Nayagarh district

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Nayagarh district
District
Location in Odisha, India
Location in Odisha, India
Coordinates: 20°06′58″N 85°00′36″E / 20.116°N 85.01°E / 20.116; 85.01Coordinates: 20°06′58″N 85°00′36″E / 20.116°N 85.01°E / 20.116; 85.01
Country  India
State Odisha
Headquarters Nayagarh
Government
 • Collector & District Magistrate Hemanta Kumar Padhi
 • Member of Lok Sabha Pinaki Misra
Area
 • Total 3,890 km2 (1,500 sq mi)
Population (2001)
 • Total 535,385
 • Density 138/km2 (360/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Oriya, Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 752 xxx
Vehicle registration OD-25
Sex ratio 0.994 /
Lok Sabha constituency Puri
Climate Aw (Köppen)
Precipitation 1,449.1 millimetres (57.05 in)
Website www.nayagarh.nic.in

Nayagarh district is one of the 30 districts of Odisha State in eastern India. It was created in 1995 when the erstwhile Puri District was split into three distinct districts. It is home to the Baisipali Wildlife Sanctuary. It is like a Hill station, so far as natural scenery is concerned. Chhena Poda is the favourite sweet for which Nayagarh is famous in Odisha. Hemanta Kumar Padhi is now heading the district administration as the District Magistrate & Collector.

History[edit]

http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/2012/April/engpdf/78-82.pdf

Princely States of Nayagarh District

Daspalla[edit]

15th century Dashapallastate founded.

Rulers

1653 - 1701 Chakradhar Deo Bhanj. 1701 - 1753 Padmanav Deo Bhanj. 1753 - 1775 Trilochan Deo Bhanj. 1775 - 1795 Makunda Bhank Deo Bhanj. 1795 - 1805 Guri Charan Deo Bhanj. 1805 - 1845 Krishna Chanda Deo Bhanj. 1845 - 1861 Madhusudan Deo Bhanj. 1861 - Jan 1873 Narsimha Deo Bhanj. 21 Jan 1873 - 21 May 1874 Chaitan Deo Bhanj (b. 1854 - d. ....).

Rajas

21 May 1874 - 1896 Chaitan Deo Bhanj (s.a.). 1896 - 11 Dec 1913 Narayan Deo Bhanj (b. 1860 - d. 1913). 11 Dec 1913 - 15 Aug 1947 Kishor Chandra Deo Bhanj (b. 1908 - d. 1960). 11 Dec 1913 - 3 Mar 1930 .... -Regent.

Khandpara[edit]

16.. Khandpara state founded.

Rajas

1675 - 1709 Narayan Singh Mardraj. 1709 - 1723 Balunkeswar Singh Mardraj. 1723 - 1732 Banamall Singh Mardraj. 1734 - 1770 Bairagi Singh Mardraj. 1770 - 1794 Niladri Singh Mardraj. 1794 - 1815 Narasimha Singh Mardraj. 1815 - 1821 Purushottam Mardraj. 1821 - 1842 Krishna Chandra Singh. 1842 - 1867 Kunja Bihari Singh. 28 Feb 1867 - 1905 Natobar Mardraj Bhramarbar Rai (b. 1837 - d. 1905?). 1905 - 26 Dec 1922 Ram Chandra Singh Mardraj Bhramarbar Rai. 26 Dec 1922 - 15 Aug 1947 Harihar Singh Deo Mardraj Bhramarbar Rai (b. 1914 - d. 1977).

Nayagarh[edit]

bf.1550 Nayagarh state founded.

