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Naturalism (philosophy) is any of several philosophical stances wherein all phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural are either false or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses.

Naturalism may also refer to:

In the arts[edit]

In philosophy and science[edit]

  • Naturalist, a term for a person involved in the study of life forms, or "Natural history"
  • Methodological naturalism, naturalism that holds that science is to be done without reference to supernatural causes; also refers to a methodological assumption in the philosophy of religion that observable events are fully explainable by natural causes without reference to the supernatural
  • Metaphysical naturalism, a form of naturalism that holds that the cosmos consists only of objects studied by the natural sciences, and does not include any immaterial or intentional realities
  • Liberal naturalism, a heterodox form of naturalism in the conceptual space between scientific naturalism and supernaturalism
  • Ethical naturalism, the theory that ethical terms can be defined in non-ethical terms, namely, descriptive terms mainly from the natural sciences
  • Spiritual naturalism, an approach to spirituality that is devoid of supernaturalism
  • Religious naturalism, religious, institutions, rituals, doctrines and communities which do not include supernatural beliefs
  • Humanistic naturalism emphasises scientific reasoning as a basis for humane behavior
  • Sociological naturalism is the view that the natural world and the social world are roughly identical and governed by similar principles
  • Political naturalism is a politic and legal system based on the belief in the existence of a fair natural law
  • Naturalistic observation is an empirical method of study by which the researcher introduces no outside stimulus, instead witnessing behavior as it naturally occurs in the environment


See also[edit]

All pages beginning with "Naturalism"