National identification number

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Not to be confused with Personal identification number.

A national identification number, national identity number, or national insurance number is used by the governments of many countries as a means of tracking their citizens, permanent residents, and temporary residents for the purposes of work, taxation, government benefits, health care, and other governmentally-related functions. The number will appear on an identity document issued by a country.

The ways in which such a system is implemented are dependent on the country, but in most cases, a citizen is issued an identification number at birth or when they reach a legal age (typically the age of 18). Non-citizens may be issued such numbers when they enter the country, or when granted a temporary or permanent residence permit.

Many countries issued such numbers for a singular purpose, but over time, they become a de facto national identification number. For example, the United States developed its Social Security number system as a means of disbursing Social Security benefits. However, due to function creep, the number has become used for other purposes to the point where it is almost essential to have one to, among other things, open a bank account, obtain a credit card, or drive a car. Although some countries are required to collect TIN/SSN information for overseas payment procedures, some countries, like the US, are not required to collect other nations' TIN if other requirements are met, such as date of birth.[1][2]

Africa[edit]

The Gambia[edit]

In The Gambia, the National Identification Number (NIN) consists of 11 digits in the form DDMMYY-PG- ##CS. DD MM YY indicates date of birth, PG indicates place of issuance and nationality, ## is a serial number and also indicates sex and CS is a check sum.

Nigeria[edit]

The Nigerian National Identification Number (NIN) is issued and managed by National Identity Management Commission (NIMC), and it's a set of eleven digits (e.g.: XXXXXXXXXXX), assigned to 16+ years old Nigerians and legal residents by the Government.

South Africa[edit]

South African identity document
Explanation of identity number in a South African identity document during apartheid

In the Republic of South Africa, every citizen must apply for an Identity Document from the age of 16 years. The ID number is already allocated at the time the birth certificate is generated and required for child passport applications. This passport-size document contains only 8 pages - the first page containing the national identification number (also in barcoded format), name of bearer, district or country of birth, as well as a photograph of the bearer. The other pages are used for recording of voting participation, a page for driver's license information (although it is no longer used since the introduction of plastic card type licenses), as well as pages for fire arms licenses (also plastic card type now). The document is required to apply for a passport, car learner's license (over 17), motorcycle learner's license (over 16), driving license (over 18), motorcycle license (over 16 or 18 depending on cc) and to vote (over 18). The Identity Document is not used for international travel purposes (a separate passport is issued) but usually is acceptable photographic identification for internal flights, and mainly serves as proof of identification. Some authorities may accept the driver's license as proof of identity, but the Identity Document is the only universally accepted form of identification.

Validation[edit]

A South African person identification number is a 13-digit number containing only numeric characters, and no whitespace, punctuation, or alpha characters. It is defined as YYMMDDSSSSCAZ:

  • YYMMDD represents the date of birth (DoB);
  • SSSS is a sequence number registered with the same birth date (where females are assigned sequential numbers in the range 0000 to 4999 and males from 5000 to 9999);
  • C is the citizenship with 0 if the person is a SA citizen, 1 if the person is a permanent resident;
  • A is 8 or 9. Prior to 1994 this number was used to indicate the holder's race;
  • Z is a checksum digit.

Using ID Number 8001015009087 as an example, it would read as follows:

The ID indicates that a male citizen was born on 1 January 1980; he was the 10th male to be registered (assuming that the first male to be registered on that day would be assigned the sequence number 5000).

The checksum digit is calculated using the Luhn algorithm:[3]

  • A = The sum of the digits in the ID number in the odd positions (Excluding Z)
  • B = The number formed by the concatenation of the digits in the ID number in the even positions
  • C = The sum of the digits in (2 * B)
  • D = A + C
  • Z = 10 - (D mod 10)

Racial classification[edit]

During the apartheid era the second to last digit, "A", denoted "race". Since these documents were not then issued to the majority population, the "race" code does not include those classified as Black.

A Classification 0 White 1 Cape Coloured 2 Malay 3 Griqua 4 Chinese 5 Indian 6 Other Asian 7 Other Coloured

After about 1987 the racial classification was eliminated, and all existing numbers were reissued with new digits in the last two fields (AZ).

HANIS[edit]

In contrast to other countries the South African ID number is not unique, at least because of the use of a two-digit year. Other issues with duplications exist:,[4] however the Department of Home Affairs HANIS Project[5] has planned to rectify that with ID smart cards. The timeline for that is undetermined as the last budget request for 08/09 and 09/10 included requests for budget for it[6] despite the project being active since 1997.

Americas[edit]

Argentina[edit]

In Argentina the only nationally issued identification is the DNI, Documento Nacional de Identidad (National Identity Document). It is a number not related to anything in particular about the person (except for immigrants who get assigned numbers starting at 92,000,000). It is assigned at birth by the Registro Nacional de las Personas (National Registry for People), but parents need to sign up their children, and because of this there are some people, especially the poor, who do not have a DNI.

The ID is required for applying for credit, opening a bank account, and for voting. Law requires a person to show his DNI when using a credit card. Prior to the DNI the LC (Libreta Cívica, for women), and LE (Libreta de Enrolamiento, for men) were used. This was later unified in the DNI.

For taxpaying purposes, the CUIT and CUIL (Código Único de Identificación Tributaria, Unique Code for Taxpaying Identification and Código Único de Identificación Laboral, Unique Code for Laboral Identification). An example of the ID is 20-10563145-8. It is based on the DNI and appends 2 numbers at the beginning and one at the end. For example, 20 and 23 for men, 27 for women, and one control digit at the end. Employees have a CUIL (assigned at the moment the DNI is created), and employers have a CUIT. The first two digits to identify the CUIT for companies are for instance: 30 or 33. If a person decides to open a company of its own, his CUIL usually becomes his CUIT. The CUIT was needed because a different identification is required for companies, who cannot be identified by a DNI number.

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil there are two systems. The first, the Registro Geral (RG) is a number associated to the official ID card. Although the ID cards are supposedly national, the RG numbers are assigned by the states and a few other organizations, such as the armed forces. So, not only is it possible for a person to have the same RG number as a person from other state (which is usually dealt with by specifying the state which issued the ID card), but it is also possible to (legally) have more than one RG, from different states.

The other system, the Cadastro de Pessoas Físicas (CPF) is federal and supposedly unique (barring fraud), but it was created originally for purposes of taxation (a related system is used for companies, which is called Cadastro Nacional de Pessoas Jurídicas -CNPJ). One, the other or both numbers are required for many common tasks in Brazil, such as opening bank accounts or getting a driver's license. The RG system is more widespread, but its shortcomings have led to debate about merging both systems into a new one, which would be based around the CPF.

Another type of registration is the Social Security Number, which is originated when a person creates one in the National Social Security Institute's site[7] or starts to work for a company, when this one has to register the employee in the Social Integration Program.

Canada[edit]

The use of the Social Insurance Number (SIN) as a "de facto" ID number ended in 2004 with passage of The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.[8] There are only certain instances where an organization may ask for a SIN (namely for tax or retirement benefit related issues). The SIN must be guarded as confidential personal information, and therefore cannot be used as a general ID number.[9]

Chile[edit]

In Chile the National Identification Number is called RUN (Rol Único Nacional); but is usually called RUT (Rol Único Tributario) and the number is the same. The difference between them is that RUT is also used for juristic persons.

It is used as a national identification number, tax payer number, social insurance number, passport number, driver's license number, for employment, etc. It is also commonly used as a customer number in banks, retailers, insurance companies, airlines, etc.

Since well before 1990, every baby born is given a RUN number; previously it was assigned at the moment of applying to get the ID card. Non-Chilean residents also get a RUN and an identification card. Every company or organization also must have a RUT for taxation purposes.

The RUN or RUT has 7 or 8 digits (for people alive today; in the past, there were persons with a 5- or 6- digit one, but have died off) plus a check digit or letter (xx.xxx.xxx-z, z is {0-9, K}).

