List of ethnic groups in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Nationalities of China)
Jump to: navigation, search
Ethnolinguistic map of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan)

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group, where some 91.59%[1] of the population was classified as Han Chinese (~1.2 billion). Besides the majority Han Chinese, 55 other ethnic groups are recognised in mainland China by the PRC government, numbering approximately 105 million people, mostly concentrated in the northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).

Officially recognized ethnic groups in mainland China[edit]

In order of population, this is the list of the 56 ethnic groups in China that are officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China. Members of several ethnic groups reside in Hong Kong and Macau, but due to the long separation from China, many of these ethnic groups are generally unknown[citation needed] to the Special administrative regions (of People's Republic of China) of Hong Kong and of Macau.[clarification needed]

English Name
Standard Romanization
CodeA
Pinyin
Simplified Chinese
2010 National Shares 2010 PopulationB
2000 PopulationB
1990 PopulationB
Han1 Han HA Hàn Zú 汉族 91.6474% 1,220,844,520 1,139,773,008 1,042,482,187
Zhuang Zhuang ZH Zhuàng Zú 壮族 1.2700% 16,926,381 16,187,163 15,489,630
Hui2 Hui HU Huí Zú 回族 0.7943% 10,586,087 9,828,126 8,602,978
Manchu Man MA Mǎn Zú 满族 0.7794% 10,387,958 10,708,464 9,821,180
Uyghur Uyghur UG Wéiwú'ěr Zú 维吾尔族 0.7555% 10,069,346 8,405,416 7,214,431
Miao3 Miao MH Miáo Zú 苗族 0.7072% 9,426,007 8,945,538 7,398,035
Yi Yi YI Yí Zú 彝族 0.6538% 8,714,393 7,765,858 6,572,173
Tujia Tujia TJ Tǔjiā Zú 土家族 0.6268% 8,353,912 8,037,014 5,704,223
Tibetan4 Zang ZA Zàng Zú 藏族 0.4713% 6,282,187 5,422,954 4,593,330
Mongol Mongol MG Měnggǔ Zú 蒙古族 0.4488% 5,981,840 5,827,808 4,806,849
Dong Dong DO Dòng Zú 侗族 0.2161% 2,879,974 2,962,911 2,514,014
Bouyei Bouyei BY Bùyī Zú 布依族 0.2153% 2,870,034 2,973,217 2,545,059
Yao Yao YA Yáo Zú 瑶族 0.2098% 2,796,003 2,638,878 2,134,013
Bai Bai BA Bái Zú 白族 0.1451% 1,933,510 1,861,895 1,594,827
Korean Chosen CS Cháoxiǎn Zú 朝鲜族 0.1374% 1,830,929 1,929,696 1,920,597
Hani5 Hani HN Hāní Zú 哈尼族 0.1246% 1,660,932 1,440,029 1,253,952
Li Li LI Lí Zú 黎族 0.1098% 1,463,064 1,248,022 1,110,900
Kazakh Kazak KZ Hāsàkè Zú 哈萨克族 0.1097% 1,462,588 1,251,023 1,111,718
Dai6 Dai DA Dǎi Zú 傣族 0.0946% 1,261,311 1,159,231 1,025,128
She She SH Shē Zú 畲族 0.0532% 708,651 710,039 630,378
Lisu Lisu LS Lìsù Zú 傈僳族 0.0527% 702,839 635,101 574,856
Dongxiang Dongxiang DX Dōngxiāng Zú 东乡族 0.0466% 621,500 513,826 373,872
Gelao Gelao GL Gēlǎo Zú 仡佬族 0.0413% 550,746 579,744 437,997
Lahu Lahu LH Lāhù Zú 拉祜族 0.0365% 485,966 453,765 411,476
Va Va VA Wǎ Zú 佤族 0.0322% 429,709 396,709 351,974
Sui Sui SU Shuǐ Zú 水族 0.0309% 411,847 407,000 345,993
Nakhi7 Naxi NX Nàxī Zú 纳西族 0.0245% 326,295 309,477 278,009
Qiang Qiang QI Qiāng Zú 羌族 0.0232% 309,576 306,476 198,252
Tu Tu TU Tǔ Zú 土族 0.0217% 289,565 241,593 191,624
Mulao8 Mulao ML Mùlǎo Zú 仫佬族 0.0162% 216,257 207,464 159,328
Xibe Xibe XB Xībó Zú 锡伯族 0.0143% 190,481 189,357 172,847
Kyrgyz Kirgiz KG Kē'ěrkèzī Zú 柯尔克孜族 0.0140% 186,708 160,875 141,549
Jingpo9 Jingpo JP Jǐngpō Zú 景颇族 0.0111% 147,828 132,158 119,209
Daur Daur DU Dáwò'ěr Zú 达斡尔族 0.0099% 131,992 132,747 121,357
