Nationalist Liberation Alliance

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Nationalist Liberation Alliance
Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista
Leader José Félix Uriburu
Juan Bautista Molina
Juan Queraltó
Guillermo Patricio Kelly
Founded 1931 (1931)
Dissolved 1955 (1955)
Preceded by Argentine Patriotic League
Succeeded by Civic Revolutionary Movement
Newspaper Combate
Student wing Unión Nacionalista des Estudiantes Secundarios
Ideology Nacionalismo,
Fascism (1931-1936),
Nazism (1936-1954),
Political position Far-right

The Nationalist Liberation Alliance (es: Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), originally known as the Argentine Civic Legion (Legión Cívica Argentina, LCA) from 1931 to 1937,[1] the Alliance of Nationalist Youth (Alianza de la Juventud Nacionalista, AJN) from 1937 to 1943,[2] and then using its final name from 1943 to 1955. It was a Nacionalista and fascist movement.[3]

The movement was heavily influenced by fascism, with its members utilizing the Roman salute, wearing fascist-style uniforms, and marching in military formation.[4] The movement's declaration of principles in 1931 attacked Marxism and democracy and declared support for the creation of a corporatist state like that of Fascist Italy.[5] It cooperated with the Argentine Fascist Party, particularly in the Córdoba region of Argentina.[6] In Córdoba in 1935, the local militia allied with the Argentine Fascist Party and Argentine Nationalist Action to form the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas de Córdoba, which was replaced by the National Fascist Union in 1936. In 1936, its leader General Juan Bautista Molina reorganized the militia to be based upon the organization of the Nazi Party.[7] General Molina wanted an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.[8]

The movement called for "hierarchy and order" in society, various xenophobic and anti-Semitic themes, and the demand for "social justice" and "revolutionary" land reform to destroy the "oligarchy" in Argentina.[9] Juan Bautista Molina wanted the creation of an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.[10]

It was violently anti-Semitic, with its journal Combate issuing a "commandment" to its members: "War against the Jew. Hatred towards the Jew. Death to the Jew."[11]

History[edit]

General José Félix Uriburu, President of Argentina (1930-1932), founder of the movement.

It was recognized as a political entity on 20 May 1931 and received juridical personality on 11 January 1932.[12] The movement was formed by Argentine President General José Félix Uriburu officially as a reserve for Argentina's armed forces.[13] The movement's members were authorized to receive military training.[14] The Legion declared itself to be made up of "patriotic men" who embodied "the spirit of the September revolution and who morally and materially were ready to cooperate in the institutional reconstruction of the country".[15] The Legion was the largest nationalist organization in Argentina in the early 1930s.[16] The movement is known to have committed acts of violence against its political opponents and tortured those that were captured.[17] It collapsed in 1955 after anti-Peronist forces seized control of Argentina with its leader fleeing the country.

It had a student wing called the Nationalist Union of Secondary Students (Unión Nacionalista de Estudiantes Secundarios, UNES).[18] Unlike other Argentine nationalist organizations of the time, the Legion had a women's section, while other nationalist groups excluded women from their organizations.[19] The Legion's women section called Agrupación Femenina de la LCA promoted women to love the armed forces and respect for order, authority, and hierarchy in the home and school.[20] These women were to provide aid to the poor to assist in establishing social peace.[21]

During the 1946 Argentine elections, the ALN was the largest Nacionalista movement but only gained 25,000 votes in a few areas in which it fielded candidates.[22] This coincided with the election of Juan Perón as President of Argentina.[23] Following the 1946 election, ALN members attacked the headquarters of several liberal and leftist newspapers, including La Hora, the Communist Party newspaper, as well as attacking a bar in downtown Buenos Aires that was frequented by Spanish republican refugeees.[24]

In 1953, the ALN condemned the nationalist newspaper La Prensa for publishing too many articles by Jewish writers.[25] ALN leader Juan Queraltó was ousted from leadership of the party in 1953.[26] Queraltó was succeeded by Guillermo Patricio Kelly.[27] Kelly sought to distance the party from its anti-Semitic past and met with Israel's ambassador to Argentina, Dr. Arie Kubovy during which Kelly informed Dr. Kubovy that the ALN had forsworn anti-Semitism.[28] In 1954, anti-Semitism was dropped from the party.[29] Kelly was arrested after the anti-Perónist Revolución Libertadora of 1955 by Argentine authorities for having used a forged passport, but managed to escape and flee the country in 1957.

Party symbols[edit]

Congress of the Nationalist Liberation Alliance. The ALN symbol of the Andean Condor clutching a hammer and a feather is on the background wall.

The Nationalist Liberation Alliance used the Andean Condor as the symbol of the movement.[30] The Andean Condor is a national symbol of Argentina.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England, UK; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. Pp. 525.
  2. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Pp. 119.
  3. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England, UK; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. Pp. 525.
  4. ^ Paul H. Lewis. Guerrillas and generals: the "Dirty War" in Argentina. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Praeger Publishers, 2002. Pp. 5.
  5. ^ Paul H. Lewis. The crisis of Argentine capitalism. University of North Carolina Press, 1990. Pp. 119.
  6. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. Pp. 210.
  7. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Pp. 119.
  8. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Pp. 119.
  9. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback Edition. Berkley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. Pp. 115.
  10. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Pp. 119.
  11. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. Pp. 229.
  12. ^ Alberto Ciria. Partidos y poder en la Argentina moderna (1930-1946). English translation. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1974. Pp. 130.
  13. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Pp. 67.
  14. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Pp. 67.
  15. ^ Alberto Ciria. Partidos y poder en la Argentina moderna (1930-1946). English translation. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1974. Pp. 154.
  16. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. Pp. 201.
  17. ^ Paul H. Lewis. Guerrillas and generals: the "Dirty War" in Argentina. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Praeger Publishers, 2002. Pp. 5.
  18. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. pp. 229.
  19. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. pp. 236.
  20. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. pp. 236.
  21. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. pp. 236.
  22. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback Edition. Berkley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. Pp. 164.
  23. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback Edition. Berkley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. Pp. 164.
  24. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback Edition. Berkley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. Pp. 164.
  25. ^ Institute of Jewish Affairs. Patterns of prejudice , Volumes 6-8; Volume 6. Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1972. Pp. 95.
  26. ^ Raanan Rein. Argentina, Israel, and the Jews: Perón, the Eichmann capture and after. University Press of Maryland, 2003. Pp. 68.
  27. ^ Alberto Ciria. Partidos y poder en la Argentina moderna (1930-1946). English translation. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1974. Pp. 68.
  28. ^ Benno Varon. Professions of a lucky Jew. Cranbury, New Jersey, USA; London, England, UK; Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Cornwall Books, 1992. Pp. 206.
  29. ^ Raanan Rein. Argentina, Israel, and the Jews: Perón, the Eichmann capture and after. University Press of Maryland, 2003. Pp. 68.
  30. ^ Jon Lee Anderson. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Revised text copyright edition. New York, New York, USA: Publishers Group West, 2010. Pp. 34.
  31. ^ Sujatha Menon. Mountain Creatures. New York, New York, USA: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 2008. Pp. 37.