Code (C#) for checking correctness of RUT can be found on the here: http://www.vesic.org/english/blog/c-sharp/verifying-chilean-rut-code-tax-number/

Code (Clojure) for checking correctness of RUT can be found on the here: https://github.com/daplay/chileno

Colombia[edit]

In Colombia, each person is issued a basic ID card during childhood (Tarjeta de Identidad). The ID number includes the date of birth and a short serial number. Upon reaching the age of 18, every citizen is reissued a citizenship card (Cédula de Ciudadanía), and the ID number on it is used and required in all instances, public and private.

Every Colombian national traveling abroad is issued a passport document (which includes a passport number related to the national identification number); in this manner foreign governments can track Colombian nationals with their consulates.

There is as well a number assigned to companies: NIT. Tributary Identification Number (for its Spanish acronym). Among other things, it is used for tax reports.

As of 2003 created the NUIP (Número Único de Identificación Personal), starting the numbering per billion (1,000,000,000).

Mexico[edit]

In Mexico, the ID number is called the CURP (Clave Única de Registro de Población) although the most important and accepted ID card would be the election card ("credencial de elector" or else "credencial del IFE," as per the initials of "Instituto Federal Electoral/Federal Institute of Elections, the institution responsible for electoral procedures). There are, however, other important ID numbers in Mexico: for instance, the social security number, which is the number assigned by Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, or IMSS) to every citizen who starts working, or the RFC (Registro Federal del Contribuyente) which is assigned by the Treasury and has the same format as the CURP but a shorter length.

United States[edit]

In the United States, a Selective Service Number must be applied for by all male citizens turning age 18. An optional national identity number is the Social Security number (SSN), a nine-digit number issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents. Its purpose was to identify individuals for the purposes of Social Security, but it is now also used to track individuals for taxation purposes. There is no requirement to have a SSN if it is not required for Social Security or taxation purposes, but in practice one is required for many other purposes, for example to open a bank account or apply for a driving license, so that nearly all U.S. citizens and permanent residents have one. The SSN has therefore become a de facto national identification number.[10]

Venezuela[edit]

In Venezuela the SAIME (DIEX) issue an ID card in the teens (Cédula de Identidad). The ID card includes the date of birth, a correlative number (population continues number for nationals, after 80.000.000 for foreigners residents), a photo, marital status, expedition date, expiry date (a expiry ID card is still valid for nationals) and a finger print. The duration is 10 years.

Physical and companies has an RIF, (Fiscal information Registry) for taxable purposes. For physical persons, it is the ID number + checksum digit.

Asia[edit]

Bahrain[edit]

In Bahrain every citizen and resident must hold an Identification Card (Arabic: بطاقة الهوية‎) and thus has a Personal Number (Arabic: الرقم الشخصي‎) which consists of 8 digits followed by a check digit (Total: 9 digits). In general, it has the following format: YYMMNNNNC, where YYMM is the year and month of birth, NNNN is a random number, C is the check digit. However, a minority of citizens and residents have Personal Numbers that do not follow that format.

It is possible to obtain a Distinctive Personal Number (Arabic: الرقم الشخصي المميز‎), only for newborn infants and it is optional and not compulsory, for a fee (US$130, 200, or 260 depending on the category).

Another local name for the Personal number is Central Population Registration (CPR) Number (Arabic: الرقم السكاني‎) which was used before the inception of the Central Informatics Organization (CIO) (Arabic: الجهاز المركزي للمعلومات‎).

People's Republic of China[edit]

In the PRC, an ID card is mandatory for all citizens who are over 16 years old. The ID number has 18 digits and is in the format RRRRRRYYYYMMDDSSSC, which is the sole and exclusive identification code for the holder (an old ID card only has 15 digits in the format RRRRRRYYMMDDIII). RRRRRR is a standard code for the political division where the holder is born (county or a district of a city), YYYYMMDD is the birth date of the holder, and SSS is a sequential code for distinguishing people with identical birthdates and birthplaces. The sequential code is odd for males and even for females. The final character, C, is a checksum value over the first 17 digits. To calculate the checksum, each digit in order is multiplied by a weight in the ordered set [7 9 10 5 8 4 2 1 6 3 7 9 10 5 8 4 2] and summed together. The sum modulus 11 is used as an index into the ordered set [1 0 X 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2], with the first index being zero. The indexed value is the checksum digit. In 15 digit IDs, III is an identification number created through certain mathematical methods (the last digit might be an English letter, such as X). The ID card is used for residential registration, army enrollment registration, registration of marriage/divorce, going abroad, taking part in national exams, and other social or civil matters.

Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, a Hong Kong Identity Card (HKID) is mandatory for all residents aged over 11, subject to limited exceptions. HKID cards contain the bearer's HKID number, of which the standard format is X123456(A). X represents one or two letters of the alphabet. The numerals may represent any Arabic number. A is the check digit, which has 11 possible values from 0 to 9 and A. The letters and numbers are not assigned arbitrarily.

India[edit]

Various schemes had been proposed but were never implemented. The closest India has come to this is the Permanent account number (PAN), issued by the Income Tax Office, for purposes of tracking income and income taxes. It has now gained use as a means of identification for activities like getting a phone connection. The MNIC project appears to be a strong contender for nation-wide implementation with pilots underway in 13 states, with specific focus on covering the border regions.

The Indian Government has established an Authority called the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to issue a Unique Identification Number to all citizens and residents of India. This Authority is headed by Nandan Nilekani, former CEO of Infosys. This Authority will issue the first unique number within 12 to 18 months of its creation.

The AADHAR project will give each Indian citizen a unique 12 digit identification number, along with recording their biometrics such as iris scan and fingerprints on a chip in the card that will be rolled out to all eligible citizens. The first Aadhaar number was launched in Maharashtra in the village of Tembli, on 29 September 2010.

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, 16 digit number is used as a unique number for each citizens. It is known as Nomor Induk Kependudukan. The number is given to all Indonesian citizen. The format is PPRRSSDDMMYYXXXX where PP is 2 digits province code, RR is 2 digits regency or city code, SS is 2 digits sub-district code, DDMMYY is date of birth, and XXXX is 4 digits computerized number. The number is stated in Indonesian identity card. add with individual state code as per issue state a unique no of district. and its no to be reflected from (like District no+state No+India National N

This program is designed on the basis of UIDAI of India. Though Indonesia started late,Indonesia National ID program is growing at much rapid pace and assumed to complete earlier than India due to smaller population.

Iran, Islamic Republic of[edit]

In Iran, the National Identification Number is a 10-digit number in the format of XXX-XXXXXX-X; (e.g. 012-345678-9). The government started NIDs and 10-digit postal codes in 1989.

Israel[edit]

An Identity Number (Hebrew: מספר זהות Mispar Zehut) is issued to all Israeli citizens at birth by the Ministry of the Interior. It is composed of nine digits: a one-digit prefix, seven digits, and a final check digit. Blocks of numbers are distributed to hospitals, and individual numbers are issued to babies upon discharge from hospital. Temporary residents (category A-5) are assigned a number when they receive temporary resident status.

An Identity Card, (Hebrew: Teudat Zehut), bearing an Identity Number, is issued to all residents over 16 years old who have legal temporary or permanent residence status, including non-citizens.

Kazakhstan[edit]

In Kazakhstan there is a 12-digit Individual Identification Number for natural persons (abbreviated in Kazakh: ЖСН, ZhSN) with first 6 digits representing person's date of birth in the YYMMDD format and a 12-digit Business Identification Number for legal entities (companies).

However, the 12-digit Taxpayer's Registration Number (Russian: Регистрационный Номер Налогоплательщика, usually abbreviated as РНН, RNN) is more popular in dealings with authorities as well as with businesses, e.g. opening bank accounts. The Taxpayer's Registration Number is no longer effective from January 1, 2013 and not used in any dealings.

Kuwait[edit]

In Kuwait, the 12-digit national identification number is the Civil Number (Arabic: الرقم المدني‎), it follows the format (NYYMMDDNNNN), and is issued and put on the Civil ID and managed by Public Agency for Civil Information (PACI) Arabic: الهيئة العامة للمعلومات المدنية‎.

The Civil ID contains holder's name in Arabic and English, picture, gender, date of birth, current address and a digital memory.

The Civil Number is issued for citizens and residents, and it's used for a lot of tasks like opening a bank account, getting free medical care or even for taking some tests like the IELTS exam. Passports can be used instead for those who don't have Civil IDs like tourists.

