جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Arab Republic of Egypt
|Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
My country, my country, my country
and largest city
|National language||Egyptian Arabic|
|-||President||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi|
|-||Prime Minister||Ibrahim Mahlab|
|Legislature||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (Temporarily until the House of Representatives is elected)|
|-||Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
|c. 3150 BC|
|-||Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated||9 July 1805|
the United Kingdom
|28 February 1922|
|-||Republic declared||18 June 1953|
|-||Revolution Day||23 July 1952|
|-||Current Constitution||18 January 2014|
|-||Total||1,002,450 km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi
|-||2014 estimate||86,502,500 (15th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.682
medium · 110th
|Currency||Egyptian pound (EGP)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3[b])|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||EG|
|a.||^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.|
|b.||^ Summer time has been reintroduced in 2014.|
Egypt i// (Arabic: مصر Miṣr), officially: the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of its territory of 1,010,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi) lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
With over 86 million inhabitants, Egypt is the largest country in the Middle East and the Arab world, the third-largest African country, and the fifteenth-most populous nation in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world's first nation states. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Its iconic monuments, such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest all over the world. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.
Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels.
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Administrative divisions
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Telecommunication
- 10 Education
- 11 Healthcare
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The English name Egypt is derived from the ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah (〈ḥwt-k-ptḥ〉), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".
Miṣr (IPA: [mesˤr]) is the Literary Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ]) is the common pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim), literally meaning "the two straits" (a reference to the dynastic separation of upper and lower Egypt). The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and means "country", or "frontier-land".
The ancient Egyptian name of the country was 𓆎𓅓𓏏𓊖 〈km.t〉, which means "black land", referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret (〈dšṛt〉), or "red land" of the desert. This name is commonly vocalised as Kemet, but was probably pronounced [kuːmat] in ancient Egyptian. The name is realised as kēme and kēmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία (Khēmía, which in modern Greek means chemistry). Another name was 〈tꜣ-mry〉 "land of the riverbank". The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (〈tꜣ-šmꜥw〉) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (〈tꜣ mḥw〉) "northland", respectively.
Prehistory and Ancient Egypt
There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society.
By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.
A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC., which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza pyramids.
The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years. Stronger Nile floods and stabilisation of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.
The New Kingdom c. 1550–1070 BC began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.
Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.
The last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony who had died in her arms (from a self-inflicted stab wound), after Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled. The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians often caused by an unwanted regime and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest.
Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the 1st century. Diocletian's reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639–42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs. When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity.
Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about AD 1250. By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies. The mid-14th-century Black Death killed about 40% of the country's population.
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The defensive militarisation damaged its civil society and economic institutions. The weakening of the economic system combined with the effects of plague left Egypt vulnerable to foreign invasion. Portuguese traders took over their trade. Between 1687 and 1731, Egypt experienced six famines. The 1784 famine cost it roughly one-sixth of its population.
Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries. As such, Egypt remained semi-autonomous under the Mamluks until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon I in 1798. After the French were expelled, power was seized in 1805 by Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt.
Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained nominally an Ottoman province. It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate in 1867. Isma'il and Tewfik Pasha governed Egypt as a quasi-independent state under Ottoman suzerainty until the British occupation of 1882. Nevertheless, the Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) remained a de jure Ottoman province until 5 November 1914, when it was declared a British protectorate in reaction to the decision of the Young Turks of the Ottoman Empire to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.
Muhammad Ali dynasty
After the French were defeated by the British, a power vacuum was created in Egypt, and a three-way power struggle ensued between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans. It ended in victory for the Albanians led by Muhammad Ali.
While he carried the title of viceroy of Egypt, his subordination to the Ottoman porte was merely nominal. Muhammad Ali established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. In later years, the dynasty became a British puppet.
The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century, concentrating land ownership and shifting production towards international markets.
Muhammad Ali annexed Northern Sudan (1820–1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia; but in 1841 the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans. His military ambition required him to modernise the country: he built industries, a system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil service.
Muhammad Ali Pasha evolved the military from one that convened under the tradition of the corvée to a great modernised army. He introduced conscription of the male peasantry in 19th century Egypt, and took a novel approach to create his great army, strengthening it with numbers and in skill. Education and training of the new soldiers was not an option; the new concepts were furthermore enforced by isolation. The men were held in barracks to avoid distraction of their growth as a military unit to be reckoned with. The resentment for the military way of life eventually faded from the men and a new ideology took hold, one of nationalism and pride. It was with the help of this newly reborn martial unit that Muhammad Ali imposed his rule over Egypt.
The Suez Canal, built in partnership with the French, was completed in 1869. Its construction led to enormous debt to European banks, and caused popular discontent because of the onerous taxation it required. In 1875 Ismail was forced to sell Egypt's share in the canal to the British Government. Within three years this led to the imposition of British and French controllers who sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, "with the financial power of the bondholders behind them, were the real power in the Government."
Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European intrusion led to the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879, with Ahmad Urabi a prominent figure. Fearing a reduction of their control, the UK and France intervened militarily, bombarding Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel el-Kebir. They reinstalled Ismail's son Tewfik as figurehead of a de facto British protectorate. In 1906, the Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement.
In 1914, the Protectorate was made official, and the title of the head of state was changed to sultan, to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who was backing the Central powers in World War I. Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his uncle, Hussein Kamel, as sultan.
After the First World War, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on 8 March 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. The revolt led the UK government to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on 22 February 1922.
The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. Saad Zaghlul was popularly elected as Prime Minister of Egypt in 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. Continued instability due to remaining British influence and increasing political involvement by the king led to the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the 1952 Revolution. The Free Officers Movement forced King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad. British military presence in Egypt lasted until 1954.
Following the 1952 Revolution by the Free Officers Movement, the rule of Egypt passed to military hands. On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser – the real architect of the 1952 movement – and was later put under house arrest. Nasser assumed power as President in June 1956. British forces completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June 1956. He nationalised the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956, prompting the 1956 Suez Crisis.
In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed a sovereign union known as the United Arab Republic. The union was short-lived, ending in 1961 when Syria seceded, thus ending the union. During most of its existence, the United Arab Republic was also in a loose confederation with North Yemen (formerly the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen), known as the United Arab States. In 1959, the All-Palestine Government of the Gaza Strip, an Egyptian client state, was absorbed into United Arab Republic under the pretext of Arab union, and was never restored.
In early 1960s, Egypt became fully involved in the North Yemen Civil War. The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the Yemeni republicans with as many as 70,000 Egyptian troops and chemical weapons. Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egyptian commitment in Yemen was greatly undermined later.
On May 1967, Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to passage of Israeli ships. On 26 May Nasser declared, "The battle will be a general one and our basic objective will be to destroy Israel". Israel considered the Straits of Tiran closure a Casus belli. In the 1967 Six Day War, Israel attacked Egypt, and occupied Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, which Egypt had occupied since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the 1967 war, an Emergency Law was enacted, and remained in effect until 2012, with the exception of an 18-month break in 1980/81. Under this law, police powers were extended, constitutional rights suspended and censorship is legalised.
