. The Isle of Man was included, even though it is not a county, but a self-governing territory outside of the United Kingdom with an existing national flower: the ragwort or cushag.[43] The Channel Islands were not included.

A total of 94 flowers was chosen in the competition. 85 of the 109 counties have a unique county flower, but several species were chosen by more than one county. Foxglove or Digitalis purpurea was chosen for four counties – Argyll, Birmingham, Leicestershire and Monmouthshire – more than any other species. The following species were chosen for three counties each:

And the following species were chosen for two counties:

In addition, Sticky Catchfly Lychnis viscaria was chosen for both Edinburgh and Midlothian, the county containing Edinburgh.

For most counties, native species were chosen, but for a small number of counties, non-natives were chosen, mainly archaeophytes. For example Hampshire has a Tudor rose as its county flower, even though it is not a native species.

Unofficial flowers[edit]

China[edit]

Plum blossom, or meihua (梅花).

China currently has no official national flower. Traditionally, various regions have different designations where national symbols are concerned.

In 1903, the Qing Dynasty named the peony (牡丹) the floral emblem of the nation. The peony has long been considered a flower of wealth and honor in China.

The puppet state Manchukuo followed Japan's model of dual floral emblems: the "spring orchid" (Cymbidium goeringii) for the Emperor and the imperial household, and the sorghum blossom (Sorghum bicolor) for the state and the nation.

The plum blossom, meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), has also been one of the most beloved flowers in Chinese culture. The Republic of China government named the plum blossom as the national flower in 1964.[19] The plum blossom is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum blossoms often bloom most vibrantly even amidst the harsh winter snow.[19][20][21]

The People's Republic of China, which has controlled mainland China since 1949, has no official floral emblem. There have been several petitions in recent years to officially adopt one. However, the government has not taken any action yet. A poll in 2005 showed that 41% of the public supports peony as the national flower while 36% supported the plum blossom.[44] Some scholars have suggested that the peony and plum blossoms may be designated as dual national flowers. In addition, the orchid, jasmine, daffodil and chrysanthemum have also been held as possible floral symbols of China.

Denmark[edit]

Denmark has no official floral emblem. The daisy won an unofficial competition on a national flower in the 1980s, but it was not officially adopted. In 1936, the Danish foreign office responded to Argentina that it would be the red clover, due to its significance in agriculture. The letter is obscure and was soon forgotten.[45] Denmark has never used a floral emblem.

Ecuador[edit]

No flower has been officially declared as a national symbol. Unofficially the rose and the orchid are claimed to hold that title.[46]

Japan[edit]

The chrysanthemum forms the Imperial Seal of Japan.

Japan's national government has never formally named a national flower, as with other symbols such as the green pheasant, which was named as national bird (by a non-government body) in 1947. It wasn't until 1999 that the national flag and anthem were officially passed into law.

A de facto national flower for Japan for many is the sakura (cherry blossom), while a stylized picture of a chrysanthemum is used as the official seal of the imperial family. The paulownia blossom was also used by the imperial family in the past, but has since been appropriated by the prime ministor and the government.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Constitution of Bangladesh – Chapter I". Archived from the original on 2008-03-30. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  3. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov.bd/scweb/constitution/pdf/04_part1-4.pdf
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "ASEAN National Flowers". ASEAN. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  5. ^ "ROYAL DECREE on Designation of Animals and Plants as National Symbols of the Kingdom of Cambodia". Forestry Administration of Cambodia. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  6. ^ "The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet". The Plant List. July 4th, 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  7. ^ The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 9, page-30
  8. ^ http://www.asean.org/18203.htm
  9. ^ Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993
  10. ^ North Korea Quarterly. Institute of Asian Affairs. 1988. "...Rose of Sharon is no longer the national flower, as in South Korea, but "mongnan" (magnolia). It is because [the rose of Sharon] cannot be grown for next generations with seeds, while [magnolia] can be." 
  11. ^ Lian, Michelle. "Hibiscus – Malaysia's national pride". AllMalaysia.info. 
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  13. ^ "Plants, Animals and Birds of Nepal". Nepal Vista. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  14. ^ "Sri Lanka National Flower". gov.lk. Government of Sri Lanka. Retrieved 2009-05-06. [dead link]
  15. ^ Zeylanica (Nymphaea stellata)
  16. ^ TokyoNet - National Statistics
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ הכלנית: הזוכה בתחרות "הפרח של ישראל", ynet, November 25th, 2013.
  19. ^ a b c d Government Information Office, Republic of China - National Flower
  20. ^ a b c National Flag, Anthem and Flower
  21. ^ a b "The Three Friends of Winter: Paintings of Pine, Plum, and Bamboo from the Museum Collection". Taipei: National Palace Museum. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  22. ^ "State symbols of the Republic of Armenia". Website of the President of Armenia. 
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  25. ^ http://www.li.lv/index.php?Itemid=1065&id=65&option=com_content&task=view
  26. ^ "National Symbols". Government of Antigua & Barbuda. 
  27. ^ "The Yellow Elder – The National Flower of the Bahamas". The Government of The Bahamas. 
  28. ^ "The National Flower of Barbados". The Government of Barbados. 
  29. ^ "National Symbols". Government of Belize. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  30. ^ "The Rose of Bayahibe, our national flower". Dominican Central. July 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ "National Symbols of Jamaica". jis.gov.jm. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  32. ^ http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/National_Symbols/National_flower.html
  33. ^ National Flower of United States - Fresh from the Grower
  34. ^ "Australia's Floral Emblem". Australian National Botanic Gardens. 
  35. ^ "About Argentina". www.argentina.gov.ar. 
  36. ^ http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/101/117-eng.cfm#a6
  37. ^ http://www.destinations-uk.com/ireland.php?countyid=65
  38. ^ http://www.festes.org/arxius/ginestaflornacional.pdf
  39. ^ Chorima
  40. ^ Østfold
  41. ^ Troms
  42. ^ National Flowers of the UK, 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  43. ^ http://www.gov.im/isleofman/facts.xml#flower
  44. ^ 民众呼吁尽快确定国花 梅花还是牡丹引起激辩 (Chinese: The public calls for speedy designation of national flower; debates between plum blossom and peony)
  45. ^ Danish Nature Agency (Danish)
  46. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.hoy.com.ec/noticias-ecuador/de-simbolos-patrios-455760.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dhttp://www.hoy.com.ec/noticias-ecuador/de-simbolos-patrios-455760.html%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1252%26bih%3D566

External links[edit]