Macau[edit]

In Macau, there are two types of ID cards: Permanent Resident Identity Card (BIRP) and Non-Permanent Resident Identity Card (BIRNP). The identification number has 8-digit standard format: NNNNNNN(N), where N is a numeric digit 0-9. The first numeric digit N has special meaning, and it can be one of the following digits: '1', '5' or '7'.

  • '1': the first-time date of issuance of ID card to the bearer was 1992 or later.
  • '5': the predecessor of the ID card is Portuguese National Identity Card (BI), issued by Macau Civil Authority.
  • '7': the predecessor of the ID card is Macau Identity Card, issued by Macau Public Security Police.

During Portuguese rule, Macau had no unified identification system, and several departments had the authority to issue identity cards to Macau citizens and residents. Since 1992, the Identification Department (once known as SIM, now called DSI) has become the unitary authority to issue identity cards. It has adopted the above-mentioned numbering policy.

Macau's Finance Department has also adopted identification number as a tax reporting number, for tax filing purposes.

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia, a 12-digit number (format: YYMMDD-SS-###G, since 1991) known as the National Registration Identification Card Number (NRIC No.) is issued to citizens and permanent residents on a MyKad. Prior to January 1, 2004, a separate social security (SOCSO) number (also the old IC number in format 'S#########', S denotes state of birth or country of origin (alphabet or number), # is a 9-digit serial number) was used for social security-related affairs.

The first group of numbers (YYMMDD) are the date of birth. The second group of numbers (SS) represents the place of birth of the holder - the states (01-13), the federal territories (14-16) or the country of origin (60-85). The last group of numbers (###G) is a serial number in an unidentified pattern which is randomly generated. The last digit (G) is an odd number for a male, while an even number is given for a female.

Pakistan[edit]

After the independence of Pakistan, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan launched the Personal Identity System (PIS) program to issue national identification cards to the citizens of Pakistan and Muslim refugees settling in Pakistan. Since the 1960s, Pakistan has been issuing National Identity Card (commonly known by the acronym, NIC) numbers to its citizens. These numbers are assigned at birth when the parents complete the child's birth registration form (B-Form), and then a National Identity Card (NIC) with the same number is issued at the age of 18. Until, 2001 NIC numbers were 11 digits long. In 2001–2002, the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA), started issuing 13-digit NIC numbers along with their new biometric ID cards. The first 5 digits are based on the applicant's locality, the next 7 are serial numbers, and the last digit is a check digit. The last digit also indicates the gender of the applicant; an even number indicates a female and an odd number indicates a male. The old numbers are invalid as of 2004.

As of 2012 NADRA has started to issue SMART ID Cards which include an encrypted chip. The SMART Card plan is to be extended to disburse social benefits as well as to allow the heirs of the card to get life insurance at the death of the card holder.

Every citizen has an NIC number for activities such as paying taxes, opening a bank account, getting a utility connection (phone, cell phone, gas, electricity). However, since a majority of births in the country are not registered, and a large number of Pakistanis do not conduct any of the activities described above, most do not have ID cards. Obtaining an NIC card costs 100 rupees (US$1.66 - almost the average daily income), and this reduces the number of people who can afford it. In 2006, NADRA announced that it had issued 50 million CNIC (the C standing for Computerized) numbers, which is approximately one-third of the population. In June 2008, the federal government announced it would start issuing CNIC cards for free.

In addition to NIC/CNIC companies and individuals in business and employment with taxable income are required to register with Central Board of Revenue and have their National Tax Number (commonly known as NTN). The tax number is mainly used only for taxation purposes and is rarely used otherwise as compared to other countries. New NTN certificates are being issued with computerized NIC numbers and old NTN certificates bearing old NIC numbers will become invalid.[11]

Singapore[edit]

In Singapore the National Registration Identity Card (NRIC) is issued to Singapore citizens and permanent residents. Permanent residents (PR) are issued with NRIC number similar to citizens.

The NRIC contains a unique number that identifies the person holding it, and is used for almost all identification purposes in Singapore, including authentication when accessing the Singapore government's web portal. Citizens and permanent residents are issued with identity number starts with prefix S (born before 2000) and T (born in or after year 2000), followed with a 7-digit number and a checksum alphabet. For citizens and permanent residents born after 1968, the first two digits of the 7-digit number indicate their birth year.

Long-term pass holders (e.g. people holding work permits, employment passes or student passes) are issued a similarly formatted Foreign Identification Number (FIN) on their long-term passes, with prefix F (registered before year 2000) and G (registered in or after year 2000).

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea, every Korean resident is assigned a Resident's Registration Number (주민등록번호), which has the form 000000-0000000. The first seven digits have his/her birthday and gender, where the first six digits are in the format YYMMDD and the seventh digit is determined by the century and the gender as follows:

  • 1: Males, holding Korean nationality, born 1900–1999.
  • 2: Females, holding Korean nationality, born 1900–1999.
  • 3: Males, holding Korean nationality, born 2000–2099.
  • 4: Females, holding Korean nationality, born 2000–2099.
  • 5: Male foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 1900–1999.
  • 6: Female foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 1900–1999.
  • 7: Male foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 2000–2099.
  • 8: Female foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 2000–2099.
  • 9: Males, holding Korean nationality, born before 1900.
  • 0: Females, holding Korean nationality, born before 1900.

(For example, a male citizen who was born in 27 May 2001 is assigned the number 010527‒3******, and a female citizen which was born in 24 March 1975 is assigned the number 750324‒2******.)

The next 4 digits mean the region of his/her birth registration, and the next 1 digit is a serial number of registration within the date and the region. The last digit is a check digit.

Sri Lanka[edit]

In Sri Lanka, all citizens over the age of 16 need to apply for a National Identity Card (NIC). Each NIC has a unique 10 digit number, in the format 000000000A (where 0 is a digit and A is a letter). The first two digits of the number are your year of birth (e.g.: 88xxxxxxxx for someone born in 1988). Add 500 to middle 3 numbers after first two numbers for femails. The final letter is generally a 'V' or 'X'. An NIC number is required to apply for a passport (over 16), driving license (over 18) and to vote (over 18). In addition, all citizens are required to carry their NIC on them as proof of identity. NICs are not issued to non-citizens, but they too are required to carry some form of photo identification (such as a photocopy of their passport or foreign driving license).

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, an ID card is mandatory for all citizens who are over 14 years old. Every citizen has a unique ID number. The ID card has been uniformly numbered since 1965. A valid National Identification number consists of one letter and nine-digits, in the format A########C. The letter ("A") records the card holder's first location of household registration, which is usually where they were born. The first digit depends on gender; 1 for male, 2 for female. The last digit ("C") is a checksum. Thus the total number of IDs is 208,000,000.[12]

The letter usage (i.e., indicating the household registration location) is as follows:

Active letters Letters no longer issued
Letter City/county
A Taipei City
B Taichung City
C Keelung City
D Tainan City
E Kaohsiung City
F New Taipei City
G Yilan County
H Taoyuan City
I Chiayi City
J Hsinchu County
K Miaoli County
Letter City/county
M Nantou County
N Changhua County
O Hsinchu City
P Yunlin County
Q Chiayi County
T Pingtung County
U Hualien County
V Taitung County
W Kinmen County
X Penghu County
Z Lienchiang County
Letter Original division Date of final issue Current division
L Taichung County Dec. 25, 2010 Taichung City
R Tainan County Dec. 25, 2010 Tainan City
S Kaohsiung County Dec. 25, 2010 Kaohsiung City
Y Yangmingshan Management Bureau 1975 Taipei City

Thailand[edit]

In Thailand, the Population Identification Code has been issued by the Department of Provincial Administration of the Ministry of Interior since 1976. It consists of a 13-digit string in the format N-NNNN-NNNNN-NN-N, which is assigned at birth or upon receiving citizenship. The first digit signifies type of citizenship, the second to fifth the office where the number was issued, the sixth to twelfth are group and sequence numbers, and the last digit acts as a check digit.

