Naic languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Naxish languages)
Jump to: navigation, search
Yunnan and Sichuan
Linguistic classification: Sino-Tibetan
Glottolog: naic1235[1]

The Naic or Naxish languages is a group of Tibeto-Burman languages that includes Naxi. They have been variously classified as part of the Loloish or the Qiangic branch of Tibeto-Burman.

The name "Naic" is derived from the endonym Na used by speakers of several of the languages.


Lama (2012)[edit]

Lama (2012) lists the following languages in his Naxish clade, which he places in the Loloish branch.

  • Namuzi (næ˥mu˧zɿ˧˩)
  • Naxi (nɑ˨˩ɕi˧)
    • Na: Mali Masa, Na (Moso)
    • etc.
      • Naru
      • Naheng, Naxi proper

Lama (2012) lists the following sound changes from Proto-Loloish as Naxish innovations.

  • *sn > ȵ-
  • *pw- > b-, ʁ-

Jacques & Michaud (2011)[edit]

The Naic group (corresponding to Lama's Naxish clade) is classified as Qiangic and not Loloish by Guillaume Jacques & Alexis Michaud (2011).[2] David Bradley (2008) has also suggested that Naxi, Na, Namuyi, Shixing, and Ersu are Qiangic languages.[3]

Tentative Sino-Tibetan family tree proposed by Jacques & Michaud (2011)

Lidz (2010)[edit]

Lidz (2010)[4] groups the Naxi varieties as follows, but does not consider where these languages fit within Tibeto-Burman. Lidz notes that the western groups call themselves "Naxi," while the eastern groups call themselves "Na" — hence the parentheses. Lidz (2010) also notes that the Na (Eastern) speakers of Sichuan are officially classified as ethnic Mongols by the Chinese government. Namuyi and Shixing are not addressed.

  • Western (Naxi)
    • Baoshanzhou 保山州
    • Dayanzhen 大研镇
    • Lijiang 丽江
  • Eastern (Na)
    • Ninglang 宁蒗 / Beiqu 北渠
    • Yongning 永宁
    • Guabie 瓜别


  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Naic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud. 2011. "Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze." Diachronica 28:468-498.
  3. ^ Bradley, David. 2008. The Position of Namuyi in Tibeto-Burman. Presentation at the Workshop on the Namuyi language, Taipei, 2008.
  4. ^ Lidz, Liberty A. 2010. A Descriptive Grammar of Yongning Na (Mosuo). Ph.D. dissertation. Austin: University of Texas, Austin.