Rajas

.... - .... Chandrasekhar Singh Mandhata. .... - .... Purushottam Singh Mandhata. .... - 1784 Mrutyunjay Singh Mandhata. 1784 - 1825 Binayak Singh Mandhata. 1825 - 1851 Braja Babdhu Singh Mandhata. 30 Sep 1851 - 1889 Ladhu Kishor Singh Mandhata (b. c. 1843 - d. ....). 1889 - 1890 Balbhadra Singh. 2 Mar 1890 - 4 Sep 1897 Raghunath Singh Mandhata. 1897 - 7 Dec 1918 Narayan Singh Mandhata. 7 Dec 1918 - 15 Aug 1947 Krishnachandra Singh Mandhata (b. 1911 - d. 1983).

Ranpur[edit]

18th century BC Legendary date of foundation of Ranpur.

Rajas

1692 - 1727 Ramachandra Narendra. 1727 - 1754 Sarangadhar Bajradhar Narendra. 1754 - 1789 Narsingh Bajradhar Narendra. 1789 - 1821 Brujdaban Bajradhar Narendra. 1821 - 1842 Brajsundar Bajradhar Narendra. 1842 - 1899 Benudar Bajradhar Narendra (b. 1817 - d. ....). 12 Jul 1899 - 21 Jun 1945 Krishna Chandra Narendra (b. 1875 - d. 1945). 21 Jun 1945 - 1947 Brajendra Chandra Narendra (b. 1928 - d. 1980).

http://www.worldstatesmen.org/India_princes_A-J.html http://www.worldstatesmen.org/India_princes_K-W.html

Nayagarh District in around the 13th century and is considered as an important part in the history of Odisha. King Suryamani of Baghela dynasty came to Puri and established his kingdom at Nayagarh. Nayagarh District consists of the four Garjat states of ex-states Ranpur, Nayagarh, Khandapara and Daspalla. The aboriginal "Savaras" and "Kandhas" are the indigenous people of Nayagarh District. The Aryans came later. Nayagarh District with its ex-states of Nayagarh, Khandapara, Daspalla and Ranpur played a major role in the freedom struggle of India.

Birth history of Nayagarh in the 13th century is an important chapter in the political history of Odisha. Suryamani of Baghela dynasty came to Puri on a pilgrimage from "Rewa" of Madhya Pradesh and established his kingdom at Nayagarh. On the way to Puri, Both Suryamani and his brother Chandramani took rest at night at Gunanati. The area was full of tigers and at night a tiger attacked him. Both the brothers fought the tiger and killed it. The local people praised the brave brothers and elected Suryamani as their leader. Suryamani gradually built his fort at Gunanati and married a Mali girl. After the death of his first wife he again married a Kshatriya girl. From there, he then attacked Haripur and Ralaba. Ralaba was a very beautiful place. While sleeping a tiger attacked him at Ralaba he again fought and killed it. At that moment he saw a lady with an empty pot passed by to fetch water. Astonishingly, she returned with a little boy. Immediately, Suryamani obstructed the way of that lady and wanted to know about the mystery. The lady told she was Bouri Thakurani (a local worshiped goddess) and the tiger that the king killed was the boy. She advised Suryamani to kill her and worship her as his deity. From that date Suryamani worshiped "Bauri Thakurani" at Ralaba and built his fort there and adopted Tiger Head as a state symbol.

Ninth king of this dynasty "Bagel Singh" (1480–1510) came on a hunting to a place in between Rukshi and Balaram mountains and saw a wonderful sight that a rabbit pressed down a dog there. After seeing this he selected and shifted his capital to this place. As per his name this place was known as "Baghua Nayagarh". The place where such an event occurred is now known as "KukurTasara".

