A 1681 painting depicting a person vomiting
Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick," "queasy" or "wamble") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It often, but not always, precedes vomiting. A person can suffer nausea without vomiting. (Greek ναῦς - naus, "ship"; ναυσία started as meaning "seasickness".)
Nausea is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning. Side effects of many medications including cancer chemotherapy, nauseants or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be caused by anxiety, disgust and depression.
Differential diagnosis 
There are many causes of nausea. One organization listed 700 in 2009. Gastrointestinal infections (37%) and food poisoning are the two most common causes. While side effects from medications (3%) and pregnancy are also relatively frequent. In 10% of people the cause remains unknown.
Food poisoning 
Food poisoning usually causes an abrupt onset of nausea and vomiting one to six hours after ingestion of contaminated food and lasts for one to two days. It is due to toxins produced by bacteria in food.
Nausea or "morning sickness" is common during early pregnancy but may occasionally continue into the second and third trimesters. In the first trimester nearly 80% of women have some degree of nausea. Pregnancy should therefore be considered as a possible cause of nausea in any women of child bearing age. While usually it is mild and self-limiting severe cases known as hyperemesis gravidarum may require treatment.
Stress and depression 
Potentially serious 
While most causes of nausea are not serious, some serious causes do occur. These include: diabetic ketoacidosis, brain tumor, surgical problems, heart attack, pancreatitis, small bowel obstruction, meningitis, appendicitis, cholecystitis, Addisonian crisis, Choledocholithiasis (from gallstones) and hepatitis, as a sign of carbon monoxide poison and many others.
Diagnostic approach 
If dehydration is present due to loss of fluids from severe vomiting and/or accompanying diarrhea, rehydration with oral electrolyte solutions is preferred. If this is not effective or possible, intravenous rehydration may be required.
Dimenhydrinate (Gravol) is an inexpensive and effective medication for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Meclozine is another antihistamine antiemetic. In certain people, cannabinoids may be effective in reducing chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. Ondansetron (Zofran) is effective for nausea and vomiting. Pyridoxine or metoclopramide are the first line treatments for pregnancy related nausea and vomiting. Many consider Medical marijuana to be an effective herbal remedy for nausea, where legal.
While short-term nausea and vomiting are generally harmless, they may sometimes indicate a more serious condition. When associated with prolonged vomiting, it may lead to dehydration and/or dangerous electrolyte imbalances. Repeated intentional vomiting, characteristic of bulimia, can cause stomach acid to wear away at the enamel in teeth.
Nausea and or vomiting is the main complaint in 1.6% of visits to family physicians in Australia. However only 25% of people with nausea visit their family physician. It is most common in those 15–24 years old and less common in other ages.
- ναυσία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- ναυτία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- "Wamble definition". MedTerms Medical Dictionary.
- Metz A, Hebbard G (September 2007). "Nausea and vomiting in adults--a diagnostic approach". Aust Fam Physician 36 (9): 688–92. PMID 17885699.
- "Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior". Mayo Clinic.
- "Diagnostic Criteria: Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Anxiety". PubMed.
- "Disease Information for Stress/Emotional/Physical: Clinical Manifestations".
- "Differential Diagnosis for Nausea".
- Helena Britt; Fahridin, S (September 2007). "Presentations of nausea and vomiting". Aust Fam Physician 36 (9): 673–784. PMID 17885697.
- Scorza K, Williams A, Phillips JD, Shaw J (July 2007). "Evaluation of nausea and vomiting". Am Fam Physician 76 (1): 76–84. PMID 17668843.
- Koch KL, Frissora CL (March 2003). "Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy". Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 32 (1): 201–34, vi. doi:10.1016/S0889-8553(02)00070-5. PMID 12635417.
- Sheehan P (September 2007). "Hyperemesis gravidarum--assessment and management". Aust Fam Physician 36 (9): 698–701. PMID 17885701.
- O’Connor RE, Brady W, Brooks SC, Diercks D, Egan J, Ghaemmaghami C, Menon V, O’Neil BJ, Travers AH, Yannopoulos D. Part 10: acute coronary syndromes: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010;122(suppl 3):S788.
- Kranke P, Morin AM, Roewer N, Eberhart LH (March 2002). "Dimenhydrinate for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46 (3): 238–44. doi:10.1034/j.1399-6576.2002.t01-1-460303.x. PMID 11939912.
- Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Campbell FA, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ (July 2001). "Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review". BMJ 323 (7303): 16–21. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7303.16. PMC 34325. PMID 11440936.
- Drug Policy Alliance (2001). "Medicinal Uses of Marijuana: Nausea, Emesis and Appetite Stimulation". Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- "Bulimia Nervosa-Topic Overview". WebMD. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
|Look up nausea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|