United Arab Emirates[edit]

The Emirates Identity Authority (Arabic: هيئة الإمارات للهوية‎) issues an Identity Card (Arabic: بطاقة الهوية‎) to each citizen and resident. The cardholder's name, nationality, gender and date of birth are printed on the card. The card also bears a unique 15-digit Identification Number (Arabic: رقم الهوية‎), which is used for identity verification by the government and some private entities. Inside the card is an electronic chip which contains personal and biometric data about the cardholder.[13]

The Identification Number has the following format: 784-YYYY-NNNNNNN-C, where 784 is the ISO 3166-1 numeric code for the UAE, YYYY is the year of birth, NNNNNNN is a random 7-digit number, and C is a check digit.

Vietnam[edit]

In Vietnam a Vietnam ID Card (Vietnamese: Giấy chứng minh nhân dân), simply in Vietnamese the CMND, is issued by Provincial Police Department for Vietnamese citizen. The ID Card number is a combination of 9 digits. The first 3 digits are for categorizing Provincial Police Department. For example: the ID Card No.: 012-885-652 is issued for Vietnamese citizen residing in Hanoi, because the code 012 is for Hanoi citizens.

The expiry date of the ID Card is 15 years.

Europe[edit]

Albania[edit]

In Albania, the Identity Number (Albanian: Numri i Identitetit (NID)) is issued by the Central Civic Registry Service (Ministry of Interior). The coding structure and algorithm is regulated by a decision of the Council of Ministers of Albania (No.827, Dated 11.12.2003). From 2004 to 2007, the Identity Number was referred to as the Citizen Identity Number (Albanian: Numri i Identitetit të Shtetasit (NISH)). As of 2007 with the introduction the new legislation regarding the new biometric ID Cards and biometric passports, it is referred to as the Identity Number. The Albanian national identification number appears in the Albanian national ID Cards and biometric passports under the 'personal no.' section.

The Albanian Identity Number is a unique personal identification number of 10 characters in the format YYMMDDSSSC, where YYMMDD indicates the date of birth and sex (for males MM is 01-12, for females 50 is added to the month of birth so that MM is 51-62), SSS is a sequence number of persons born on the same date (001–999), and C is a checksum letter (A–W). The YY part of the date of birth is calculated from the following table:[14]

00–09: 1800–1809 A0–A9: 1900–1909 K0–K9: 2000–2009
10–19: 1810–1819 B0–B9: 1910–1919 L0–L9: 2010–2019
20–29: 1820–1829 C0–C9: 1920–1929 M0–M9: 2020–2029
30–39: 1830–1839 D0–D9: 1930–1939 N0–N9: 2030–2039
40–49: 1840–1849 E0–E9: 1940–1949 O0–O9: 2040–2049
50–59: 1850–1859 F0–F9: 1950–1959 P0–P9: 2050–2059
60–69: 1860–1869 G0–G9: 1960–1969 Q0–Q9: 2060–2069
70–79: 1870–1879 H0–H9: 1970–1979 R0–R9: 2070–2079
80–89: 1880–1889 I0–I9: 1980–1989 S0–S9: 2080–2089
90–99: 1890–1899 J0–J9: 1990–1999 T0–T9: 2090–2099

e.g. For people born in the year 2003, YY would be K3.

Austria[edit]

In there are two schemes to identify individuals:

8732805014

Sector-Specific Personal Identifier[edit]

The Sector-Specific Personal Identifier (ssPIN) tries to do away with the problems of the SSN. Its legal foundation is the Austrian E-Government Act,[15] and it is derived from the Central Register of Residents (CRR). Its specification is related with the Austrian Citizen Card.[16]

Its computation (specification)[17] is a two-stage process: The CCR ID is encoded into the Source Identification Number (Source PIN) with a symmetrical crypto-function. This is again one-way encoded into the ssPIN per sector of governmental activity. For the storage of SourcePINs is not limited to citizen cards, and an application cannot convert a ssPIN from one sector to the ssPIN from applications of other sectors, the link-up of data of sectors by PINs is constricted. However, there is a legal exception to this rule: applications may query for and store ssPINs from other sectors if they are encrypted in a way, that makes them only usable in the target application. This enables the application to communicate across sectors.

Sample values[edit]
  • CCR-ID: 000247681888 (12-digit)
  • SourcePIN: MDEyMzQ1Njc4OWFiY2RlZg== (24 bytes base64)
  • ssPIN(BW): MswQO/UhO5RG+nR+klaOTsVY+CU= (28 bytes base64)
    • BW (Bauen + Wohnen) is the public sector related to "construction and habitation".
    • There are approximately 30 sectors like health, taxes, statistics, and security.

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium every citizen has a National Number, which is created by using the citizen's date of birth (encoded in six digits), followed by a serial number (three digits) and a checksum (two digits). The serial number is used so that men get the odd numbers, while women get the even numbers; thus, there can be only 500 men or women on each day.

The national number is unique to each person and in that capacity used by most government institutions; however, because one can immediately read the date of birth and the sex of the numbers' holder and because it is the key in most government databases (including that of the tax administration, the social security, and others), it is considered a privacy-sensitive number. For that reason, although it is put on the identity card by default, with the old ID cards a citizen could request that this would not be done. With the newer Digital ID cards that Belgium is rolling out, this is no longer possible, since the National Number is used as the serial number for the private cryptography keys on the card..

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Each citizen receives 13 number Unique Master Citizen Number (Bosnian: Jedinstveni matični broj građana) upon birth. Unique Master Citizen Number comprises 13 digits in DDMMYYY RR XXX C format. DDMMYYY represents citizens birth date. RR indicates one of 10 Bosnian regions (10: Banja Luka, 11: Bihać, 12: Doboj, 13: Goražde, 14: Livno, 15: Mostar, 16: Prijedor, 17: Sarajevo, 18: Tuzla, 19: Zenica) where the citizen was born. XXX is a unique sequential number where 000 - 499 is used for males and 500 - 999 for females. The final number is a check-sum.

Foreign citizens born or residing in Bosnia & Herzegovina can also receive a Unique Master Citizen Number (UMCN). The RR sequence foreign nationals is 01. Upon gaining Bosnian citizenship, a former foreign national can request new UMCN where the RR part is represented by the region where they were first registered.

Bulgaria[edit]

Main article: Uniform civil number

Every citizen or permanent resident of Bulgaria has a unique 10-digit Uniform Civil Number (Bulgarian: Единен граждански номер, Edinen grazhdanski nomer, usually abbreviated as ЕГН, EGN), generated from the person's date of birth (encoded in six digits in the form YYMMDD), followed by a three-digit serial number and a single-digit checksum. The serial number indicates gender: odd numbers are used for females and even numbers for males.

For persons born prior to 1900, the month identifier (third and fourth digits) is increased by 20 (e.g. 952324XXXX denotes a person born on 24 March 1895). Similarly, 40 is added to denote that a person was born after 1999 (e.g. 054907XXXX denotes a person born on 7 September 2005).

EGNs were introduced in 1977 and are used in virtually all dealings with public service agencies, and often with private businesses. EGNs are also printed on Bulgarian identity cards and passports, under the heading "ЕГН/Personal number".

Croatia[edit]

In Croatia, the Personal Identification Number (Croatian: Osobni identifikacijski broj (OIB)), is used for identifying the citizens in many government and civilian systems. The OIB-system was introduced on January 1, 2009 and replaced the old JMBG system, renamed to Master Citizen Number (Croatian: Matični broj građana (MBG)) in 2002, that was used in former Yugoslavia. The OIB consists of eleven random digits and the last number is a control number.[18] Although the OIB is in use, the MBG is still issued and used for data coordination among government registries.[19]

Czech Republic/Slovakia[edit]

Czech Republic uses a system called Birth Number (Czech: rodné číslo (RČ)).

The form is YYXXDD/SSSC, where XX=MM (month of birth) for male (numbers 01-12) and XX=MM+50 for female (numbers 51-62), SSS is a serial number separating persons born on the same date and C is a check digit. The whole number must be divisible by 11.

For people born before 1 January 1954 the form is YYXXDD/SSS (without the check digit). This enables the system to work until the year 2054.

The system was introduced in the former Czechoslovakia. Slovakia uses the same system.

The system is raising privacy concerns, since the age and the gender of the bearer can be decoded from the number. Therefore the birth number is considered a sensitive piece of personal information. The Czech Republic is introducing a new system of agenda-specific person identifiers.

