National personal autonomy
The Austromarxist principle of national personal autonomy ("personal principle"), developed by Otto Bauer in his 1907 book Die Nationalitätenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie (The question of nationalities and social democracy) was seen by him a way of gathering the geographically divided members of the same nation, "organize nations not in territorial bodies but in simple association of persons", thus radically disjoining the nation from the territory and making of the nation a non-territorial association. The other ideological founders of the concept were another Austromarxist, Karl Renner, in his 1899 essay Staat und Nation (State and Nation), and the Jewish Labour Bundist Vladimir Medem, in his 1904 essay Di sotsial-demokratie un di natsionale frage (Social democracy and the national question).
Medem's Social democracy and the national question
In his 1904 text, Social democracy and the national question, Vladimir Medem exposed his version of the concept:
"Let us consider the case of a country composed of several national groups, e.g. Poles, Lithuanians and Jews. Each national group would create a separate movement. All citizens belonging to a given national group would join a special organisation that would hold cultural assemblies in each region and a general cultural assembly for the whole country. The assemblies would be given financial powers of their own: either each national group would be entitled to raise taxes on its members, or the state would allocate a proportion of its overall budget to each of them. Every citizen of the state would belong to one of the national groups, but the question of which national movement to join would be a matter of personal choice and no authority would have any control over his decision. The national movements would be subject to the general legislation of the state, but in their own areas of responsibility they would be autonomous and none of them would have the right to interfere in the affairs of the others".
This principle was later adopted by various parties, among them the Jewish Socialist Workers Party from its foundation in 1906, the Jewish Labour Bund at their August 1912 Conference (when the motion "On National Cultural Autonomy" became part of the Bund's program), the Armenian social democrats, the Russian Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets) at its June 1917's Ninth Congress, the Thessaloniki Ottoman, then Greek Socialist Workers' Federation, the left-wing Zionists (Hashomer Hatzair) in favour of a binational solution in Palestine, the Jewish Folkspartei (inspired by Simon Dubnov who had developed a concept of Jewish autonomy close to Bauer's), and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (DAHR) after 1989.
The whole concept was strongly opposed by the Bolsheviks. Stalin's pamphlet Marxism and the National Question (1913) was their ideological reference on the matter, alongside with Lenin's Critical Remarks on the National Question (December 1913), in particular in the chapter "Cultural-National Autonomy". (Stalin was later People's Commissar of Nationalities from 1917 - 1923.) Lenin's and Stalin's critics of the national personal autonomy concept were later joined by the Catalan Andreu Nin in his article The Austrian School, National Emancipation Movements (1935).
It was adopted as an official policy in the short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1920) and in the interwar Estonian Republic (Law on personal autonomy adopted in 1925), and was included in the Declaration concerning the protection of minorities in Lithuania by the League of Nations in 1925.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union and its satellites regimes, the national personal autonomy is the principle on which legislation applying to ethnic minorities has been enacted e.g. in Estonia (1993 National Minorities Cultural Autonomy Act), Hungary (Act LXXVII of 1993 on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities), Latvia (1991 Law on Unrestricted Development and Right to Cultural Autonomy of Latvia's Nationalities and Ethnic Groups), Lithuania (1989 Law on Ethnic Minorities), Russia (1996 Law on National-Cultural Autonomies) and Ukraine (1992 Law on National Minorities).
- Millet (Ottoman Empire)
- Jewish Autonomism - Kehilla - Asefat ha-Nivharim
- Non-territorial language policy
- Bauer, Otto (2000). Ephraim J. Nimni, ed. The question of nationalities and social democracy. Joseph O'Donnell (Translator). University of Minnesota Press. p. 696. ISBN 978-0-8166-3265-7.
- the whole Renner's essay is reproduced in an English translation in: Ephraim Nimni, ed. (2005). National cultural autonomy and its contemporary critics. Routledge. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-415-24964-5.
- Yiddish: Medem, V. 1943. “Di sotsial-demokratie un di natsionale frage” (1904). Vladimir Medem: Tsum tsvantsikstn yortsayt. New York: New York: Der Amerikaner Reprezentants fun Algemeynem Yidishn Arbeter-Bund (‘Bund’) in Poyln, pp. 173-219.
- Gechtman, Roni (December 2008). "National-Cultural Autonomy and ‘Neutralism’: Vladimir Medem’s Marxist Analysis of the National Question, 1903-1920". Socialist Studies (Thompson, Manitoba: Society for Socialist Studies) III (1). ISSN 1918-2821. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- Plassereaud, Yves (May 2000). "Choose Your Own Nationality or The Forgotten History of Cultural Autonomy". Le Monde diplomatique (in English, transl. from French) (Paris).
- Bill Bowring, "Burial and resurrection, Karl Renner's controversial influence on the "national question" in Russia", in: Ephraim Nimni, ed. (2005). National cultural autonomy and its contemporary critics. Routledge. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-415-24964-5.
- Stalin, Joseph (Prosveshcheniye, Nos. 3-5, March–May 1913). Marxism and the National Question (in English - transl. from Russian). Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
- Lenin, Vladimir (Prosveshcheniye Nos. 10, 11 and 12, October–December 1913). Critical Remarks on the National Question (in English - transl. from Russian). Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
- Nin, Andrés (1935). "Austro-Marxism and the National Question (chapter in National Emancipation Movements)" (in English, transl. from Catalan). Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
- "Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities". The Estonian Institute. 1925. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "Declaration concerning the protection of minorities in Lithuania". League of Nations. 1922. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "National Minorities Cultural Autonomy Act". The Estonian Ministry of Justice. 1993. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "Act LXXVII of 1993 on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities". Minority Electronic Resources. 1993. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "Law on Unrestricted Development and Right to Cultural Autonomy of Latvia's Nationalities and Ethnic Groups (last amended 1994)". UNHCR. 1991. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "Law on ethnic minorities". Minority Electronic Resources. 1989. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- Järve, Priit (July 2002). "National-Cultural Autonomies and Inter-Ethnic Relations in the Kaliningrad Oblast". European Centre for Minority Issues. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "Law on National Minorities". Minority Electronic Resources. 1992. Retrieved 2009-12-02.