At the time of the fall of the Egyptian monarchy in the early 1950s, less than half a million Egyptians were considered upper class and rich, four million middle class and 17 million lower class and poor. Fewer than half of all primary-school-age children attended school, and most of them being boys. Nasser's policies changed this. Land reform and distribution, the dramatic growth in university education, and government support to national industries greatly improved social mobility and flattened the social curve. From academic year 1953-54 through 1965-66, overall public school enrolments more than doubled. Millions of previously poor Egyptians, through education and jobs in the public sector, joined the middle class. Doctors, engineers, teachers, lawyers, journalists, constituted the bulk of the swelling middle class in Egypt under Nasser.
In 1970, President Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition. In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. it presented Sadat with a victory that allowed him to regain the Sinai later in return for peace with Israel.
In 1975, Sadat shifted Nasser's economic policies and sought to use his popularity to reduce government regulations and encourage foreign investment through his program of Infitah. Through this policy, incentives such as reduced taxes and import tariffs attracted some investors, but investments however were mainly directed at low risk and profitable ventures like tourism and construction, abandoning Egypt's infant industries. Even though Sadat's policy was intended to modernise Egypt and assist the middle class, it mainly benefited the higher class, and, because of the elimination of subsidies on basic foodstuffs, led to the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots.
Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by most Egyptians. However, Sadat was assassinated by an Islamic extremist. Hosni Mubarak came to power after the assassination of Sadat in a referendum in which he was the only candidate.
Hosni Mubarak reaffirmed Egypt's relationship with Israel yet eased the tensions with Egypt's Arab neighbours as well. Domestically, Mubarak faced many serious problems. Even though farm and industry output expanded, the economy could not keep pace with the population boom. Mass poverty and unemployment led rural families to stream into cities like Cairo where they ended up in crowded slums, barely managing to survive.
In the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became numerous and severe, and began to target Christian Copts and foreign tourists as well as government officials. In the 1990s an Islamist group, Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, engaged in an extended campaign of violence, from the murders and attempted murders of prominent writers and intellectuals, to the repeated targeting of tourists and foreigners. Serious damage was done to the largest sector of Egypt's economy—tourism—and in turn to the government, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of the people on whom the group depended for support.
During Mubarak's reign, the political scene was dominated by the National Democratic Party, which was created by Sadat in 1978. It passed 1993 Syndicates Law, 1995 Press Law, and 1999 Nongovernmental Associations Law which hampered freedoms of association and expression by imposing new regulations and draconian penalties on violations. As a result, by the late 1990s parliamentary politics had become virtually irrelevant and alternative avenues for political expression were curtailed as well.
On 17 November 1997, 62 people, mostly tourists, were massacred near Luxor. In late February 2005, Mubarak announced a reform of the presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls for the first time since the 1952 movement. However, the new law placed restrictions on the candidates, and led to Mubarak's easy re-election victory. Voter turnout was less than 25%. Election observers also alleged government interference in the election process. After the election, Mubarak imprisoned Ayman Nour, the runner-up.
Human Rights Watch's 2006 report on Egypt detailed serious human rights violations, including routine torture, arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts. In 2007, Amnesty International released a report alleging that Egypt had become an international center for torture, where other nations send suspects for interrogation, often as part of the War on Terror. Egypt's foreign ministry quickly issued a rebuttal to this report.
Constitutional changes voted on 19 March 2007 prohibited parties from using religion as a basis for political activity, allowed the drafting of a new anti-terrorism law, authorised broad police powers of arrest and surveillance, and gave the president power to dissolve parliament and end judicial election monitoring. In 2009, Dr. Ali El Deen Hilal Dessouki, Media Secretary of the National Democratic Party (NDP), described Egypt as a "pharaonic" political system, and democracy as a "long term goal". Dessouki also stated that "the real center of power in Egypt is the military".
On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government. On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Jubilant celebrations broke out in Cairo's Tahrir Square at the news. The Egyptian military then assumed the power to govern. Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, became the de facto interim head of state. On 13 February 2011, the military dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution.
A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011. On 28 November 2011, Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports of major irregularities or violence. Mohamed Morsi was elected president on 24 June 2012. On 2 August 2012, Egypt's Prime Minister Hisham Qandil announced his 35 member cabinet comprising 28 newcomers including four from the Muslim Brotherhood.
Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood backers threw their support behind Morsi. On 22 November 2012, President Morsi issued a declaration immunising his decrees from challenge and seeking to protect the work of the constituent assembly.
The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt. On 5 December 2012, tens of thousands of supporters and opponents of president Morsi clashed, in what was described as the largest violent battle between Islamists and their foes since the country's revolution. Mohamed Morsi offered a "national dialogue" with opposition leaders but refused to cancel the December 2012 constitutional referendum.
On 30 June 2013, massive protests were organised across Egypt against Morsi's rule, leading to the ousting of Morsi by the military on 3 July 2013, where the military removed Morsi from power in a coup d'état and installed an interim government.
On 4 July 2013, 68-year old Egyptian judge Adly Mansour was sworn in as acting president over the new government following the removal of Morsi. The military-backed Egyptian authorities cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters, jailing thousands and killing hundreds of street protesters. Many of the Muslim Brotherhood leaders and activists have either been sentenced to death or life imprisonment in a series of mass trials.
On 18 January 2014, the interim government institutionalised a new constitution following a referendum in which 98.1% of voters were supportive. Participation was low with only 38.6% of registered voters participating although this was higher than the 33% who voted in a referendum during Morsi's tenure. On 26 March 2014 Abdel Fattah el-Sisi the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, who at this time was in control of the country, resigned from the military, announcing he would stand as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election. The poll, held between 26 and 28 May 2014, resulted in a landslide victory for el-Sisi. The Muslim Brotherhood and some liberal and secular activist groups boycotted the vote. Even though the military-backed authorities extended voting to a third day, the 46% turnout was lower than the 52% turnout in the 2012 election.
Egypt lies primarily between latitudes 22° and 32°N, and longitudes 25° and 35°E. At 1,001,450 square kilometres (386,660 sq mi), it is the world's 30th-largest country. Nevertheless, due to the aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that about 99% of the population uses only about 5.5% of the total land area. 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.
Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, the Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea.
Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few oases scattered about. Winds create prolific sand dunes that peak at more than 100 feet (30 m) high. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert. These deserts protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats and were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt.
Towns and cities include Alexandria, the second largest city; Aswan; Asyut; Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital and largest city; El-Mahalla El-Kubra; Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu; Hurghada; Luxor; Kom Ombo; Port Safaga; Port Said; Sharm el Sheikh; Suez, where the south end of the Suez Canal is located; Zagazig; and Al-Minya. Oases include Bahariya, el Dakhla, Farafra, el Kharga and Siwa. Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa.
See Egyptian Protectorates for more information.
Most of Egypt's rain falls in the winter months. South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm (0.1 to 0.2 in) per year and at intervals of many years. On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 410 mm (16.1 in), mostly between October and March. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim, Sidi Barrany, etc. and rarely in Alexandria. A very small amount of snow fell on Cairo on 13 December 2013, the first time Cairo received snowfall in many decades. Frost is also known in mid-Sinai and mid-Egypt.
