Naval Medical Research Unit Two
|Naval Medical Research Unit Two|
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Navy|
|Role||NAMRU-2 is the primary source of infectious diseases research in the Asia/Pacific region for the US Navy.|
|Part of||Naval Medical Research Center (NMRC)|
|Garrison/HQ||Phnom Phen, Cambodia|
|Captain Carlos I. LeBron|
Naval Medical Research Unit Two (NAMRU-2) is a biomedical research laboratory of the US Navy established with the purpose to study infectious diseases of potential military significance in Asia. NAMRU-2 is officially registered as a subordinate command of Naval Medical Research Center located on Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S. and considered as the center network of laboratories around the world.
NAMRU-2 operates in several countries in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Laos, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand, and Cambodia. In Phnom Penh, Cambodia, NAMRU-2 opened, outfitted, and staffed a satellite laboratory to conduct regional infectious disease outbreak research, and diagnostic laboratory support within the Office of Defense Cooperation, U.S. Embassy Singapore.
While NAMRU-2 previously operate in Indonesia was relocated to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and officially opened as NAMRU-2 Pacific on 17 June 2010, and disestablished in 2013. NAMRU-2 is currently located at the Cambodian National Institutes of Public Health in Phnom Penh.
NAMRU-2 was founded as Naval Medical Research Unit 2, at Rockefeller University in New York City in 1944 with Captain Thomas Rivers as commanding officer. It moved to Guam in 1945 to study medical problems of the Navy and Marine Corps during World War II pacific operations. In 1955 Commander Robert Allan Phillips convinced US naval leadership that a research presence was needed in the pacific region. NAMRU-2 was reestablished in Taipei, Taiwan in 1955 with now Captain Phillips as its commanding officer. Phillips would remain as commander for the next 10 years. In 1966, NAMRU-2 opened a detachment at the Naval Support Activity Hospital in Da Nang, South Vietnam. It was here that Lieutenant Myron Tong  performed some of his seminal research into pathogens infecting combat wounds resulting in the first descriptions of acinetobacter baumannii infection in combat casualties. The research detachment would remain until 1970 when it was disestablished.
In 1970, NAMRU-2 would establish a detachment in Jakarta, Indonesia NAMRU-2 was established in Jakarta in 1970 upon the invitation of Indonesian Ministry of Health officials. In 1979, U.S. diplomatic recognition of the Peoples Republic of China resulted in the relocation of the NAMRU-2 Command from Taipei to Manila, Philippines and in 1990 due to political upheaval and possible threats to US personnel it was again relocated to Jakarta, Indonesia. The facility in Jakarta was located in 62,000 square feet of laboratory, office and storage spaces in three buildings within the Indonesian Ministry of Health, National Institutes of Health (Badan LITBANGKES) compound. In the 1990s NAMRU-2 performed cutting edge research on the use of primaquine as primary prophylaxis for plasmodium falciparum malaria in Javanese men living in Irian Jaya.
In 2002, Phnom Penh activities were established by NAMRU-2 to conduct regional infectious disease research and diagnostic laboratory support, operating out of a laboratory located at the National Institutes of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In 2007, to reflect Navy Medicine’s priorities in response to global emerging infectious disease threats, NAMRU-2 recognized the activities in Phnom Penh as a detachment, while at the same time opening a detachment within the Office of Defense Cooperation, U.S. Embassy Singapore.
In 2010 the government of Indonesia asked that NAMRU-2 be closed  and the unit was relocated to Pearl Harbor Hawaii and deestablished in 2013. NAMRU-2 is currently located at the Cambodian National Institutes of Public Health in Phnom Penh.
In 1946, NAMRU-2 was redesignated the U.S. Naval Institute of Tropical Medicine (NITM) reflecting its focus on tropical infections of interest to the military such as malaria and Dengue fever. In 1947 NAMRU-2 developed a therapeutic regimen for cholera utilizing whole blood and plasma-specific gravity as guides, this work was a breakthrough in determining life-saving extracellular fluid requirements. However NITM was disestablished shortly thereafter.
NAMRU-2 would respond to Cholera epidemics in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958, Sulawesi, Indonesia and the Philippines in 1961, where it became a world leader in cholera research and treatment. In 1961 it established a collaborative research site at San Lazaro Hospital in Manila to assist in the El tor cholera outbreak in the Philippines, here several key hypotheses of correct intravenous fluid rehydration for cholera treatment were proven.
In 1969 researchers at NAMRU-2 would be the first to demonstrate the role of attenuated Rubella vaccine in preventing naturally acquired disease in man.
- Surveillance of febrile illness
- Surveillance of avian influenza
- Investigation of Shigellosis morbidity
- Investigation of drug resistant malaria
- Medical entomology studies
Previous Commanding Officers
- CAPT Robert Allan Phillips 1955-65
- CAPT James R.Campbell 1999-2001
- CAPT Gail L. Hathaway 2010–2012
- CAPT George Schoeler 2012–2013
- CAPT John Gilstad, Acting 2013
- CAPT Carlos I. LeBron 2013–present
- U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Phnom Penh Website. accessed June 29, 2013
- Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) Pacific Website. accessed June 29, 2013
- Huntington Medical Research Institute: Myron Tong
- U.S Embassy Jakarta: Fact Sheet The Truth About Namru-2
- "Fort Detrick 2010 Post Guide". U.S. Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. 2010. pp. 6–9. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- Chiarella, Donald (2005). History of Naval Medicine. Lulu.com. p. 89. ISBN 9781411659339.
- US Embassy Cambodia: The U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-2 Detachment Phnom Penh
- The Age Australia: Indonesian fears over US Navy laboratory
- Taming of Cholera CID 2002:35 (15 September) A Legacy in 20th-Century Medicine: Robert Allan Phillips and the Taming of Cholera
- Navy Research timeline
- A Legacy in 20th-Century Medicine: Robert Allan Phillips and the Taming of Cholera
- Indonesia Turns Screw More: Booting Out US Naval Medical Laboratory?
- Tong, M. J. (1972). "Septic complications of war wounds". JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 219 (8): 1044–1047. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03190340050011. PMID 4621762.
- Fryauff, D. J.; Baird, J. K.; Basri, H.; Sumawinata, I.; Purnomo; Richie, T. L.; Ohrt, C. K.; Mouzin, E.; Church, C. J.; Richards, A. L.; Ohrt, C.; Subianto, B.; Sandjaja, B.; Hoffman, S. (1995). "Randomised placebo-controlled trial of primaquine for prophylaxis of falciparum and vivax malaria". Lancet 346 (8984): 1190–1193. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)92898-7. PMID 7475658.