12th King of Nayagarh Raghunath Sing (1565–1595) was highly powerful. During this time Muslims had already captured Odisha and the atmosphere of the coastal Odisha was fully indiscipline. Last independent king Mukunda Dev (1565) was defeated in Gohritikira and died. By taking the advantages of the political situations of coastal Odisha, Raghunath Singh attacked Ranapur and captured Odagaon, Sarankul and Baunsiapara area from Ranapur estate and dispossessed Nayagarh-Daspalla border area from the King of Boudh and Sunamuhin area of Odgaon from the King of Ghumusar. He also captured a portion from Banpur. Before death, Ragunath Singh divided his estate between his three sons. Harihar Singh was in possession of Nayagarh and Jadunath Singh got four Khandagrams (large area of land) which was known as Khandapada later. Gadadhar Singh was the son of Harihar Singh. When he was engaged in a fight with Ranpur estate the king of Ghumusar attacked Nayagarh. Pindik Patsahani of village Sunalati with 150 soldiers fought the great army of Ghumusar and defeated him. But, in subsequent war he was captured by the enemy and sacrificed his life. Gadadhar Sing's daughter married the great poet Upendra Bhanja of Ghumusar who settled at Malisahi of Nayagarh estate after marriage. When British captured Odisha, Binayak Singh was the King of Nayagarh and the great Jadumani was his poet.

Maoist attacks[edit]

The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.[1] On 15 February 2008 A number of police facilities across the district came under attack from maoist rebels resulting in the death of 13 police officers and 1 civilian. During the raid the rebels stole a number of weapons.[2] Targets of the attack were the police training school the police armoury and a police station. The fighting lasted about one and a half hours.[3]

Eminent Personalities[edit]

Samanta Chandrasekhar[edit]

Samanta Chandrasekhar was born on the 13. 12. 1835,corresponding to Pausha Krishna Astami of the Saka year 1957 at Khandapara state now in Nayagarh district of Odisha.The states called Gadajat ruled by a dynastic king, enjoying some degree of autonomy under the British rule. It was a small state with an area of 244 square miles only, having its capital in the small township of Khandapara, situated about 20 KM from Nayagarh surrounded by hills and jungles. This kingdom was founded in 1599 and was being ruled at the time of Samanta, by his nephew, the eleventh king named Natabar Singh Mardaraj. Samanta's father Shyamabandhu, and mother Bishnumali, were a very pious couple. They had nine daughters and one son before the birth of Chandra Sekhar. Since two daughters and the only son they had died in infancy, they had named Chandra Sekhar as Pathani Samanta His full name was Mahamahopadhaya Chandrasekhar Singh Harichandan Mohapatra Samant, He wrote the "Sidhanta Darpana", which was published in 1899, by Calcutta University. The original manuscript of 2500 Sanskrit shlokas (In Sanskrita Language) was written in Oriya script on palm leaves by Samanta Chandrasekhar.

He received primary education in Sanskrit from a Brahmin teacher. He studied Sanskrit Grammer, Smritis, Puranas, Darshan and the original texts of many Kavyas. When he was ten year old, one of his uncles taught him a little of astrology and showed him some of the stars in the sky.Samanta Chandrasekhar did not have any formal University education and his interest and efforts in Astronomy were completely self-taught.Mahamahopadhyaya Chandra Sekhar Simha Samanta Harichandan Mohapatra, popularly in Odisha as Pathani Samanta, is an astronomer of the rank of Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta and Bhaskaracharya. He was born in 1835 A.D. in the princely state of Khandapara in Odisha. Away from the English education, he taught himself Sanskrit and attained scholarship in traditional Indian Astronomy. He fabricated ingenious instruments out of wooden sticks and bamboo chips and attained great accuracy in measurement. His scientific investigations are recorded in his astronomical treatise. “The Siddhanta Darpana” composed in Sanskrit Verse. This work was highly acclaimed even by the Western Press in 1899. Prof. Jogesh Chandra Ray played a key role in the publication of Siddhanta Darpana in Devanagiri script from a Calcutta press in 1899 with the financial support from the kings of Athmalik and Mayurbhanja. It must be noted that the scholarly introduction of fifty six pages in English therein by Prof. Ray, formed the window through which the outside world could get a glimpse of the valuable treasure contained in this monumental work in Sanskrit verses, which was hardly accessible.

