Nature Boy

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For other uses, see Nature Boy (disambiguation).
"Nature Boy"
A black Gramophone disc on which the song and artist name is printed on violet paper
Single by King Cole
from the album The Nat King Cole Story
Released March 29, 1948 (1948-03-29)
Format 10"
Recorded August 22, 1947 (1947-08-22)
Genre
Length 2:56
Label Capitol
Writer(s) eden ahbez
King Cole singles chronology
  • "Nature Boy"
  • (1948)

"Nature Boy" is a song by eden ahbez, published in 1947. The song tells the story of a "strange enchanted boy", who is said to have "wandered very far... over land and sea". At the end of the song, the narrator learns from the boy that "the greatest thing... is just to love and be loved in return". Nat King Cole's 1948 recording of the song was a major hit and "Nature Boy" has since become a pop and jazz standard, with many artists interpreting the song, the most recent being Tony Bennett and Lady Gaga, who released it as a single from their jazz collaborative album, Cheek to Cheek.

Background and composition[edit]

In 1941, a 33 year old George McGrew arrived in Los Angeles and began playing piano in the Eutropheon, a small health food store and raw food restaurant on Laurel Canyon Boulevard. The cafe was owned by John and Vera Richter, German immigrants who followed a Naturmensch and Lebensreform philosophy influenced by the Wandervogel movement in Germany.[1][2][3][4] Their followers, known as "Nature Boys", wore long hair and beards and ate only raw fruits and vegetables. McGrew adopted the philosophy and chose the name "eden ahbez", writing and spelling his name with lower-case letters.[5] It was there while living in a cave near Palm Springs, ahbez wrote "Nature Boy". Partly autobiographical, the song was a tribute to his mentor Bill Pester, who had originally introduced him to Naturmensch and Lebensreform.[6]

An 18 second sample from Cole's version of "Nature Boy". It begins with the opening lyrics, "There was a boy, A very strange, enchanted boy", which is backed by Frank De Vol's string arrangement and flute instrumentation, there by capturing the "enchanting" vibe of the song.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

In 1947, at the prompting of Cowboy Jack Patton and Johnny Mercer, ahbez approached Nat King Cole's manager backstage at the Lincoln Theater in Los Angeles, handed him a tattered copy of "Nature Boy", and asked him to show it to Cole. However his pleas were ignored and a disappointed ahbez left the sheet music of "Nature Boy" with Cole's valet, Otis Pollard.[7] From him Cole came to know of the song and the singer loved it. Cole began playing "Nature Boy" for live audiences and received much acclaim. Irving Berlin, who was present in the crowd, had initially offered to buy the track from Cole, but he decided to record it for himself.[8] However, he needed to get permission from ahbez before releasing it as a single but he was not able to find the songwriter, since he had disappeared without providing any contact details.[9] After ahbez was discovered living under the Hollywood Sign, Cole got his permission and recorded the song.[7]

Cole's recording, which took place on August 22, 1947, featured an orchestra conducted by Frank De Vol—the in-house arranger of Capitol Records.[10] He used strings and flute as instrumentation in the song, to capture the "enchanting" vibe of the track.[8] The first two measures of the song's melody parallel the melody of the second movement in composer Antonín Dvořák's Piano Quintet No. 2 (1887).[11] Written as a pop ballad, "Nature Boy" follows an "A,B" format, with the primary three notes descending on a minor triad above the pickup note. An ascending line over the diminished ii chord returns to the initial minor triad. The harmonic structure makes frequent use of the standard ii-V-i progression in the key of D minor. The second 4-bar section featured a chromatic descending line based on the lowering of the tonic (Dm–Dmmaj7–Dm7–Dm6). The same descending line then continues through Gm6–Dm, then finally ending with a whole-step down to the G in the chord Em75.[12] The lyrics of the song relate to a 1940s Los Angeles-based group called "Nature Boys", a subculture of proto-hippies of which ahbez was a member.[13] Instrumentalist Chris Tyle noted that the lyrics are a musical self-portrait of ahbez, with the lines like "There was a boy, A very strange, enchanted boy, They say he wandered very far, Very far, over land and sea". But it was the song's last line that made it the most poignant: "The greatest thing you'll ever learn, Is just to love and be loved in return".[14] Various interpretations of the line are given by academics, with the eponymous nature boy being an adult, advising on love and relationship, or a young boy dreaming.[15] Author Raymond Knapp described the track as a "mystically charged vagabond song" whose lyrics evoked an intense sense of loss and haplessness, with the final line delivering an universal truth, described by Knapp as "indestructible" and "salvaged somehow from the perilous journey of life".[16]