Denmark[edit]

A Personal Identification Number (Da. CPR, Det Centrale Personregister) in Denmark is used in dealings with public agencies, from health care to the tax authorities. It is also used as a customer number in banks and insurance companies. People must be registered with a CPR number if they reside in Denmark, if they own property or if they pay tax.

In Denmark there have been a systematic registration since 1924, however it was in 1968 that the electronic CPR register was established.[20]

In the 1980s the electronic system was exported to Kuwait, Jamaica, Malaysia, Thailand, Romania, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Slovakia, and Saint Petersburg.[21]

The CPR number is a ten-digit number with the format DDMMYY-SSSS, where DDMMYY is the date of birth and SSSS is a sequence number. The first digit of the sequence number encodes the century of birth (so that centenarians are distinguished from infants, 0-4 in odd centuries, 5-9 in even centuries), and the last digit of the sequence number is odd for males and even for females.

Prior to 2007, the last digit was also a check digit such that less than 240 SSSS values were available for any given combination of gender and date of birth, but due to an administrative practice of assigning Jan 1 and similar dates for immigrants with unknown date of birth, any SSSS value consistent with gender and century of birth may now be issued, even for birth dates prior to 2007.

Companies and other taxable non-humans are issued an eight-digit "CVR" number which is a mostly sequential number, there is no defined rule preventing the issuance of a CVR number with the same digits as a CPR number of an unrelated person, so the type of number must always be indicated, but CPR are always 10-digit and CVR 8-digit. VAT registration numbers for Danish companies are simply "DK" followed by the CVR number, but far from all CVR numbered entities are VAT registered (companies with no need for a VAT number, such as holding companies, typically do not request a VAT registration for their CVR).

Government entities are numbered in a variety of ways, but since 2003 all government entities (however small) now have EAN numbers for billing purposes. Some Government entities also have CVR numbers. Only one Government Entity (the Queen) has a CPR number.

The CPR number gives government agencies access to state-controlled databases with information about the person. The information includes: The person's marital status and spouse, parents, children, current and former addresses, the cars the person has owned, the criminal record and other information about the person.

Foreigners who are not eligible to get a CPR-number, but who need one, includes persons who have witnessed a crime, persons who have been charged with a crime or are victims of a crime. These persons are registered with a CPR-number with the format: DDMMYY-XXXX where XXXX are four letters instead of four numbers.

Estonia[edit]

In Estonia, a Personal Identification Code (Estonian: isikukood (IK)) is defined as a number formed on the basis of the sex and date of birth of a person which allows the identification of the person and used by government and other systems where identification is required, as well as by digital signatures using the nation ID-card and its associated certificates. An Estonian Personal identification code consists of 11 digits, generally given without any whitespace or other delimiters. The form is GYYMMDDSSSC, where G shows sex and century of birth (odd number male, even number female, 1-2 19th century, 3-4 20th century, 5-6 21st century), SSS is a serial number separating persons born on the same date and C a checksum.

European Economic Area/Switzerland[edit]

Within the European Economic Area and Switzerland, a card known as the European Health Insurance Card is issued to any resident who so wishes, proving the right of health care anywhere in the area. This card lists a code called "Identification Number", quite simply the national identification number of the residence country, for Germany the health insurance number.

Finland[edit]

In Finland, the Personal Identity Code (Finnish: Henkilötunnus (HETU), Swedish: Personbeteckning), also known as Personal Identification Number, was introduced in 1964 and it is used for identifying the citizens in government and many corporate and other transactions. It consists of eleven characters of the form DDMMYYCZZZQ, where DDMMYY is the date of birth, C the century sign, ZZZ the individual number and Q the control character (checksum). The sign for the century is either + (1800–1899), - (1900–1999), or A (2000–2099). The individual number ZZZ is odd for males and even for females and for people born in Finland its range is 002-899 (larger numbers may be used in special cases). An example of a valid code is 311280-888Y.

The control character is calculated as the remainder of DDMMYYZZZ divided by 31, i.e. drop the century sign and divide the resulting nine digit number by 31. For remainders below ten, the remainder itself is the control character, otherwise pick the corresponding character from string "0123456789ABCDEFHJKLMNPRSTUVWXY". For example 311280888 divided by 31 gives the remainder as 30, and since A=10, B=11, etc. ending up with Y=30.[22]

A Personal Identity Code is given to every Finnish citizen born in Finland. Foreign citizens whose residence in Finland is permanent or exceeds more than one year are also issued a personal identity code by law. The Personal Identity Code is a means to distinguish between individuals having the same name. It can be found in some public documents (such as the deed of purchase of real estate). Therefore knowing the code should not be used as a proof of identity, although this sometimes happens in the commercial sector. Employers need the personal identity code to report payment of wages to Finnish Tax Administration, the pension funds, etc.

The number is shown in all forms of valid identification:

  • National ID card
  • Electronic national ID card (with a chip)
  • Driver's license (old A6-size and new credit card-size)
  • Passport

During 1964–1970 the personal identity code was known as Sosiaaliturvatunnus (SOTU, Social Security number). The term is still widely in use unofficially (and incorrectly).

France[edit]

Main article: INSEE code

In France, the INSEE code is used as a social insurance number, a national identification number, for taxation purposes, for employment, etc. It was invented under the Vichy regime.

Germany[edit]

In Germany, there was no national identification number until 2007. Only decentralized databases were kept by social insurance companies, who allocate a social insurance number to almost every person.

Since 2008 new Taxpayer Identification Numbers replace the former Tax File Number. Persons who are both employees and self-employed at the same time may receive two taxpayer identification numbers. The respective number for organizations, also issued by the tax administration, is named economy identification number. These numbering concepts are national systems, organized by the Federal Central Tax Office. For special purpose further value-added tax identification numbers are issued for persons and organizations that are subject to paying VAT as a deduct from their revenues. This is a Europe-wide unified concept. Additionally for all persons joining the military service, a Service Number is issued.

None of these numbers are commonly used for other than their specific purpose, nor is such (ab)use legal. German identity documents do not contain any of the mentioned numbers, only a document number. People are not expected to know their number when dealing with an authority, so there are some troubles about people being mismatched.

For some time, the West German government intended to create a 12-digit personal identification number (Personenkennzeichen, PKZ) for all citizens, registered alien residents on its territory, as well as for all non-resident Nazi victims entitled to compensation payments. The system, which was to be implemented by the 1973 federal law on civil registry, was rejected in 1976, when the Bundestag found the concept of an identification system for the entire population to be incompatible with the existing legal framework.[23] In East Germany, a similar system named Personenkennzahl (PKZ) was set up in 1970 and remained in use until the state ceased to exist in 1990.

Greece[edit]

In Greece, there are a number of national identification numbers.

  • The standard identity card, which has the format A-999999 where A can be any of the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet, is issued to all Greek citizens at the age of 12.
  • New Greek identity cards have a number formatted like this: XX-999999 where X is a letter, whose uppercase glyph occurs in both the Greek and the Latin alphabet (ABEZHIKMNOPTYX). The letters and numbers are assigned with sequential order.
  • The Tax Identity Number (AFM - ΑΦΜ - Αριθμός Φορολογικού Μητρώου - Tax Registry Number), which is used by citizens and companies for tax purposes. It has nine digits, the last one of which is a check digit.
  • The Social Security Number (AMKA - Αριθμός Μητρώου Κοινωνικής Ασφάλισης) which is the work and insurance ID of every employee, pensioner and dependent member of their family in Greece. Its first four digits is the owner's date of birth in the mmyy format.[24]

The ID card number is not unique and changes if the person gets a new identity card. The tax identity number is unique for every citizen and company. Social security number is also unique.

Hungary[edit]

In Hungary, there is no national identification number. The Constitutional Court decided in 1991: "A general, uniform personal identification code which may be used without restriction (i.e. a personal number) distributed to every citizen and to every resident of the country based on an identical principle is unconstitutional."[25]

Although the universal use of national identification number (known as "Personal Identification Number") is considered to be unconstitutional, it is still used in many places. The structure of such number is GYYMMDDXXXC, whereas G is the gender (1-male, 2-female, other numbers are also possible for citizens born before 1900 or citizens with double citizenship), YYMMDD is the birth date year, month, day, XXX is the serial number, and C is a checksum digit.