Temperatures average between 80 and 90 °F (26.7 and 32.2 °C) in summer, and up to 109 °F (43 °C) on the Red Sea coast. Winter temperatures average between 55 and 70 °F (13 and 21 °C). A steady wind from the northwest helps lower temperatures near the Mediterranean coast. The Khamaseen is a wind that blows from the south in spring, bringing sand and dust, and sometimes raises the temperature in the desert to more than 100 °F (38 °C).
Prior to the construction of the Aswan Dam, the Nile flooded annually (colloquially The Gift of the Nile) replenishing Egypt's soil. This gave the country consistent harvest throughout the years.
The potential rise in sea levels due to global warming could threaten Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and have grave consequences for the country's economy, agriculture and industry. Combined with growing demographic pressures, a significant rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the 21st century, according to some climate experts.
Egypt signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 9 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 2 June 1994. It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 31 July 1998. Where many CBD National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans neglect biological kingdoms apart from animals and plants, Egypt's plan was unusual in providing balanced information about all forms of life.
The plan stated that the following numbers of species of different groups had been recorded from Egypt: algae (1483 species), animals (about 15,000 species of which more than 10,000 were insects), fungi (more than 627 species), monera (319 species), plants (2426 species), protozoans (371 species). For some major groups, for example lichen-forming fungi and nematode worms, the number was not known. Apart from small and well-studied groups like amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles, the many of those numbers are likely to increase as further species are recorded from Egypt. For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over 2200 species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring in the country is expected to be much higher.
The House of Representatives, whose members are elected to serve five-year terms, is Specialized in the Legislature power. Elections were last held between November 2011 and January 2012 which was later dissolved. The next parliamentary election will be held within 6 months of the constitution's ratification on 18 January 2014. Originally, the parliament was to be formed before the president was elected, but interim president Adly Mansour pushed the date. The Egyptian presidential election, 2014 took place on 26–28 May 2014. Official figures showed a turnout of 25,578,233 or 47.5%, with Abdel Fattah el-Sisi winning with 23.78 million votes, or 96.91% compared to 757,511 (3.09%) for Hamdeen Sabahi.
On 3 July 2013 following millions of protesters demonstrated across Egypt against Morsi reported as one of the biggest protests in world history. then-General Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi announced the removal of President Morsi from office and suspending the constitution for modification. 50-member constitution committee was formed for modifying the constitution which was later published for public voting and was adopted in 18 January 2014.
Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the 19th century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century. The ideology espoused by Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood is mostly supported by the lower-middle strata of Egyptian society.
Egypt has the oldest continuous parliamentary tradition in the Arab world. The first popular assembly was established in 1866. It was disbanded as a result of the British occupation of 1882, and the British allowed only a consultative body to sit. In 1923, however, after the country's independence was declared, a new constitution provided for a parliamentary monarchy.
The legal system is based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); and judicial review by a Supreme Court, which accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction only with reservations.
Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation. Sharia courts and qadis are run and licensed by the Ministry of Justice. The personal status law that regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody is governed by Sharia. In a family court, a woman's testimony is worth half of a man's testimony.
On 26 December 2012, the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to institutionalise a controversial new constitution. It was approved by the public in a referendum held 15–22 December 2012 with 64% support, but with only 33% electorate participation. It replaced the 2011 Provisional Constitution of Egypt, adopted following the revolution.
The Penal code was unique as it contains a "Blasphemy Law." The present court system allows a death penalty including against an absent individual tried in absentia. Several Americans and Canadians were sentenced to death in 2012.
On 18 January 2014, the interim government successfully institutionalised a more secular constitution sets up a president and parliament. The president is elected to a four year term and may serve 2 terms. The parliament may impeach the president. Under the constitution, there is a guarantee of gender equality and absolute freedom of thought. The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defence for the next 8 years. Under the constitution, political parties may not be based on "religion, race, gender or geography".
According to the former chair of Israel's Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Yuval Steinitz, the Egyptian Air Force has roughly the same number of modern warplanes as the Israeli Air Force and far more Western tanks, artillery, anti-aircraft batteries and warships than the IDF. Egypt is speculated by Israel to be the second country in the region with a spy satellite, EgyptSat 1 in addition to EgyptSat 2 launched on 16 April 2014.
The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank.
The United States of America provides Egypt with annual military assistance, which in 2009 amounted to US$1.3 billion (inflation adjusted US$ 1.43 billion in 2014).
The military has a lot of influence in the political life of Egypt as well as the economy and it exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors. It also enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian "deep state".
The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt. In 2003, the government established the National Council for Human Rights. The council came under heavy criticism by local activists, who contend it was a propaganda tool for the government to excuse its own violations and to give legitimacy to repressive laws such as the Emergency Law.
The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life ranks Egypt as the fifth worst country in the world for religious freedom. The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, a bipartisan independent agency of the US government, has placed Egypt on its watch list of countries that require close monitoring due to the nature and extent of violations of religious freedom engaged in or tolerated by the government. According to a 2010 Pew Global Attitudes survey, 84% of Egyptians polled supported the death penalty for those who leave Islam; 77% supported whippings and cutting off of hands for theft and robbery; and 82% support stoning a person who commits adultery.
Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from disproportionate representation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches. Intolerance of Bahá'ís and non-orthodox Muslim sects, such as Sufis, Shi'a and Ahmadis, also remains a problem. When the government moved to computerise identification cards, members of religious minorities, such as Bahá'ís, could not obtain identification documents. An Egyptian court ruled in early 2008 that members of other faiths may obtain identity cards without listing their faiths, and without becoming officially recognised.
Clashes continue between police and supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi, at least 595 civilians were killed in Cairo on 14 August 2013, the worst mass killing in Egypt’s modern history.
Egypt actively practises capital punishment. Egypt’s authorities do not release figures on death sentences and executions, despite repeated requests over the years by human rights organisations. The United Nations human rights office and various NGOs expressed “deep alarm” after an Egyptian Minya Criminal Court sentenced 529 people to death in a single hearing on March 25, 2014. Sentenced supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi will be executed for their alleged role in violence following his ousting in July 2013. The judgment was condemned as a violation of international law. By May 2014, approximately 16,000 people (and as high as more than 40,000 by one independent count), mostly Brotherhood members or supporters, have been imprisoned after the coup  after the Muslim Brotherhood was labeled as terrorist organization. 
The permanent Headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the Secretary General of the Arab League has traditionally been Egyptian. Former Foreign Minister Nabil El-Arabi is the current group's Secretary General. The Arab League briefly moved from Egypt to Tunis in 1978 to protest the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, returning in 1989.
Egypt was the first Arab state to establish diplomatic relations with Israel, with the signing of the treaty. Despite the peace treaty, Israel is still largely considered an enemy country within Egypt. Egypt has historically played an important role as a mediator in resolving disputes between various Arab states, and in the Israeli-Palestinian dispute. Egypt is a major ally of the United States.