Release and reception[edit]

"Nature Boy" helped Nat King Cole to further popularize his singing career, and made him reach the white audience

By 1948, a second ban on music was enforced by American Federation of Musicians (AFM) in response to the Taft–Hartley Act. Capitol Records was desperate to release something for sustaining any profit, and ultimately released "Nature Boy" as a single on March 29, 1948, with catalog number 15054.[17] Crestview Music, which owned publishing right for Cole's songs, sold the rights for "Nature Boy" to Burke-Van Heusen, who acted as distributor and selling agent.[18] The record first debuted on the Billboard charts of April 16, 1948, and stayed there for 15 weeks, ultimately peaking at number-one. It also reached a peak of number two on the R&B charts.[19] "Nature Boy" went on to sell a million copies in 1948 and Billboard DJs listed it as the greatest record of the year, accumulating a total of 743 points.[20][21] The 1940s American music market was divided by race and for a black artist to cross over to mainstream pop music was difficult. Author Krin Gabbard noted in his book Jammin' at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema that Cole had to wear white makeup while filming for the performance of the song.[22] Although he had come into prominence in 1930 as a leader of the jazz trio named King Cole Trio, it was with "Nature Boy" that he received widespread recognition and it was his rendition that appealed to the white audience.[8] Cole would later use the success of the song to cancel the trio and pursue a solo recording career; he later described "Nature Boy" as one of his favorites among his recordings.[23][24] The success of the song allowed ahbez to accumulate about US$20,000 ($196,316 in 2014 dollars[25]) in royalty.[9] However, Billboard reported that ahbez kept only 50% of the royalty for himself, and distributed the rest among people who had helped him in bringing the song to limelight. About 25% was shared with Mrs. Loraine Tatum for helping him with the lyrics and the rest with Pollard, for bringing the song to Cole's notice.[18]

"Nature Boy" has received wide acclaim from critics and contemporary reviewers. Author Ted Gioia noted in his book, The Jazz Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire, that all the musicians "who had created the golden age of American popular song had their quirks and idiosyncracies, but eden ahbez demands pride and place as the most eccentric of them all". He added that along with promoting the hippie culture, with "Nature Boy", ahbez and Cole was able to introduce a new era of black artists in white popular music.[26] In his book Sinatra! the Song is You: A Singer's Art, author Will Friedwald complimented Cole's version, saying that it had been the "startingly fresh" combination of the singer's vocals along with the string section, which had made "Nature Boy" a hit.[17] Stephen Cook from AllMusic said that the song would transform Cole into "one of the most famous and beloved pop singing stars of the postwar years."[27] Billboard noted that such was the popularity of the song that audiences would only stay in theatres to see Cole perform "Nature Boy", and leave once he finished.[28] A 1975 poll by the magazine listed it as the "Greatest All-Round Record" as well as the "Favorite Pop Recording" of the previous years.[29] In 1999, the song was awarded the Grammy Hall of Fame, a special Grammy Award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old and that have "qualitative or historical significance".[30] Steve Erickson from Los Angeles magazine gave a detailed positive review of the song:

"Nature Boy" is so otherworldly in its melody and lyric that any number of interpretations over the decades, from Nat Cole's to Alex Chilton's, have never been able to make it ordinary. It sounds like something, that from the minute it was written, existed out of time and place—all thousand and one Arabian Nights compressed into two and a half minutes as mediated by a cracked Mojave Debussy slugging down the last of the absinthe from his canteen.[31]

Yiddish theatre composer Herman Yablokoff claimed in his biography, Memoirs of the Yiddish Stage, that the melody to "Nature Boy" was plagiarized from his song "Shvayg mayn harts" ("Hush My Heart"), which he wrote for his play Papirosn (1935).[32] When met with a lawsuit in 1951 for the plagiarization, ahbez first proclaimed his innocence, and telephoned Yablokoff to explain that "had heard the melody as if angels were singing it... in the California mountains. He offered me $10,000 to withdraw the suit. I said that the money was not important, but I wanted him to admit that the song was geganvet [stolen]; and if he heard angels, they must have bought a copy of my song." Eventually ahbez's lawyers offered to have an out-of-court settlement, offering $25,000 ($227,147 in 2014 dollars[25]) to Yablokoff, which he accepted.[11] Freidwald remarked that "it struck no one as ironic that a song with message of love and peace should come to symbolize how cutthroat the pop music business was becoming".[17]

Other versions[edit]

Frank Sinatra laughing
Sara Vaughn in a printed dress with her arms folded
Other popular versions of the song were released by Frank Sinatra (left) and Sara Vaughn (right)

The success of "Nature Boy" soon led to the release of a number of cover versions of the track. However, due to the AFM ban other record companies could not release full versions with strings, only a capella tracks.[17] Following Cole's version of "Nature Boy", the Dick Haymes recording was released by Decca Records as catalog number 24439. The record first appeared on the Billboard charts on June 4, 1948, and peaked at number 11.[19] Frank Sinatra also recorded a musicianless version, which was his only recording during the ban. Sinatra's version of "Nature Boy" replaced the string sounds of the original recording with a choir conducted by Jeff Alexander, which made the song sound like a Gregorian chant.[17] The recording was released by Columbia Records as catalog number 38210. It debuted on the Billboard charts on May 28, 1948, and peaked at number seven.[19] Sinatra later performed the song on the radio show, Your Hit Parade, accompanied by a choir and orchestral arrangement.[17] RCA Records planned to release versions by singers Perry Como and Bing Crosby, but was subsequently cancelled due to the ban. Musicraft Records released Sara Vaughn's a capella version on April 8, 1948. It was a commercial success, selling 20,000 copies on the first day and peaking at number 11 on the Billboard chart.[18]

A parody named "Serutan Yob" was recorded by The Unnatural Seven, an offshoot of Red Ingle and his Natural Seven that did not include Ingle due to the 1948 AFM recording ban. "Serutan Yob" featured vocals from Karen Tedder and Los Angeles DJ Jim Hawthorne. It was released by Capitol with catalog number 15210, and faced much ridicule and humor from the media. The record first reached the Billboard charts on October 1, 1948, and lasted for a total of four weeks, peaking at number 24.[19][26] In 1955, Miles Davis recorded the song with Charles Mingus as bassist. The recording for the song was filled with tension due to an ongoing conflict between Davis and Mingus, resulting in a charged version of the song. They were assisted by Teddy Charles on vibraphone and Elvin Jones on drums.[33] Singer Bobby Darin's version, released in 1961, presented a homo-romantic theme, with the eponymous nature boy visiting Darin on a "magic day" and explaining that "the greatest thing you'll ever learn, is just to love and be loved in return".[15] A psychedelic rock version was recorded in 1965 by 1960s San Francisco rock band The Great Society, with lead vocals from singer Grace Slick.[34] Same year, Marvin Gaye recorded and released his version on the Cole tribute album, A Tribute to the Great Nat "King" Cole.[35]

