National museums of Canada
National museums of Canada (NMC) is the corporation name of the National Gallery of Canada, the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Canadian Museum of Nature and the National Museum of Science and Technology. Also within the corporation umbrella are the Canadian Conservation Institute, the Museum Assistance Program, The National Museum Library, and other miscellaneous museum and administrative offices. The NMC Corporation is operated by four Crown corporations, established on July 1, 1990, by the Museums Act (1990): The National Gallery of Canada Corporation, the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation, the Canadian Museum of Nature Corporation, and the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation (now the Canada Science and Technology Museum Corporation).
The concept of a national museum in Canada had its beginnings on May 16, 1856 when the government of the Province of Canada authorized the Geological Survey of Canada to establish a Geological Museum in Montreal (then the capital of the province). After a later move to Ottawa, the scope of this museum gradually expanded until the National Museum of Canada was officially created from what was then the Museum Branch of the federal Department of Mines on January 5, 1927. From April 1, 1968, the newly created National Museums of Canada Corporation operated four museums, until 1990 when the four present corporations came into being.
Pier 21 was jointly opened in Halifax, Nova Scotia by the Government of Canada, Pier 21 Society, Pier 21 Foundation and the Halifax Port Authority in 1999 and operated mostly as a non-profit site. As of February 2011, this museum became known henceforth as the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21, and so there are now six national museums in Canada. This is the second national museum not within the National Capital Region. The other five Canadian National museums are
- Canada Science and Technology Museum which encompasses the Canada Agriculture Museum as well as the Canada Aviation Museum
- Canadian Museum of Nature (Was formerly named the National Museum of Natural Sciences)
- Canadian Museum of History which encompasses the Canadian War Museum (formerly named the Canadian Museum of Civilization; and formerly the National Museum of Man)
- National Gallery of Canada which encompasses the Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography
- Canadian Museum for Human Rights which was opened in October 2014.
The Canadian National Human Rights Museum (CMHR) was estimated to be constructed for CA$100 million in 2007 and projected to open in 2014 in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The groundbreaking ceremony occurred in December 2008.
- Bothwell, Robert (2009). "National Museums of Canada". Museums, Galleries and Archives. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- "Pier 21, Canada's Museum of Immigration". Retrieved 2009-07-01. /
- "PM announces Canada's newest national museum at Pier 21". News Releases. Government of Canada. June 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- "Renewal Project: The Victoria Memorial Museum Building (VMMB): The Birthplace of Canada's National Museums". Canadian Museum of Nature. Government of Canada. July 29, 2004. Retrieved 2009-07-01.[dead link]
- "Backgrounder: Canada’s newest national museum at Pier 21". Office of the Prime Minister. Government of Canada. June 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- Ghoreishi, Omid. "Canadian National Human Rights Museum Will Break New Ground". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- "Our Minister and Ministers of State - The Honourable James Moore speech: Ground-Breaking Ceremony for the Canadian Museum for Human Rights". Canada Heritage. Government of Canada. December 19, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
- Canada Science and Technology Museum Corporation
- Canadian Museum of Nature corporate reports
- National Gallery of Canada corporate reporting