In the 21st century, Egypt has had a major problem with immigration, as millions of persons from other African nations flee poverty and war. Border control methods can be "harsh, sometimes lethal."
Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are further divided into regions. The regions contain towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital, sometimes carrying the same name as the governorate.
Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.
The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt has received United States foreign aid since 1979 (an average of $2.2 billion per year) and is the third-largest recipient of such funds from the United States following the Iraq war. Egypt’s economy mainly relies on these sources of income: tourism, remittances from Egyptians working abroad and revenues from the Suez Canal.
Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined at the rate of about 600,000 tonnes (590,000 long tons; 660,000 short tons) per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at 1,940 cubic kilometres (470 cu mi), and LNG up to 2012 exported to many countries. In 2013, the Egyptian General Petroleum Co (EGPC) said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow output this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off political unrest, Reuters has reported. Egypt is counting on top liquid natural gas (LNG) exporter Qatar to obtain additional gas volumes in summer, while encouraging factories to plan their annual maintenance for those months of peak demand, said EGPC chairman, Tarek El Barkatawy. Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since 2008 and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas.
Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market. In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms. Some major economic reforms undertaken by the government since 2003 include a dramatic slashing of customs and tariffs. A new taxation law implemented in 2005 decreased corporate taxes from 40% to the current 20%, resulting in a stated 100% increase in tax revenue by the year 2006.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Egypt increased considerably before the removal of Hosni Mubarak, exceeding $6 billion in 2006, due to economic liberalisation and privatization measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin. Since the fall of Hosni Mubarak in 2011, Egypt has experienced a drastic fall in both foreign investment and tourism revenues, followed by a 60% drop in foreign exchange reserves, a 3% drop in growth, and a rapid devaluation of the Egyptian pound.
Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant. Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth. The government promised major reconstruction of the country's infrastructure, using money paid for the newly acquired third mobile license ($3 billion) by Etisalat in 2006. In the Corruption Perceptions Index 2013, Egypt was ranked 114 out of 177.
Egypt's most prominent multinational companies are the Orascom Group and Raya Contact Center. The information technology (IT) sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises. Some of these companies are the Xceed Contact Center, Raya, E Group Connections and C3. The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement.
An estimated 2.7 million Egyptians abroad contribute actively to the development of their country through remittances (US$7.8 billion in 2009), as well as circulation of human and social capital and investment. Remittances, money earned by Egyptians living abroad and sent home, reached a record US$21 billion in 2012, according to the World Bank.
Egyptian society is moderately unequal in terms of income distribution, with an estimated 35 - 40% of Egypt's population earning less than the equivalent of $2 a day, while only around 2–3% may be considered wealthy.
Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy. More than 12.8 million tourists visited Egypt in 2008, providing revenues of nearly $11 billion. The tourism sector employs about 12% of Egypt's workforce. Tourism Minister Hisham Zaazou told industry professionals and reporters that tourism generated some $9.4 billion in 2012, a slight increase over the $9 billion seen in 2011.
The Giza Necropolis is Egypt's most iconic site. It is also Egypt's most popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularised in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of those wonders still in existence.
Egypt has a wide range of beaches situated on the Mediterreanean and the Red Sea that extend to over 3,000 km. The Red Sea has serene waters, coloured coral reefs, rare fish and beautiful mountains. The Akba Gulf beaches also provide facilities for practising sea sports. Safaga tops the Red Sea zone with its beautiful location on the Suez Gulf. Last but not least, Sharm el-Sheikh (or City of Peace), Hurghada, Luxor (known as world's greatest open air museum/ or City of the 1/3 of world monuments), Dahab, Ras Sidr, Marsa Alam, Safaga and the northern coast of the Mediterranean are major tourist’s destinations of the recreational tourism.
With a lot of touristic activities in Egypt it's considered a fun place for historical, religious, medical and entertainment tourism.
Transport in Egypt is centred in Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile.
The main line of the nation's 40,800-kilometer (25,400 mi) railway network which is the second oldest railway network in the history runs from Alexandria to Aswan and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. The badly maintained vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 21,000 miles, consisting of 28 line, 796 stations, 1800 train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.
The Cairo Metro in Egypt is the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa and the Arab World. It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds. The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future.
Egypt is considered one of the pioneer countries in using air transport having established its most important and main flag carrier airline of Egypt, EgyptAir in 1932, 100% owned by the Egyptian Government. The airline is based at Cairo International Airport, its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplane.
The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important center of the maritime transport in the Middle East, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Said and the southern terminus is Port Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 km (1.9 mi) from the half-way point. the canal is 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long, 24 m (79 ft) deep and 205 metres (673 ft) wide as of 2010. It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km (14 mi), the canal itself of 162.25 km (100.82 mi) and the southern access channel of 9 km (5.6 mi). The canal is a single lane with passing places in the "Ballah By-Pass" and the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez.
|Historical populations in thousands|
|Source: Population in Egypt|
Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East, and the third most populous on the African continent, with about 84 million inhabitants as of 2013. Its population grew rapidly from 1970 to 2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity  enabled by the Green Revolution. Egypt's population was estimated at only 3 million when Napoleon invaded the country in 1798.
Egypt's people are highly urbanised, being concentrated along the Nile (notably Cairo and Alexandria), in the Delta and near the Suez Canal. Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin, or farmers, that reside in rural villages.
Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 91% of the total population. Ethnic minorities include the Abazas, Turks, Greeks, Bedouin Arab tribes living in the eastern deserts and the Sinai Peninsula, the Berber-speaking Siwis (Amazigh) of the Siwa Oasis, and the Nubian communities clustered along the Nile. There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.
According to the International Organization for Migration, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad. Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries (923,600 in Saudi Arabia, 332,600 in Libya, 226,850 in Jordan, 190,550 in Kuwait with the rest elsewhere in the region) and the remaining 30% reside mostly in Europe and North America (318,000 in the United States, 110,000 in Canada and 90,000 in Italy).
Egypt also hosts an unknown number of refugees and asylum seekers, estimated to be between 500,000 and 3 million. There are some 70,000 Palestinian refugees, and about 150,000 recently arrived Iraqi refugees, but the number of the largest group, the Sudanese, is contested.[nb 1] The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism. Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities.
Among the people of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.
The official language of the Republic is Modern Standard Arabic. The spoken languages are: Egyptian Arabic (68%), Sa'idi Arabic (29%), Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic (1.6%), Sudanese Arabic (0.6%), Domari (0.3%), Nobiin (0.3%), Beja (0.1%), Siwi and others. Additionally, Greek, Armenian and Italian are the main languages of immigrants. In Alexandria in the 19th century there was a large community of Italian Egyptians and Italian was the "lingua franca" of the city.
Historical Egyptian languages, also known as Copto-Egyptian, consist of ancient Egyptian and Coptic, and form a separate branch among the family of Afro-Asiatic languages. The "Koiné" dialect of the Greek language, though not native to Egypt, was important in Hellenistic Alexandria. It was used extensively in the philosophy and science of that culture. Later translations from Greek to Arabic became the subject of study by Arab scholars.
Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion. The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. An estimated 90% are identified as Muslim, 9% as Coptic Christians, and 1% as other Christian denominations. [nb 2] Non-denominational Muslims form roughly 12% of the population.
After Islam arrived in the 7th century, Egypt emerged as a center of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat, Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law. It is estimated that 15 million Egyptians follow native Sufi orders,[page needed] with the Sufi leadership asserting that the numbers are much greater as many Egyptian Sufis are not officially registered with a Sufi order. There is also a minority of Shi'a. The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs estimates the Shia population at one to 2.2 million and could measure as much as three million. The Ahmadiyya population is estimated at less than 50 thousand, whereas the Salafi (ultra-conservative) population is estimated at five to six million. Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and has been dubbed "the city of 1,000 minarets".
Of the Christian minority in Egypt over 90% belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Christian Church. Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church of Egypt and various other Protestant denominations. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, the largest formerly being the Christians of Syro-Lebanese, or "Levantine", descent who belong to Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Maronite Catholic denominations. Syro-Lebanese Christians formerly had a much larger community in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the adoption of laws of nationalisation. Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities, with Italian Egyptians largely making up the Roman Catholic community.
Egypt hosts two major religious institutions, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, established in the middle of the 1st century CE by Saint Mark the Evangelist, and Al-Azhar University, founded in 970 CE by the Fatimids as the first[dubious ] Islamic University in the world.
Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Other faiths and minority Muslim sects practised by Egyptians, such as the small Bahá'í and Ahmadi community, are not recognised by the state, and face persecution. Individuals, particularly Baha'is and atheists, wishing to include such religions on their mandatory state issued identification cards are denied this ability (see Egyptian identification card controversy), and are put in the position of either not obtaining required identification or lying about their faith. A 2008 court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.
Largest cities or towns of Egypt
world-gazetteer Estimates for 2012
|4||Shubra El-Kheima||Qalyubia||1,072,951||14||Zagazig||Al Sharqia||314,331|
|5||Port Said||Port Said||607,353||15||Damietta||Damietta||299,296|
|9||El-Mahalla El-Kubra||Gharbia||458,297||19||Beni Suef||Beni Suef||223,789|
Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world, and contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television. Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the 1950s and 1960s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arab world.
The work of early 19th-century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles. Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi, who themselves studied the history, language and antiquities of Egypt.
Egypt's renaissance peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the work of people like Muhammad Abduh, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Muhammad Loutfi Goumah, Tawfiq el-Hakim, Louis Awad, Qasim Amin, Salama Moussa, Taha Hussein and Mahmoud Mokhtar. They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.
The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids, temples and monumental tombs. Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep, the Sphinx, and the temple of Abu Simbel. Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef, to Mahmoud Mokhtar's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous. The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital.
Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature. Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. It is an important cultural element in the life of Egypt. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Middle East. The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular. Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist activism, and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.
Egypt's media industry has flourished, today with more than thirty satellite channels and over one hundred motion pictures produced each year.
Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World, attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control. Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution; however, many laws still restrict this right.
Cinema in Egypt
Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. In 1936, Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb, emerged as the leading Egyptian studios, a role the company retained for three decades. For more than 100 year, more than 4000 films have been produced in Egypt, three quarters of the total Arab production. Egypt in considered the leading country in the field of cinema in the Middle East. Actors from all over the Arab World seeks for appearing in the Egyptian Cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.
Music of Egypt
Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world. Egyptians used music instruments since then. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu-l Hamuli, Almaz and Mahmud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish, Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt. Prominent contemporary Egyptian pop singers include Amr Diab and Mohamed Mounir.
Dance in Egypt
Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles - raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi.
Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Thus, it has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and also has been through so many eras, starting from pre-historic age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages. Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.
The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, is a planned museum of artefacts of ancient Egypt. Described as the largest archaeological museum in the world, the museum is scheduled to open in 2015. The museum will be sited on 50 hectares (120 acres) of land approximately two kilometres from the Giza Necropolis and is part of a new master plan for the plateau.
Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid. They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion. Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights (local lanterns known as fawanees) and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.
The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim (Coptic: Ϭⲱⲙ‘ⲛⲛⲓⲥⲓⲙ shom en nisim) has been celebrated by Egyptians for thousands of years, typically between the Egyptian months of Paremoude (April) and Pashons (May), following Easter Sunday.
Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed.
Some consider koshari (a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni) to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to koshari. In addition, ful medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is also used in making falafel (also known as "ta'meyya"), which may have originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East. Garlic fried with coriander is added to mulukhiyya, a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.
Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world. Al Ahly is the most successful club of the 20th century in the African continent according to CAF, closely followed by their rivals Zamalek SC. Al Ahly was named in 2000 by the Confederation of African Football as the "African Club of the Century". Al Ahly is currently the most successful club in terms of international titles won together Boca Juniors and A.C Milan (18).
The Egyptian national football team won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in 2006, 2008, and 2010. considered the most successful African national team, Egypt has only qualified to the FIFA World Cup two times only though.
Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been known for its fierce competition in international championships since the 1930s. Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players.
Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics. Further, the team has won a record number of 16 medals at the African Championship.
In 1999, Egypt hosted the IHF World Men's Handball Championship, and in 2001, the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching the fourth place. Egypt has won first place five times in the African Men's Handball Championship, five times second place, and four times third place. In addition to that, it also championed the Mediterranean Games in 2013, the Beach Handball World Championships in 2004 and the Summer Youth Olympics in 2010.
Egypt has hosted several international competitions. the last one was 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup which took place between 24 September - 16 October 2009.
The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt has started in 1854 with the first telegram line connecting Cairo & Alexandria launching. while the first telephone line between the two cities was installed in 1881. In September 1999 a national project for technology renaissance was announced which reflects the interest the Egyptian government gave for necessity of developing the information technology industry in Egypt then.
- Mobinil owned by Global Telecom Holding and Orange S.A..
- Vodafone Egypt owned by Vodafone and Telecom Egypt.
- Etisalat owned by Emirates Telecommunication Corporation.
Egypt Post which was established in 1865 is one of the oldest institutions in Egypt, Egypt is considered one of the countries that contributed in establishing the Universal Postal Union along with another 21 country named initially under the name "General Postal Union", as a result of the Treaty of Bern signed on 9 October 1874. Egypt also contributed in establishing The Arab Postal Union and The African Postal Union.
Egypt Post's clients overtook the number of 15 million. Egypt Post is an economic organisation contributes directly in achieving the country's plan for of achieving the development in this field.
The adult literacy rate in 2010 was estimated at 72.0%.
A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers. Under British occupation investment in education was curbed drastically, and secular public schools, which had previously been free, began to charge fees.
In the 1950s, president Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. The Egyptian curriculum influenced other Arab education systems, which often employed Egyptian-trained teachers. Demand soon outstripped the level of available state resources, causing the quality of public education to deteriorate. Today this trend has culminated in poor teacher–student ratios (often around one to fifty) and persistent gender inequality.
Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six. After grade 9, students are tracked into one of two strands of secondary education: general or technical schools. General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma, the leaving exam.
Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five. Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in Egypt are Cairo University (1203rd worldwide), American University in Cairo (1306th) and Mansoura University (1712th). QS World University Rankings for 2013 top-ranking universities in Egypt are American University in Cairo (348 worldwide), Cairo University (551-600) and Ain Shams University (601-650).
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 4.66% of the country's GDP. In 2009, there were 16.04 physicians and 33.80 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. The life expectancy at birth was 73.20 years in 2011, or 71.30 years for males and 75.20 years for females. Egypt spends 3.7 percent of its gross domestic product on health including treatment costs 22 percent incurred by citizens and the rest by the state. 
The state is keen on extending health insurance coverage to include non-insured new categories. The total number of the insured beneficiaries reached 37.300 million, of which about 27.92 million under laws and a number of 11.208 million insured child under ministerial decrees, showing an insurance coverage of about 51.6 percent of Egypt’s population.
- Index of Egypt-related articles
- Outline of ancient Egypt
- Outline of Egypt
- Egypt through the eyes of the World.
- See The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants at the Wayback Machine (archived September 14, 2007) for a lower estimate. The "The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights". Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. states on its web site that in 2000 the World Council of Churches claimed that "between two and five million Sudanese have come to Egypt in recent years". Most Sudanese refugees come to Egypt in the hope of resettling in Europe or the US.
- The population of Egypt is estimated as being 90% Muslim, 9% Coptic Christian and 1% other Christian by the US Department of State ("Background Note: Egypt". US Department of State. 2010-11-10. Retrieved 2011-03-05.); the CIA World Factbook ("Egypt". CIA. 2008-09-04.) and the United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office ("Egypt". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2008-08-15.). Microsoft Encarta Online similarly estimates the Sunni population at 90% of the total. (Egypt. Microsoft Encarta Online. 2008-09-30. Archived from the original on 2009-10-21.). The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life gave a higher estimate of the Muslim population at 94.6% ("Mapping The Global Muslim Population" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. p. 8. Retrieved 25 July 2011.)
- Goldschmidt, Arthur (1988). Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-86531-182-4. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity."
- "Background Note: Egypt". United States Department of State Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Pierre Crabitès (1935). Ibrahim of Egypt. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-81121-7. Retrieved 10 February 2013. "... on July 9, 1805, Constantinople conferred upon Muhammad Ali the pashalik of Cairo ..."
- "Population Clock". Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. 27 April 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Population in Censuses by Sex & Sex Ratio (1882–2006)". Egypt State Information Service.
- "Egypt". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Constitutional Declaration: A New Stage in the History of the Great Egyptian People". Egypt State Information Service. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
- Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', International Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687.
- Hoffmeier, James K (1 October 2007). "Rameses of the Exodus narratives is the 13th B.C. Royal Ramesside Residence". Trinity Journal: 1.
- Rosalie, David (1997). Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh's Workforce. Routledge. p. 18.
- Antonio Loprieno, "Egyptian and Coptic Phonology", in Phonologies of Asia and Africa (including the Caucasus). Vol 1 of 2. Ed: Alan S Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1997: p 449
- "A Brief History of Alchemy". UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL SCHOOL OF CHEMISTRY. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- Breasted, James Henry; Peter A. Piccione (2001). Ancient Records of Egypt. University of Illinois Press. pp. 76;40. ISBN 978-0-252-06975-8.
- Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
- "The Nile Valley 6000–4000 BC Neolithic". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- Bard, Kathryn A. Ian Shaw, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 69.
- "The Fall of the Egyptian Old Kingdom". BBC. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "The Kushite Conquest of Egypt". Ancientsudan.org. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Bowman, Alan K (1996). Egypt after the Pharaohs 332 BC – AD 642 (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 0-520-20531-6.
- Stanwick, Paul Edmond (2003). Portraits of the Ptolemies: Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77772-8.
- "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 14 December 2011. See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire"
- Kamil, Jill. Coptic Egypt: History and Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1997. p. 39
- El-Daly, Okasha (2005). Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London: UCL Press. p. 140.
- Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1991) . "The Mideast Heartland". Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 243–244. ISBN 978-0-19-506774-3.
- "Egypt – Major Cities". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Donald Quataert (2005-08-11). The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-139-44591-7. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
- "Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt, Study Shows". ScienceDaily. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923): Article 17 of the treaty refers to Egypt and Sudan.
- Izzeddin, Nejla M. Abu (1981). Nasser of the Arabs: an Arab assessment. Third World Centre for Research and Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-86199-012-2.
- Fahmy, Khaled (1997). All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt. pp. 119–47.
- Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs, p 2.
- Anglo French motivation: Derek Hopwood, Egypt: Politics and Society 1945–1981. London, 1982, George Allen & Unwin. p 11.
- De facto protectorate: Joan Wucher King, Historical Dictionary of Egypt. Metuchen, New Jersey, USA; 1984; Scarecrow. p 17.
- Jankowski, James. Egypt, A Short History. p. 111.
- Jankowski, James. Egypt, A Short History. p. 112.
- "Egypt". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Samir A. Mutawi (18 July 2002). Jordan in the 1967 War. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-521-52858-0. "On 26 May he declared, "The battle will be a general one and our basic objective will be to destroy Israel"
- "The Emergency Law in Egypt". International Federation for Human Rights. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, p.120
- USMC Major Michael C. Jordan (1997). "The 1973 Arab-Israeli War: Arab Policies, Strategies, and Campaigns". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
- Amin, Galal. Egypt's economic predicament : a study in the interaction of external pressure, political folly, and social tension in Egypt, 1960-1990, 1995
- Vatikiotis, P.J. (1991). The history of modern Egypt: from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (4. ed.). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-297-82034-5.
- Cambanis, Thanassis (11 September 2010). "Succession Gives Army a Stiff Test in Egypt". The New York Times (Egypt). Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Murphy, Caryle Passion for Islam : Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Scribner, 2002, p.4
- "Solidly ahead of oil, Suez Canal revenues, and remittances, tourism is Egypt's main hard currency earner at $6.5 billion per year." (in 2005) ... concerns over tourism's future. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
- Gilles Kepel, Jihad, 2002
- Dunne, Michele (January 2006). "Evaluating Egyptian Reform". Carnegie Papers: Middle East Series (66): 4.
- "Mubarak throws presidential race wide open". Business Today Egypt. 2005-03-10. Archived from the original on 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Democracy on the Nile: The story of Ayman Nour and Egypt's problematic attempt at free elections". Weeklystandard.com. 27 March 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Gomez, Edward M (2005-09-12). "Hosni Mubarak's pretend democratic election". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2005-09-15. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Egyptian vote marred by violence". Christian Science Monitor. 26 May 2005. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "United States "Deeply Troubled" by Sentencing of Egypt's Nour". U.S. Department of State. 2005-12-24. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Egypt: Overview of human rights issues in Egypt". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Egypt torture centre, report says". BBC News. 11 April 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Egypt rejects torture criticism". BBC News. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Anger over Egypt vote timetable". BBC News. 20 March 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "NDP Insider: Military will ensure transfer of power". US Department of State. 30 July 2009.