Peggy Lee's version of "Nature Boy" was recorded in 1948, but released in 1995 as part of the compilation album, Why Don't You Do Right? Peggy Lee, 1947–1948.[36] Celine Dion performed the song as part of her A New Day... concert at Caesars Palace. The song appeared on her 2002 studio album, A New Day Has Come, and on her 2004 live album, A New Day... Live in Las Vegas.[37] Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic said that the decision to include "Nature Boy" in A New Day Has Come was inspired by the song's appearance in Baz Luhrmann's musical, Moulin Rouge! (2001).[38] With Billboard, Dion expressed her feelings while recording the track: "This is the one I had the most kick out of in the studio. I could hear the pedal of the piano and the touch of the keys while I was singing. We were following each other, this is the real thing. This was such my pleasure." Initiallyy strings and other instrumentation were added in post-production, but were later removed to maintain the simplicity like Cole's version.[39] Aaron Neville's interpretation of the track was released in 2003 on his jazz standard album, titled Nature Boy: The Jazz Album.[40] Same year in December, Harry Connick, Jr. released a holiday themed rendition of "Nature Boy", on his holiday album, Harry for the Holidays.[41] At the tenth season of American Idol, contestant Casey Abrams presented a jazz version of the song, which was received with a standing ovation from the audience, but faced criticism from the media for the "strange" musical arrangements.[26]

Usage in films[edit]

Singer David Bowie's version in Moulin Rouge! was critically appreciated

The song was a primary theme of the film score for The Boy with Green Hair (1948), for which the original version was used.[42] The producers of the film reportedly paid $10,000 to ahbez for using the song, which was cumulatively more than what the author of the story, Betsy Beaton, was paid.[43] A recording by Kate Ceberano featured in the film The Crossing (1990).[44] The tune and lyrics feature prominently in the film Untamed Heart (1993), for which Cole's versions was used during the closing credits, while a piano version by Roger Williams served as the opener for the film. The song was also played in intermediate scenes featuring the principal cast.[45][46]

Miles Davis' recording of "Nature Boy" was used in the film The Talented Mr. Ripley (1999).[47] In the book Music, Movies, Meanings, and Markets: Cinemajazzamatazz, author Morris Holbrook described the song as a "nondiegetic performance", exemplifying the plot development and sexual tension in the scene featuring Matt Damon and Jude Law play chess, naked and later in a bathtub scene.[48] The song is performed at a jazz club in the film Angel Eyes, (2001). A version recorded by Jon Hassell on trumpet and Ronu Majumdar on flute is featured on the soundtrack.[49] The writing of "Nature Boy" is the theme of a 2000 Canadian TV film of the same title, directed by Kari Skogland. In the film, a nomadic poet and songwriter ahbez, played by Callum Keith Rennie, writes a tune for Cole in 1947, after falling in love with a woman named Anna Jacobs. Cole records the song and it goes on to become a commercial success.[50]

David Bowie's version was a central theme in Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge!. "Nature Boy" was composed as a techno song with Bowie's vocals, and was sent to the group Massive Attack. They remixed the track which was used in the film's closing credits. Bowie described the rendition as "slinky and mysterious" in a statement issued through his publicity firm, adding that "[Robert '3D' Del Naja from the group] has put together a riveting piece of work. I'm totally pleased with the end result."[51] Both Bowie's version and Massive Attack's remix appeared on the soundtrack. The version used in Moulin Rouge! was sung by John Leguizamo, as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, during the introductory scenes, as well as by Ewan McGregor's character, Christian.[52] Some of the film's premise was based on the lyrics, in particular the opening lines. The closing lyric, "The greatest thing you'll ever learn is just to love and be loved in return" is used throughout the film.[53] While reviewing Moulin Rouge!, Erickson noted that "[by] itself, ['Nature Boy'] redeems the wonderful idea behind Luhrmann's flawed but often wonderful movie."[31] The song was performed by Rodrigo Santoro in the film Heleno (2012), during the radio interview when he asks if he could sing a song for his wife and son.[54] Cole's version was again played at the start of Mike Tyson's one-man show, Mike Tyson: Undisputed Truth, directed by Spike Lee that aired on HBO.[55]