Salar Salar SL Sālā Zú 撒拉族 0.0098% 130,607 104,521 87,697
Blang Blang BL Bùlǎng Zú 布朗族 0.0090% 119,639 91,891 82,280
Maonan10 Maonan MN Máonán Zú 毛南族 0.0076% 101,192 107,184 71,968
Tajik Tajik TA Tǎjíkè Zú 塔吉克族 0.0038% 51,069 41,056 33,538
Pumi Pumi PM Pǔmǐ Zú 普米族 0.0032% 42,861 33,628 29,657
Achang Achang AC Āchāng Zú 阿昌族 0.0030% 39,555 33,954 27,708
Nu Nu NU Nù Zú 怒族 0.0028% 37,523 28,770 27,123
Ewenki Ewenki EW Èwēnkè Zú 鄂温克族 0.0023% 30,875 30,545 26,315
Gin11 Gin GI Jīng Zú 京族 0.0021% 28,199 22,584 18,915
Jino Jino JN Jīnuò Zú 基诺族 0.0017% 23,143 20,899 18,021
De'ang Deang DE Dé'áng Zú 德昂族 0.0015% 20,556 17,935 15,462
Bonan Bonan BO Bǎo'ān Zú 保安族 0.0015% 20,074 16,505 12,212
Russian Russ RS Éluósī Zú 俄罗斯族 0.0012% 15,393 15,631 13,504
Yugur Yugur YG Yùgù Zú 裕固族 0.0011% 14,378 13,747 12,297
Uzbek Uzbek UZ Wūzībiékè Zú 乌孜别克族 0.0008% 10,569 12,423 14,502
Monba Monba MB Ménbā Zú 门巴族 0.0008% 10,561 8,928 7,475
Oroqen Oroqen OR Èlúnchūn Zú 鄂伦春族 0.0006% 8,659 8,216 6,965
Derung Derung DR Dúlóng Zú 独龙族 0.0005% 6,930 7,431 5,816
Hezhen12 Hezhen HZ Hèzhé Zú 赫哲族 0.0004% 5,354 4,664 4,245
Gaoshan13 Gaoshan GS Gāoshān Zú 高山族 0.0003% 4,009 4,488 2,909
Lhoba Lhoba LB Luòbā Zú 珞巴族 0.0003% 3,682 2,970 2,312
Tatars Tatar TT Tǎtǎ'ěr Zú 塔塔尔族 0.0003% 3,556 4,895 4,873
Undistinguished none Wèi Shìbié Mínzú 未识别民族 0.0480% 640,101 734,438 749 341
Naturalized Citizen none Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí 外国人加入中国籍 0.0001% 1,448 941 3,421

AGB 3304-91 "Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes";[2]
BThe population only includes China and the Republic of China (Taiwan);
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong;
4including Amdowa and Khampa;
5Also included are the Sangkong;
6This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi;
7Also included are the Mosuo;
8Also included are the 木佬人 (Qago);
9Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
10The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh in Sino-Vietnamese and historically referred to as 越 Yuè, cognate to Vietnamese Việt. See Bǎiyuè;
11Also included are the Then;
12The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
13A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan.

Taiwanese aborigines[edit]

Main article: Taiwanese Aborigines

The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines as Gaoshan, whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 14 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan. Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial. Also, scientific research conducted by Chen Shun-sheng of the Kaohsiung Hospital’s psychiatric department confirms DNA studies of Taiwan’s people revealed a large percentage of the population has mixed Han Chinese and aboriginal bloodlines.[citation needed]

"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups[edit]

Part of a poster in Beijing showing the 56 ethnic groups of China

This is a list of ethnic groups in China that are not officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China.

During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups".[3] Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or South East Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indian, Indonesians, Nepalese and Pakistani) in Hong Kong.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]