National parks of Greece

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Greece is characterized by an extremely fragmented, rugged landscape hosting a great diversity of ecosystems and an outstanding biodiversity. Almost 5% of its extensive coastline consists of ecologically sensitive wetlands. Two thirds of the total population live no further then 2km from the coast and most of the important urban centers are coastal, while almost all of the tourist infrastructure is divided among islands and the coastal mainland.

Greek climate[edit]

Greece's climate is divided into three classes: A Mediterranean climate features mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Temperatures rarely reach extremes, although snowfalls do occur occasionally even in Athens, Cyclades or Crete during the winter. An alpine climate is found primarily in Western Greece (Epirus, Central Greece, Thessaly, Western Macedonia as well as central parts of the Peloponnese like Achaea, Arkadia and parts of Lakonia where the Alpine range pass by). A temperate climate is found in Central and Eastern Macedonia as well as in Thrace at places like Komotini, Xanthi and northern Evros; with cold, damp winters and hot, dry summers.

History[edit]

Such climatic and biological diversity, along with the rich flora and fauna that comes with it, made the need for the creation of national parks obvious as early as 1937, when the government of Ioannis Metaxas, first issued a law that established national parks in Greece. In 1938 the first national park in Greece was established, the Mount Olympus National Park, followed by the immediate creation of the Parnassos National Park.

The number of Greek national parks has grown ever since to a full number of ten:

Name Established Area
(ha)
Map Photo
Ainos National Park 1962 2.862
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Mount Ainos in Kefalonia Greece.jpg
Alonnisos Marine Park 1992 208.713
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Alonisos-cave-0a.jpg
Oeta National Park 1966 7.210
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Oiti05.jpg
Olympus National Park 1938 3.988
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Mount Olympus.jpg
Parnassos National Park 1938 3.513
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Parnassos1.jpg
Parnitha National Park 1961 3.812
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Tatoi King's Forest.jpg
Pindus National Park 1966 6.927
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Mountains to the North.jpg
Prespes National Park 1974 19.470
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
St.Ahil from Langi.JPG
Samaria National Park 1962 4.850
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Samaria Gorge 18.jpg
Sounio National Park 1974 3.500
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Off the Cape Sounion.jpg
Vikos–Aoös National Park 1973 12.600
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
120 2821-Aoos-Onno-Zweers.jpg
Zakynthos National Marine Park 1999 13.500
National parks of Greece is located in Greece
National parks of Greece
Marathonisi.jpg

Layout[edit]

Each national park consists of a core and the area surrounding it. According to Greek Law the core cannot be smaller than 15,000,000 square meters, with the exception of marine national parks. The surrounding area must be larger than, or at least equal to, the size of the core.

In the core of the national park, only scientific research, mild recreational activities, and the acquiring of environment related information are permitted. The creation of menageries, fish farms, the building of roads, outposts, camping and hiking infrastructures, along with woodcutting infrastructures and pastures are permitted in the surrounding area of the national park.