The meanings of the first number:

  • male, born between 1900 and 1999
  • female, born between 1900 and 1999
  • male, born before 1900 or after 1999
  • female, born before 1900 or after 1999

Until 1997 also were used the following first numbers:

  • 5 male, foreign citizen living in Hungary, born between 1900 and 1999
  • 6 female, foreign citizen living in Hungary, born between 1900 and 1999
  • 7 male, foreign citizen living in Hungary, born before 1900 or after 1999
  • 8 female, foreign citizen living in Hungary, born before 1900 or after 1999

As the "Personal Identification Number" is considered to be unconstitutional, another identification form, the ID-card number is in use.

So an average Hungarian has these identifiers: personal identification number, ID card identification number, social security number ("TAJ" number), tax identification number. They may also have passport identification number, driving license number.

Iceland[edit]

All Icelanders, as well as foreign citizens residing in Iceland and corporations and institutions, have a Personal Identification Number (Icelandic: Kennitala, lit. identification number) identifying them in the National Registry. The number is composed of 10 digits, of which the first six are the individual's birth date in the format DDMMYY. The next two digits are chosen at random when the kennitala is allocated, the 9th digit is a check digit, and the last digit indicates the century in which the individual was born (for instance, '9' for the period 1900–1999, or '0' for the period 2000–2099). An example would be 120174-3399, the person being born on the twelfth day of January 1974. The Icelandic system is similar to that in other Scandinavian and European countries, but the use of the identification number is unusually open and extensive in Iceland. Businesses and universities use the kennitala as a customer or student identifier, and all banking transactions include it. The National Registry (Icelandic: Þjóðskrá) oversees the system. A database matching names to numbers is freely accessible (after login) on all Icelandic online banking sites. Given this openness, the Kennitala is never used as an authenticator. It is worth noting that the completeness of the National Registry eliminates any need for Iceland to take censuses.

Ireland[edit]

In Ireland the Personal Public Service Number (PPS No) is gaining the characteristics of a national identification number as it is used for a variety of public services - although it is stated that it is not a national identifier and its use is defined by law.[26] The PPS No. is in the basic form of 1234567T (PPS Numbers allocated from 1 January 2013 will have the format 1234567TA) and is unique to every person.

For certain public services the collection or retention of numbers of the general public is not allowed, thus Garda Siochána (Irish police) is only given an exemption for its own employees or other people defined under the Immigration Act, 2003 - the latter who are people who are not European Union nationals. Similarly the Irish Defence Forces may only collect and retain the number for their own employees.

The PPS Number cannot be used for private or commercial transactions. The number is used in the private sector, but is limited to a few procedures that lawfully required the production of a number, for transactions with public services and in this regard the private sector will be acting as the agent of a public body entitled to collect and retain the number. Thus, for instance, students who attend college or university will have their number (or other personal data) collected at registration - this will then be sent to Department of Social Protection to ensure that a student is not simultaneously claiming social welfare. Banks may collect the number for the administration of accounts that give interest or tax reliefs which the state funds, through the Revenue Commissioners. A bank may not use the number as a customer identification number.

Italy[edit]

In Italy, the fiscal code (Italian: Codice fiscale) is issued to Italians at birth. It is in the format "SSSNNNYYMDDZZZZX", where: SSS are the first three consonants in the family name (the first vowel and then an X are used if there are not enough consonants); NNN is the first name, of which the first, third and fourth consonants are used—exceptions are handled as in family names; YY are the last digits of the birth year; M is the letter for the month of birth—letters are used in alphabetical order, but only the letters A to E, H, L, M, P, R to T are used (thus, January is A and October is R); DD is the day of the month of birth—in order to differentiate between genders, 40 is added to the day of birth for women (thus a woman born on May 3 has ...E43...); ZZZZ is an area code specific to the municipality where the person was born—country-wide codes are used for foreign countries; X is a parity character as calculated by adding together characters in the even and odd positions, and dividing them by 26. Numerical values are used for letters in even positions according to their alphabetical order. Characters in odd positions have different values.

A letter is then used which corresponds to the value of the remainder of the division in the alphabet. An exception algorithm exists in case of perfectly matching codes for two persons. Issuance of the code is centralized to the Ministry of Treasure. The fiscal code uniquely identifies an Italian citizen or permanently resident alien, and is thus used. However, since it can be calculated from personal information (whether real, or not), it is not generally regarded as an extremely reserved piece of information, nor as official proof of identity/existence of an individual.

UNEVEN ALPHANUMERIC CHARACTERS
Character Value Character Value Character Value Character Value
0 1 9 21 I 19 R 8
1 0 A 1 J 21 S 12
2 5 B 0 K 2 T 14
3 7 C 5 L 4 U 16
4 9 D 7 M 18 V 10
5 13 E 9 N 20 W 22
6 15 F 13 O 11 X 25
7 17 G 15 P 3 Y 24
8 19 H 17 Q 6 Z 23

Latvia[edit]

In Latvia the Personal Code (Latvian: Personas kods) consists of 11 digits in form DDMMYY-XNNNC where the first six digits are person's date of birth, the next one stands for a century person was born in (0 for XIX, 1 for XX and 2 for XXI), NNN is birth serial number in that day, and C is checksum digit.

Lithuania[edit]

In Lithuania Personal Code (Lithuanian: Asmens kodas), like in Estonia, consists of 11 digits in the form GYYMMDDNNNC, where G is gender and century, YYMMDD is the birthday, NNN is birth serial number in that day, and C is checksum digit.

The first number (G) shows both the person's gender, and the first two digits of the birth year - odd for males, even for females. It is calculated adding 17 to even number divided by two, or adding one to odd number and dividing result by two.

Females:
* 2 - 17+2/2=18yy
* 4 - 17+4/2=19yy
* 6 - 17+6/2=20yy
* 8 - 17+8/2=21yy
Males:
* 1 - 17+(1+1)/2=18yy
* 3 - 17+(3+1)/2=19yy
* 5 - 17+(5+1)/2=20yy
* 7 - 17+(7+1)/2=21yy

The checksum is calculated by using this formula (provided here as JavaScript code):

// code[] is zero-based
// i.e. code[0] is the first digit
code = "3840915201"; // first 10 digits
d = 0; e = 0;
b = 1; c = 3;
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
  digit = code[i];
  d += digit * b;
  e += digit * c;
  b++; if (b == 10) b = 1;
  c++; if (c == 10) c = 1;
}
d = d % 11;
e = e % 11;
if (d == 10) {
  if (e == 10) checksum = 0;
  else checksum = e;
}
else {
  checksum = d;
}

Macedonia[edit]

Macedonia uses a 13-number identification code Unique Master Citizen Number (Macedonian: Единствен матичен број на граѓанинот, acronym ЕМБГ).

The Unique Master Citizen Number is composed of 13 digits (DDMMYYYRRSSSC) arranged in six groups: two digits (DD) for the citizen's day of birth, two digits (MM) for the month of birth, last three digits (YYY) of the year of birth, two digits (RR) as a registry number, three digits (SSS) as a combination of the citizen's sex and ordinal number of birth, and one digit (C) as a control number.[27]

The two digit registry number depends on the citizens place of birth. There are nine registry codes that define the place of birth: 41 for the municipalities of Bitola, Demir Hisar and Resen; 42 for the municipalities of Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka; 43 for the municipalities of Ohrid, Struga, Debar and Kičevo; 44 for the municipalities of Prilep, Kruševo and Makedonski Brod; 45 for the City of Skopje; 46 for the municipalities of Strumica, Valandovo and Radoviš; 47 for the municipalities of Tetovo and Gostivar; 48 for the municipalities of Veles, Gevegelija, Kavadarci and Negotino; and 49 for the municipalities of Štip, Berovo, Vinica, Delčevo, Kočani, Probištip and Sveti Nikole.

The combination of the citizen's sex and ordinal number of birth is presented as a 3 digit number - from 000 to 499 for the male, and from 500 to 999 for the female citizens.

The last digit is a computer generated control digit.