The title of Mahamahoadhyaya was convered upon him by the British Govt. in 1893 in recognition of his contribution to astronomy. Samata Chandra Sekhar passed away in 1904. Even today most of the Oriya almanaces attribute their calculations to Samanta’s prescriptions.

"Chandrasekhar was a keen observer and made meticulous observations of celestial objects with instruments that he had made himself. He was deeply perturbed on finding that the ephemeral elements calculated from classical siddhantic principles did not agree with his observations. The same perplexity had also been faced by Swai Jaisingh, early in the 18th century, and had given rise to the construction of his gigantic masonry observatories for the correction of ephemeral elements. One underlying factor that had been responsible for these perplexities was the freezing of classical Indian astronomical calculations away from observational verifications. The precession of equinoxes (Ayanamasa) had been noticed as far back as the Vedic times, by Indian Astronomers and had been entering the calculation of ephemeral elements as bija corrections – ad hoc corrections that needed to be applied with the passage of time, to incorporate the changes in ephemeral elements arising from precession. For about a thousand years before the time of Swai Jai Singh or Pathani Samanta – the emphasis had shifted away from observational verifications and ephemeral elements had remained uncorrected. "

elements from these, and create predicted ephemeral elements in the classical Siddhantic format for future observations. The resulting ephemeral elements were amazingly accurate. Samanta’s work was in the classical mould – with the assumption of a geocentric Universe, although his own model included the planets other than Earth, as revolving around the Sun.

Equivalent mathematical formulations exist for calculation of ephemeral elements in the two different world systems – geocentric or heliocentric – and many observed phenomena require only the appropriate framework of calculations in order to accurately predict possible celestial events. Thus, Samanta’s inability to envisage or accept the Copernican revolution, did not prevent him from making many accurate calculations of contemporary celestial events in his lifetime and observing them. The most interesting of the celestial phenomena in his lifetime was the December 9, 1874 Transit of Venus.

This rare and inspiring event was visible from India and many other parts of the world. The Transit of Venus 8 years following that, in 1882, was not visible from India. Such an event will again be visible on the 8th of June 2004, from India and other parts of the world, and is creating a lot of excitement amongst the amateur astronomers and educators. The underlying excitement of this event, being the possibility of recreating historical measurements of the Earth-Sun distance by students world wide, through observations of the timings of this transit.

Going back to the year 1874 – there must have been considerable excitement at that time too, with efforts from Astronomers worldwide, making expeditions to India, as one of the locations from where, the event was visible. There were also efforts by Observaotories under the then British Government in India, to study this event. And then, there were observatories built by private individuals and princely states where activities were intense, for the observations of this event. Some popularizations efforts also seem to have been in evidence. Chintaman Raghunathachary, of Madras observatory, for instance, had made a popular booklet on this event, that had been translated into many languages, including Urdu. In all probability, none of this excitement reached the remote Khandapara regions of Odisha, where Samanta could have heard of this event.

Arun Kumar Upadhyaya, in his translation of the Siddhanta Darpana – interprets this Shloka as –

“Solar eclipse due to Sukra (Venus) – To find the eclipse of the Sun due to Sukra, their bimba (angular diameter) and size of other tara graha (stars and planets nearby?) is stated. In Kali year 4975 (1874 AD) there was a Solar Eclipse due to Sukra in Vrischika Rasi (Scorpio). Then Sukra bimba was seen as 1/32 of solar bimba which is equal to 650 yojana. Thus it is well proved that bimba of Sukra and planets is much smaller than the Sun.”

Did Samanta hear that there was going to be a transit and set out to observe it – or did he find that there was to be such an occurrence from his lifetime work of creating accurate ephemeral elements? Most probably, the latter, as there seems no evidence that there was any European Astronomical activity in the regions of Odisha, at that time. The Italian expedition from the Palermo Observatory was to Muddapur in Bengal a neighbouring state to Odisha and could there have been some information that reached to Khandapara? It is not certain and there seems no evidence of it. Even if the information did reach, Samanta would not have accepted it without his own calculations agreeing with that.