- "Mubarak Resigns As Egypt's President, Armed Forces To Take Control". Huffington Post. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (11 February 2010). "Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader". BBC. 11 February 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Hope, Christopher; Swinford, Steven (15 February 2011). "WikiLeaks: Egypt's new man at the top 'was against reform'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Constitutional Proclamation". Egypt State Information Service. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. "The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally."
- "Egyptian Parliament dissolved, constitution suspended". BBC. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Memmott, Mark (2011-11-28). "Egypt's Historic Day Proceeds Peacefully, Turnout High For Elections". Npr.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Egypt's new president moves into his offices, begins choosing a Cabinet". CNN. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Egypt unveils new cabinet, Tantawi keeps defence post". 3 August 2012.
- "Rallies for, against Egypt president's new powers". Associated Press. 23 November. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Egypt's President Mursi assumes sweeping powers". BBC News. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Spencer, Richard (23 November 2012). "Violence breaks out across Egypt as protesters decry Mohammed Morsi's constitutional 'coup'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Egypt Sees Largest Clash Since Revolution". Wall Street Journal. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Fleishman, Jeffrey (6 December 2012). "Morsi refuses to cancel Egypt's vote on constitution". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (3 July 2013). "Army Ousts Egypt’s President; Morsi Denounces ‘Military Coup’". New York Times. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "Egypt protests: Hundreds killed after police storm pro-Morsi camps". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 15 Aug 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Abuse claims rife as Egypt admits jailing 16,000 Islamists in eight months". The Independent. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Egypt sentences 683 to death in latest mass trial of dissidents". The Washington Post. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Egyptian court sentences 529 people to death". The Washington Post. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Egyptian court sentences Muslim Brotherhood leader to life in prison". Reuters. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Egypt constitution 'approved by 98.1 percent'". Al Jazeera English. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Egypt's new constitution gets 98% 'yes' vote,First vote of post-Morsi era shows strength of support for direction country has taken since overthrow of president in July, Patrick Kingsley in Cairo, theguardian.com, Saturday 18 January 2014 18.47 GMT, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/18/egypt-constitution-yes-vote-mohamed-morsi
- "Egypt's El-Sisi bids military farewell, says he will run for presidency". Ahram Online. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Former army chief scores landslide victory in Egypt presidential polls". Egypt News.Net. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "Sisi elected Egypt president by landslide". 30 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Egypt election: Sisi secures landslide win". BBC. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "World Factbook area rank order". Cia.gov. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Land use and Coastal Management in the Third Countries: Egypt as a case" (PDF). Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B.; de Blij (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-470-57647-2. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Soliman, KH. Rainfall over Egypt. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 80, issue 343, p. 104.
- "Marsa Matruh, Egypt". Weatherbase.com. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Samenow, Jason (13 December 2013). "Biblical snowstorm: Rare flakes in Cairo, Jerusalem paralyzed by over a foot". The Washington Post.
- "Contingency planning for rising sea levels in Egypt | IRIN News, March 2008". Irinnews.org. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- EL DEEB and KEATH, Sarah and Lee. "Islamist claims victory in Egypt president vote". Associated Press. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "List of Parties". Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "Egypt: National Strategy and Action Plan for Biodiversity Conservation". Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "The Micheli Guide to Fungal Conservation". Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- A.M. Abdel-Azeem, The History, Fungal Biodiversity, Conservation, and Future Perspectives for Mycology in Egypt IMA Fungus 1 (2): 123-142 (2010).
- "Legislative Branch". CIA World Factbook.
- "Egypt to Hold Presidential Polls First: Interim President". Ahram Online. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "El-Sisi wins Egypt's presidential race with 96.91%". English.Ahram.org. Ahram Online. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "What Sunday's Massive Anti-Morsi Protests in Egypt Looked Like – Abby Ohlheiser". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "Who's Who: Members of Egypt's 50-member constitution committee". Al-Ahram. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- "Egypt". Freedom in the World 2013. Freedom House.
- Jankowski, James. "Egypt and Early Arab Nationalism" in Rashid Khalidi, ed. The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990, pp. 244–45
- Dawisha, Adeed (2003). Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 264–65, 267.
- Brown, Nathan J. "Mechanisms of Accountability in Arab Governance: The Present and Future of Judiciaries and Parliaments in the Arab World". Programme on Governance in the Arab Region. Archived from the original on 2012-06-05.
- "Incorporating Sharia into legal systems". BBC News. 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Egypt Gender Equality Profile". UNICEF.
- "Egyptian constitution 'approved' in referendum". BBC News. 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Legislation Egypt". Lexadin.nl. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "7 Egyptian Christians, Florida pastor sentenced to death for anti-Islam film". Fox News. 2012-11-28.
- BBC (18 January 2014). "BBC News - Egypt referendum: '98% back new constitution'". BBC Online. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Egypt Military Strength". Globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Steinitz, Yuval (2006-12-04). "Not the peace we expected". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Katz, Yaacov (2007-01-15). "Egypt to launch first spy satellite". The Jerusalem Post.
- Stephen Clark (16 April 2014). "Egyptian reconnaissance satellite launched by Soyuz". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Global Firepower. "Navy Ship Strength by Country".
- "Scenesetter: President Mubarak's visit to Washington". US Department of State. 19 May 2009.
- Cambanis, Thanassis (11 September 2010). "Succession Gives Army a Stiff Test in Egypt". New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Egyptian Organization for Human Rights". En.eohr.org. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Law No. 94 of 2003 Promulgating The National Council for Human Rights". Nchregypt.org. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Egyptian National Council for Human Rights Against Human Rights NGOs". EOHR. 3 June 2003. Archived from the original on 2003-07-01. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "The Egyptian Human Rights Council: The Apple Falls Close to the Tree". ANHRI. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "RELIGION: Few States Enjoy Freedom of Faith, Report Says – IPS". Ipsnews.net. 17 December 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Global Restrictions on Religion – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Pewforum.org. 17 December 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "USCIRF Watch List – USCIRF". Uscirf.gov. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Muslim Publics Divided on Hamas and Hezbollah". Pew Global Attitudes Project.
- "Christianity's Modern-Day Martyrs: Victims of Radical Islam – Rising Islamic Extremism Is Putting Pressure on Christians in Muslim Nations". Abcnews.go.com. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Egypt, International Religious Freedom Report 2008". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 19 September 2008.
- Johnston, Cynthia (29 January 2008). "Egypt Baha'is win court fight over identity papers". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- Mohsen, Manar (16 August 2013). "Health Ministry raises death toll of Wednesday's clashes to 638". Daily News Egypt. Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Memory of a Mass Killing Becomes Another Casualty of Egyptian Protests". The New York Times. 13 November 2013.
- Cumming-Bruce, Nick (25 March 2014). "U.N. Expresses Alarm Over Egyptian Death Sentences". The New York Times.
- "Egyptian court sentences nearly 530 to death". Washington Post. March 24. [dead link]
- A coronation flop: President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi fails to bring enough voters to the ballot box, economist.com.