Tony Bennett and Lady Gaga version[edit]

"Nature Boy"
Single by Tony Bennett and Lady Gaga
from the album Cheek to Cheek
Released September 16, 2014
Format Digital download
Genre Jazz
Label
Writer(s) eden ahbez
Tony Bennett singles chronology
  • "Nature Boy"
  • (2014)
Lady Gaga singles chronology
  • "Nature Boy"
  • (2014)

Background[edit]

Tony Bennett and Lady Gaga first met backstage in 2011 after she had performed a rendition of Cole's "Orange Colored Sky", at the Robin Hood Foundation gala in New York City.[56] Thereafter Bennett asked Gaga to sing a duet with him on his upcoming album. They finally recorded "The Lady Is a Tramp" for his Grammy Award-winning album, Duets II, and subsequently began working on a collaborative jazz album, titled Cheek to Cheek.[57] Although the project was in development and discussions were taking place as early as September 2012, the recording did not start until the Spring of 2013, being delayed by Gaga's hip surgery and cancellation of her Born This Way Ball tour.[56]

The recording took place over a year in New York City, and featured jazz musicians associated with both artists. Bennett's quartet was present, including Mike Renzi, Gray Sargent, Harold Jones and Marshall Wood as well as pianist Tom Lanier. Along with Evans, jazz trumpeter Brian Newman, a long-time friend and colleague of Gaga, played on the album with his New York City based jazz quintet. Tenor saxophonist Joe Lovano and flautist Paul Horn were also enlisted as musicians. The songs were handpicked by Bennett and Gaga; they selected tracks from the Great American Songbook including "Nature Boy", "It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)", "Sophisticated Lady", "Lush Life", and the title track, "Cheek to Cheek".[57] "Nature Boy" was confirmed as the third single from the album, to be released for digital downloads from September 16, 2014.[58]

Credits and personnel[edit]