Moldova[edit]

In the Republic of Moldova, all citizens receive at birth a Personal Code (IDNP - Numarul de Identificare), which is composed of 13 digits. This code is shown on all identity documents:

  • Internal ID cards
  • Driving licenses
  • Passports
  • as well as all civil status documents: Birth certificates, Marriage certificates, Death certificates etc.

Montenegro[edit]

Montenegro uses a 13-number identification code Jedinstveni matični broj građana/Јединствени матични број грађана (JMBG) - Unique Master Citizen Number.

Netherlands[edit]

Dutch Wikipedia: nl:Burgerservicenummer, nl:Sofinummer

In the Netherlands, all people receive a Burgerservicenummer (BSN) (Citizen's Service Number) when they are born. It is printed on driving licenses, passports and international ID cards, under the header Personal Number. Before 2007, the BSN was known as sofinummer (the acronym sofi stands for so-ciaal (social) fi-scaal (fiscal) ). The number is unique. However, initially it was issued by regionally operating branches of the tax department which where all assigned ranges; in densely populated areas the assigned ranges would overflow thus causing duplicate numbers. This mistake was corrected during the transition from SOFI to BSN by issuing a new number to people having a duplicate one. The number does not contain any information about the person to whom it is assigned i.e. no information such as e.g. gender or date of birth can be derived from a BSN.

Norway[edit]

The Norwegian eleven digit Birth Number is assigned at birth or registration with the National Population Register. The register is maintained by the Norwegian Tax Office. It is composed of the date of birth (DDMMYY), a three digit individual number, and two check digits. The individual number and the check digits are collectively known as the Personal Number. The birth number is written on identity documents, making it fairly safe to match a bank account or authority document to a person. The reason for calling it Birth Number, it that the tax offices usually issue it to newborn children.

  • The first check digit is calculated through an algorithm involving modulo 11 of weighted sum of the nine first digits.
The last check digit is calculated through an similar algorithm involving the 10 first digits:
  • The individual number is selected from a range depending on century of birth: for the years 1854–1899 the range is 500-749, for the years 1900–1999 the range is 000-499, for the years 2000–2039 the range is 500-999.
For the years 1940–1999, the range 900-999 was also used for special purposes, such as adoptions from abroad and immigrants. Women are assigned even individual numbers, men are assigned odd individual numbers.
  • People without permanent residence in Norway will be assigned a D-number upon registration in the population register. The D-number is like a birth number having 40 added to the day of month. D comes from the Norwegian name of an authority for sailors, which previously issued those numbers, usually to sailors on board Norwegian ships. Nowadays it is also often foreign seasonal workers e.g. in the tourist industry that get D-numbers.

Poland[edit]

Main article: PESEL

In Poland, a Powszechny Elektroniczny System Ewidencji Ludności (PESEL) number is mandatory for all permanent residents of Poland and for temporary residents living in Poland for over 2 months. It has the form YYMMDDZZZXQ, where YYMMDD is the date of birth (with century encoded in month field), ZZZ is the personal identification number, X denotes sex (even for females, odd for males) and Q is a parity number.

Portugal[edit]

In Portugal, there is a Fiscal Identification Number (with the Portuguese acronym NIF). There are four main identification numbers: Identity Number, Driver License Number, Fiscal Number and Social Security Number. All, except the Driver License Number are mandatory. The cards Identity Card, Fiscal Card, Social Security Card, Health Card and Voter's Card have been merged into a single Citizen's Card or Cartão do Cidadão.

Romania[edit]

In Romania each citizen has a Personal Numerical Code (Cod Numeric Personal, CNP), which is created by using the citizen's gender and century of birth (1/3/5/7 for male, 2/4/6/8 for female and 9 for foreign citizen), date of birth (six digits, YYMMDD), the country zone (two digits, from 01 to 52, or 99), followed by a serial number (3 digits), and finally a checksum digit.

The first digit encodes the gender of person as follows:

1 Male born between 1900 and 1999
2 Female born between 1900 and 1999
3 Male born between 1800 and 1899[citation needed]
4 Female born between 1800 and 1899[citation needed]
5 Male born after 2000
6 Female born after 2000
7 Male resident
8 Female resident
9 Foreign citizen

The country zone is a code of Romanian county in alphabetical order. For Bucharest the code is 4 followed by the sector number.[citation needed]

To calculate the checksum digit, every digit from CNP is multiplied with the corresponding digit in number 279146358279; the sum of all these multiplications is then divided by 11. If the remainder is 10 then the checksum digit is 1, otherwise it's the remainder itself.

Example
=======

Control = 279146358279
    CNP = 1800101221144
                      ^ checksum digit = 4

Checksum value =
1 * 2 +
8 * 7 +
0 * 9 +
0 * 1 +
1 * 4 +
0 * 6 +
1 * 3 +
2 * 5 +
2 * 8 +
1 * 2 +
1 * 7 +
4 * 9
 = 136

Checksum digit = 136 mod 11 = 4. Valid CNP (the last digit is indeed 4).

San Marino[edit]

In San Marino there exists the Codice ISS (Istituto Sicurezza Sociale), which is composed of 5 digits. It is given to all San Marino citizens and permanent residents.

Serbia[edit]

Serbia uses a 13-number identification code Unique Master Citizen Number (Serbian: Јединствени матични број грађана/Jedinstveni matični broj građana, acronym JMBG).

Slovakia[edit]

In Slovakia there are two kinds of National identification number. The first one is the Birth Number (Slovak: Rodné číslo (RČ)), is issued at birth by the civic records authority (Slovak: matrika) and recorded on the birth certificate. Its format is YYMMDD/XXXX with YYMMDD being the date of birth and XXXX being a semi-unique identifier. For females, the month of the date of birth is advanced by 50. Full number (identification number - YYMMDDXXXX) must be divisible by 11.

As this system does not provide a unique identifier (the numbers are repeated every century) it may be replaced by a meaningless identifier in the near future. The second system is the Citizen's Identification Card Number (Slovak: Číslo občianskeho preukazu (ČOP)) which is in the form AA XXXXXX (A-alphabetic, X-numeric) and is used on ID cards. Identification Cards are issued by the state authorities (police) at 15 years of age for every citizen. In contrast to the Birth Number, this identifier can change over the citizen's lifetime if a new card is issued, for reasons such as expiration, loss or change of residence. The ID number is used, among other things, for voter registration (because of the domicile record verification provided by the ID). A similar system, with both types of identification numbers, is used in the Czech Republic as well. In the Czech Republic is a new series of the Citizen's Identification Card Numbers (ČOP), which are in the format XXX XXX XXX (all numeric).

Slovenia[edit]

Slovenia uses a 13-number identification code Enotna matična številka občana (EMŠO) - Unique Master Citizen Number.

It is composed of 13 digits as follows DDMMYYYRRSSSX.

DD - day of birth>
MM - month of birth
YYY - year of birth, last three digits

RR - a constant value 50
This is a remnant of Yugoslavia, a registry number that marked the birth zone:
- 00-09 – foreigners
- 10-19 – Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 20-29 – Montenegro
- 30-39 – Croatia (33 - Zagreb)
- 40-49 – Macedonia
- 50-59 – Slovenia (only 50 is used)
- 60-69 – (not in use)
- 70-79 – Serbia (71 - Beograd)
- 80-89 – Province of Vojvodina (80 – Novi Sad)
- 90-99 – Province of Kosovo

SSS - serial number or combination of sex and serial numbers for persons born on the same day (000-499 for men and 500-999 for women)
X - checksum of first 12

Spain[edit]

In Spain, all Spanish citizens over 14 years old are issued with a National Identity Document (Spanish: Documento Nacional de Identidad (DNI)), with a unique number, in the format 00000000-A (where 0 is a digit and A is a checksum letter). Since 2010, foreign nationals are no longer issued with identity cards, although they are assigned a number in the format X-0000000-A (again, 0 is a digit, A is a checksum letter, and X is a letter, generally X but lately also Y), called an NIE Number (Número de Identificación de Extranjeros, Foreigner's Identity Number). The numbers are used as identification for almost all purposes. This is required for all transactions related with tax authority.