- "Egypt sentences to death 529 supporters of Mohamed Morsi". The Guardian. March 24, 2014.
- "Egypt's interim Cabinet officially labels Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group". CNN.
- "Massive Israel protests hit universities" (Egyptian Mail, 16 March 2010) "According to most Egyptians, almost 31 years after a peace treaty was signed between Egypt and Israel, having normal ties between the two countries is still a potent accusation and Israel is largely considered to be an enemy country"
- Soussi, Alasdair (9 November 2008). "Desperate on the Border". Jerusalem Report. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Egypt: Economy". LookLex Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- Egypt Country Profile. Undp.org.eg (2011-02-11). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
- "Egypt to reduce natural gas exports to avoid energy crisis". AMEinfo.com. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Enders, Klaus. "Egypt: Reforms Trigger Economic Growth". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 February 2011. "In its most recent review of Egypt's economy, the IMF has said the expansion has broadened from energy, construction, and telecommunications to labor-intensive sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing."
- Kingsley, Patrick (16 May 2013). "Egypt suffering worst economic crisis since 1930s". London: Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "IRIN Middle East | Egypt: Corruption hampering development, says opposition report | Breaking News". Irinnews.org. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Rania Al Malky. "et — Full Story". Egypttoday.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Fatima El Saadani (August 2006). "Etisalat Wins Third License". Business Today. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- "Egypt ranks 114th on corruption scale". 3 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Migration and Development in Egypt: Facts and Figures. International Organization for Migration. 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- Saifur Rahman (April 2013). "Global remittance flow grows 10.77% to $514 billion in 2012: World Bank". Gulf News. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Lauren E. Bohn, Sarah Lynch (8 February 2011). "Egypt Over the Brink, interview with Tarek Osman". Foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Dziadosz, Alexander (2009-10-20). "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared". Reuters Africa. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Farouk, Dalia (2012-12-27). "Egypt tourism shows little recovery in 2012". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
- "The limits of a Green Revolution?". BBC News. 29 March 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Posted 8 April 2000 by admin (8 April 2000). "Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy". Foodfirst.org. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Egypt – Population". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Refugees in Egypt". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Iraq: from a Flood to a Trickle: Egypt". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Egypt. Pew Research Center. 2010.
- "Religions". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
- Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
- "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Kristin Deasy (October 2012). "The Sufis’ Choice: Egypt’s Political Wild Card". World Affairs Journal. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Hassan Ammar (14 June 2013). "Sufis In Egypt Thrive With More Than 15 Million Despite Attacks By Islamist Hardliners". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Hoffman, Valerie J. (1995). Sufism, Mystics, and Saints in Modern Egypt. University of South Carolina Press.
- About Col. (ret.) Dr. Jacques Neriah (2012-09-23). "Egypt’s Shiite Minority: Between the Egyptian Hammer and the Iranian Anvil". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Tim Marshall (2013-06-25). "Egypt: Attack On Shia Comes At Dangerous Time". Sky News. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Mohammad Hassan Khalil. Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others. Oxford University Press. p. 297. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Venetia Rainey (2011-04-20). "What is Salafism and should we be worried?". Theweek.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Robin Barton (19 February 2001). "Cairo: Welcome to the city of 1,000 minarets". The Independent (London).
- Who are the Christians in the Middle East?. Betty Jane Bailey. 18 June 2009. ISBN 978-0-8028-1020-5.
- "CATHOLICS IN EGYPT REFLECT CHURCH'S RICH AND VARIED TRADITIONS". L'Osservatore Romano. Weekly Edition in English: 6, 7. 1 March 2000.
- al-Shahat, Abdel Moneim (18 February 2012). "Shahat: Baha'is threaten Egypt's national security". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- "Egypt Ahmadis detained under emergency law: rights group". May 14, 2010. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- "MIDEAST: Egypt Makes Cultural Clout Count (IPS, Oct. 29, 2009)". Ipsnews.net. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Raymon Kondos (15 February). "The Egyptian Identity: Pharaohs, Moslems, Arabs, Africans, Middle Easterners or Mediterranean People?". Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- El-Daly, Okasha (2005). Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London: UCL Press. p. 29.
- Jankowski, James. Egypt, A Short History. p. 130.
- Edwards, Amelia, THE LITERATURE AND RELIGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT., retrieved 2007-09-30
- "Global influence of Egyptian culture". Egypt State Information Service. 4 February 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- Vatikiotis, P.J. (1991). The history of modern Egypt: from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (4. ed.). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 486. ISBN 978-0-297-82034-5.
- "Country profiles: Egypt". BBC News. 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Plus ca Change: The Role of the Media in Egypt's First Contested Presidential Elections". Tbsjournal.com. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Freedom House 2007 report". Freedomhouse.org. 10 May 2004. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Darwish, Mustafa (1998). Dream Makers on the Nile: A Portrait of Egyptian Cinema. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. pp. 12–13.
- Film Festivals (1 December 2005). "Cairo Film Festival information". Ukhotmovies.com. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Music of Ancient Egypt, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, University of Michigan.
- Nancy Farghalli (2006-07-25). "Marketplace: Egypt's next big thing". Marketplace. American Public Media. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
- "BBC Sport Academy | Al-Ahly v Zamalek". BBC News. 5 August 2002. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "1950 World Championship for Men". FIBA. 9 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Egypt – 1952 Olympic Games; Tournament for Men". FIBA. 9 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Historical synopsis of Telecom Egypt's developments".
- "LTE network plans: Middle East and Africa". telecoms.com. Retrieved May 2014.
- "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15-24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
- "Education in Egypt: Key Challenges". Chatham House. March 2012.
- Higher education in Egypt (2010 ed.). OECD. 2010. p. 60. ISBN 978-92-64-08434-6.
- "Egypt". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- QS World University Rankings (2013)
- "Health". SESRIC.
- "Demography". SESRIC.
- "Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices". WHO. 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "SIS". State Information Service.
|Find more about Egypt at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Egypt's Government Services Portal (Arabic, English)
- Egypt Information Portal (Arabic, English)
- Egypt Information and Decision Support Center (Arabic, English)
- Egypt State Information Services (Arabic, English, French)
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Egyptian Tourist Authority
- Country Profile from the BBC News
- Egypt entry at The World Factbook
- Egypt web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- Egypt profiles of people and institutions provided by the Arab Decision project
- Egypt at DMOZ
- Wikimedia Atlas of Egypt
- Geographic data related to Egypt at OpenStreetMap
- Egypt Maps – Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin
- Egypt travel guide from Wikivoyage
- History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria in the Light of Recent Discovery by Leonard William King, at Project Gutenberg.
- Egyptian History (urdu)
- By Nile and Tigris - a narrative of journeys in Egypt and Mesopotamia on behalf of the British museum between 1886 and 1913, by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, 1920 (DjVu and layered PDF formats)
- Napoleon on the Nile: Soldiers, Artists, and the Rediscovery of Egypt.
|Libya|| Gaza Strip
|Sudan||Sudan||Gulf of Aqaba