Credits adapted from "Nature Boy" digital metadata notes per iTunes Store.[59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Hippie Roots & The Perennial Subculture". Hippy.com. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  2. ^ Iacobbo & Iacobbo 2004, p. 171
  3. ^ Shurtleff & Aoyagi 2010, p. 306
  4. ^ "Little Known Brooklyn Residents: eden ahbez". Brooklyn Public Library. July 22, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Nature Boy (1948)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved February 8, 2013. 
  6. ^ Richmond 2006, p. 114
  7. ^ a b Mark 2001, p. 3602
  8. ^ a b c Dimery 2011, pp. 200–201
  9. ^ a b Heusen, Van (May 10, 1948). "Nature Boy: 'I Look Crazy But I'm Not'". Life (Time Inc) 24 (19): 131–135. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Ruhlmann, William (September 8, 2003). "Nat King Cole > Biography". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Gottlieb 2012, p. 78
  12. ^ ahbez, eden (2010). "Nat King Cole – Nature Boy – Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. Sony/ATV Music Publishing. Retrieved September 12, 2014. 
  13. ^ Woo, Elaine (August 10, 2004). "Gypsy Boots, 89; Colorful Promoter of Healthy Food and Lifestyles". Los Angeles Times (Gannett Company). Retrieved December 22, 2008. 
  14. ^ Santopietro 2009, p. 209
  15. ^ a b Dennis 2013, p. 70
  16. ^ Knapp 2010, p. 104
  17. ^ a b c d e f Friedwald 1997, p. 166
  18. ^ a b c "'Nature Boy' Scramble, But Bing No Cut". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 21 (14): 15. April 17, 1948. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c d Whitburn 1973, p. 71
  20. ^ Talevski 2010, p. 4
  21. ^ "The Billboard Second Annual Disc Jockey Poll". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 21 (35): 12. October 2, 1948. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  22. ^ Gabbard 1996, p. 245
  23. ^ Schuller 1991, p. 824
  24. ^ Nat King Cole interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969). Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  25. ^ a b Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  26. ^ a b c Gioia 2012, p. 293
  27. ^ Cook, Stephen. "Nature Boy (Living Era) > Review". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Vaudeville Reviews". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 21 (23): 40. June 12, 1948. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  29. ^ "15 Acts Chosen For Revived Radio Poll". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 87 (33): 39. August 16, 1975. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Grammy Hall of Fame Recipients". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  31. ^ a b Erickson, Steve (September 2001). "Low Fidelity". Los Angeles (Emmis Communications) 46 (9): 137. ISSN 1522-9149. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  32. ^ Landis 1984, p. 142
  33. ^ Gabbard 2004, p. 85
  34. ^ Adinolfi 2008, p. 102
  35. ^ Wynn, Ron. "Marvin Gaye > A Tribute to the Great Nat King Cole". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Why Don't You Do Right? Peggy Lee, 1947–1948: CD Recordings". PeggLee.com. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  37. ^ A New Day... Live in Las Vegas (Media notes). Céline Dion. Epic Records. 2002. EK 92680, ESD 56154. 
  38. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Celine Dion > A New Day Has Come". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  39. ^ Talor, Chuck (January 26, 2002). "'A New Day Has Come': A Track Listing". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 114 (4): 74. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  40. ^ "Singer Aaron Neville Reinvents Himself With New CD 'Nature Boy'". Jet (Linda Johnson Rice) 104 (19): 46. November 3, 2003. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  41. ^ Collar, Matt. "Harry Connick, Jr. > Harry for the Holidays". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  42. ^ Crowther, Bosley (January 13, 1949). "Movie Review – The Boy With Green Hair (1948)". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Green Hair Trouble". Life (Time Inc) 24 (50): 83. December 6, 1948. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  44. ^ "Original Soundtrack > The Crossing". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  45. ^ Gillette, Amelie (December 22, 2008). "Seven Pounds Vs. Untamed Heart". The A.V. Club. The Onion, Inc. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  46. ^ MacDonald 2013, p. 382
  47. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Miles Davis > Miles in the Movies". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  48. ^ Holbrook 2012, p. 10
  49. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Angel Eyes > Soundtrack". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  50. ^ "Nature Boy". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  51. ^ Vanhorn, Teri (March 22, 2001). "Bowie, Massive Attack Updating Nat 'King' Cole's 'Nature Boy'". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  52. ^ The Making of Moulin Rouge! (Media notes) (in English, French, Spanish). Baz Luhrmann. 20th Century Fox. 2002. ASIN B001G8XON0. 
  53. ^ Kohlenstein, Brad. "Original Soundtrack > Moulin Rouge". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  54. ^ Tomazzoni, Marco (March 30, 2012). "Heleno mostra derrocada de primeiro 'bad boy' do futebol brasileiro" [Heleno debacle shows first 'bad boy' of Brazilian football]. Correio da Manhã (in Portuguese) (Cofina). Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  55. ^ Raden, Bill (March 9, 2013). "Mike Tyson's One-Man Show at the Pantages Theater Is Surprisingly Good". LA Weekly (Beth Sestanovich). Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  56. ^ a b Grow, Kory (July 29, 2014). "Lady Gaga and Tony Bennett Detail 'Magnificent' Collection of Duets". Rolling Stone (Jann Wenner). Retrieved July 31, 2014. 
  57. ^ a b "Tony Bennett & Lady Gaga: Cheek to Cheek Album of Classic Jazz Standards To Be Released September 23" (Press release). Toronto: Universal Music Canada. July 29, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014. 
  58. ^ Cerasaro, Pat (September 6, 2014). "Lady Gaga & Tony Bennett Set To Release 'Nature Boy', 9/16". Broadway World. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  59. ^ "Tony Bennett and Lady Gaga – Cheek to Cheek – Deluxe Edition". US: iTunes Store. Retrieved August 28, 2014. 

Footnotes[edit]

External links[edit]