Foreign nationals are required to use their passports together with the document containing their NIE number

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden a Personal Identity Number (Swedish: personnummer) is used in dealings with public agencies, from health care to the tax authorities. It is also used as a customer number in banks and insurance companies. It is written on all approved identity documents, making the risk of mixing up people low. The number uses ten digits, YYMMDD-NNGC. The first six give the birth date in YYMMDD format. Digits seven to nine (NNG) are used to make the number unique, where digit nine (G) is odd for men and even for women. The seventh and eighth digit (for numbers issued before 1990) identify the county of birth or foreign born people. Privacy related criticism caused this system to be abandoned for new numbers.

Switzerland[edit]

Since the introduction of a national pension scheme in 1948, most persons resident in Switzerland are allocated a Social Security Number (AHV-Nr. [de] / No AVS [fr]), which is also used for other governmental purposes. The eleven-digit format in use since 1968 is of the form AAA.BB.CCC.DDD and encodes information about the name, birthdate and sex of its holder:

  • The "AAA" digits encode the family name.
  • The "BB" digits are equal to the last two digits of the year of birth.
  • The "CCC" digits encode the birth day as a trimester number (1-4) followed by the number of the day in the trimester. An offset of 400 is added for female persons (e.g. 101 is January 1 for men and 501 is January 1 for women).
  • The "DDD" digits are used to be an origin code depending which country the person came from and or if this person was a Swiss citizen through birth or naturalisation.

As of 2008, an anonymous thirteen-digit number is being issued to all Swiss residents. It is of the form 756.XXXX.XXXX.XY, where 756 is the ISO 3166-1 code for Switzerland, XXXX.XXXX.X is a random number and Y is an EAN-13 check digit.[28]

Turkey[edit]

During the application for a national ID card, every Turkish citizen is assigned a unique personal identification number called Turkish Identification Number (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Kimlik Numarası or abbreviated as T.C. Kimlik No.), an 11-digit number with two trailing check digits. This assignment is organized through the MERNIS (abbreviation for English: Central Personal Registration Administration System) project that started on 28 October 2000. The national ID card is compulsory for every citizen and is issued at birth. Parents need to register to the authorities with the child's birth certificate.

The identification number is used by public institutions in their certificates and documents like identity card, passport, international family book, driving license, form and manifesto they issue to citizens. It is used by services such as taxation, security, voting, education, social security, health care, military recruitment, and banking.[29]

Ukraine[edit]

Individual Identification Number is a 10 digit number issued by the tax administration. The first 5 digits represent birthday as the number of days since 01/01/1900. The last digit is a check digit. The algorithm is not publicly revealed. Similar numbers are issued to residents and foreigners. A person can opt out of receiving an Individual Identification Number based on religious or other beliefs, however it is associated with minor tax disadvantages. The Individual Identification Numbers are issued according to a Law of Ukraine 320/94-BP passed on December 22, 1994.

United Kingdom[edit]

There is no legal requirement in UK to obtain or carry any identification document or other proof of identity.

A National Insurance number, generally called an NI Number (NINO), is used to administer state benefits, but has not gained the ubiquity of its US equivalent, and is not considered proof of identity. The number is stylised as LL NN NN NN L, for example AA 01 23 44 B.

Each baby born in the England and Wales is issued a National Health Service number, taking the form NNN-NNN-NNNN, for example 122-762-9255 (the last number being a check digit, not correct in the example [30]). They were formerly of the style "LLLNNL NNN", for example KWB91M 342, which continued patterns used in World War II identity cards. However, since National Health Numbers often change when moving to a different part of the country and having to change General Practitioners, the ratio is more often more (one person:many numbers) than (one person:one number). The National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) has also shown that one person can have many numbers.

Babies born in Scotland are issued a CHI (Community Health Index) number, taking the form DDMMYY-NNNN, with the DDMMYY representing their date of birth and a four digit unique number thereafter (e.g. someone born on 1 January 2010, would have the number 010110-NNNN, with the four digit number allocated upon entering newborn details on to the local health board's patient administration system). The third N is even for females and odd for males.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

As in the UK, there is no legal requirement to obtain or carry any identification document or other proof of identity. In Australia there is no universal identifying number for individuals. The closest to universal at present are:

  • Medicare card number, for health services, although they may change regularly
  • Tax file number (TFN), for tax matters, including tax matters relating to non-citizens
  • State Driver's License, for general matters, although if people have no driver's license they can supply a Passport or other identity card information

The Australia Card proposal would have created a universal number for Australian citizens and permanent residents. That proposal was abandoned in 1987. A 2005 proposal for an Access Card to health and welfare benefits was abandoned in 2007 due to privacy concerns relating to identity theft and disclosure of information. The Medicare and tax file number identifiers are protected by strict privacy laws.[31][32]

New Zealand[edit]

See also: NHI Number

In New Zealand, an Inland Revenue Department (IRD) number is issued by the IRD to every taxpayer (a natural or juristic person), and is needed with dealings with the IRD. It must be given to any employer or bank responsible for charging withholding tax, and to apply for or use a student loan. Driver's licences carry a unique number, often recorded when providing them as identification.

The social security and student support services of the Ministry of Social Development (Work and Income, and StudyLink) issue a Work and Income client number, assigned at the occurrence of a person's first contact with either service. A general letter of enquiry about a service appears to be sufficient for one to be logged and may be assigned without the letter writer's knowledge.

A National Health Index (NHI) number is assigned to all newborn New Zealanders at birth, and those who use a health and disability support service that do not already have one.

The small population means a name and date of birth can usually uniquely identify someone, though identity theft is easily possible when two people share a name and birthdate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/iw8ben.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.irs.gov/Individuals/International-Taxpayers/U.S.-Taxpayer-Identification-Number-Requirement
  3. ^ SML-FX.COM. "SAIDValidator". Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Independent Newspapers Online (2009-03-07). "Durban man tells of identity number woes - South Africa | IOL News". IOL.co.za. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "Department of Home Affairs: Strategic Plan 2008–11 and Transformation Programme | Parliamentary Monitoring Group | Parliament of South Africa monitored". Pmg.org.za. 2008-06-04. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  7. ^ "inss.gov.br". inss.gov.br. Retrieved 2012-07-14. 
  8. ^ "Social Insurance Number Usage". OnPayroll.ca. 26 August 2011. 
  9. ^ David T.S. Fraser (1 September 2003). "New rules for using social insurance numbers". McInnes Cooper law firm. 
  10. ^ Kouri, Jim (March 9, 2005). "Social Security Cards: De Facto National Identification". American Chronicle. 
  11. ^ [2][dead link]
  12. ^ "Compute Taiwan citizen and resident identification number checksums". Jidanni.org. Retrieved 2014-03-09. 
  13. ^ [3][dead link]
  14. ^ "Decision number 827 for way of coding and structure of citizens' identity numbers". Qpz.gov.al. 11 December 2003. 
  15. ^ [4][dead link]
  16. ^ "Fehler 404". Buergerkarte.at. Retrieved 2013-10-27. 
  17. ^ [5][dead link]
  18. ^ "OIB - Croatia". Oib.hr. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  19. ^ "66 7.6.2002 Zakon o izmjenama i dopunama Zakona o matičnom broju". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. Retrieved 2014-03-09. 
  20. ^ [6][dead link]
  21. ^ "CPR's udvikling gennem mere end 40 ar". Datamuseum.dk. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  22. ^ "Personal identity code - Population Register Centre". Vrk.fi. 1952-10-13. Retrieved 2014-03-09. 
  23. ^ Verdict of the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), December 15., 1983, BVerfGE 65, 1.
  24. ^ "AMKA - What is the AMKA?". Amka.gr. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  25. ^ "Stream: Blog". Privacy International. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  26. ^ "Ireland: Department of Social Protection, PPS Number Legislation". Welfare.ie. 25 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "YKA 3". Mvr.gov.mk. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  28. ^ "Einführung der neuen AHV-Nummer" (in German). Federal Office of Social Security. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  29. ^ "MERNİS Projesi hayata geçiyor/ Nüfus kayıtları bilgisayarlara taşınıyor". Dünya Gazetesi (in Turkish). 2000-10-24. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  30. ^ [7][dead link]
  31. ^ "Privacy and security". Medicare Australia. 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  32. ^ "Tax File Numbers". Privacy.gov.au. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 

External links[edit]