All in all, it seems possible that not only did Samanta observe this Transit, but, he predicted it from his own calculations, unaware, of the excitement in the rest of the world arising from the Transits of Venus – in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

The mention of the ratio of the bimba or apparent angular diameters of Venus and Sun as 1/32 is very interesting.

On the date of these observations – the 9th of December 1874, the apparent angular diameters of Sun and Venus, respectively, were – 32 minutes, 29 seconds of arc and 1 minute, 3 seconds of arc. The ratio then would have been discernable as 1: 30.93.

This ratio would have small variations from one transit to another due to the ellipticity of orbits involved. In the year 2004, for instance, the apparent diameters are – 31 minutes, 31 seconds for Sun and 58 seconds of arc, for Venus so that the ratio discernable, would be 1:32.6 for the coming Transit of Venus.

Pathani Samanta’s observations were completely non telescopic, and made with handmade instruments – and the accuracy achieved seems extra ordinary. In theoretical calculations and observations of the Transit of Venus, Samanta's achievement would be considered comparable to that of Jeremiah Horrocks, though poignantly anachronistic.

Kabi Jadumani Mohapatra[edit]

The Utkal Ghanta Kabi Jadumani Mahapatra was born at Itamati in the year 1783 and died in 1868. He was the principal poet during the rule of king Binayak Singh Mandhata. Bidyadhar Mohapatra of Mandhatapur was his Sanskrit Grammar teacher. Kabi Jadumani wrote Raghab Bilasa and Prabandha Purnachandra. He is one of the best poets of Odisha. His creations could be compared with that of Kabisamrat Upendra Bhanja and Kabisurya's.

Geography[edit]

Nayagarh is located at 20.13°N 85.1°E.[1] It has an average elevation of 178 metres (583 feet). This town has Rukhi mountain to the south and Balaram mountain in north. These mountains mitigated the effects of the 1999 Odisha cyclone on Nayagarh.

The District is located towards the west or Puri District surrounded by Cuttack District in the North, Phulbani District in the West, Ganjam District in the South and Khurda District in the East. The district covers an area of 3890 km².

This district is situated in the hilly ranges in the West and its North Eastern parts has formed a small well cultivated fertile valleys intersected by small streams. The river Mahanadi flows in the Eastern boundary. The climate of the District carries a high temperature in hot months and cooler in winter. The headquarters of the district is located in the town of Nayagarh.

Divisions[edit]

Blocks[edit]

  1. Bhapur
  2. Daspalla
  3. Gania
  4. Khandapada
  5. Nayagarh
  6. Nuagan
  7. Odagaon
  8. Ranapur

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Nayagarh district has a population of 962,215,[4] roughly equal to the nation of Fiji[5] or the US state of Montana.[6] This gives it a ranking of 453rd in India (out of a total of 640).[4] The district has a population density of 247 inhabitants per square kilometre (640 /sq mi) .[4] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.3%.[4] Nayagarh has a sex ratio of 916 females for every 1000 males,[4] and a literacy rate of 79.17%.[4]

Visiting places[edit]

Politics[edit]

(119)Ranpur remains with Puri Lok Sabha constituency After delamination . (120)Khandapada was a part of Bhubaneswar Lok Sabha constituency.After delamination it is part of Cuttack Lok Sabha constituency from 2009. (121)Daspalla(SC) was a part of Bhubaneswar Lok Sabha constituency.After delamination it is part of Kandhamal Lok Sabha constituency from 2009. (122)Nayagarh was a part of Bhubaneswar Lok Sabha constituency.After delamination it is part of Puri Lok Sabha constituency from 2009.

Vidhan sabha constituencies[edit]

The following is the 4 Vidhan sabha constituencies[7][8] of Nayagarh district and the elected members[9] of that area

No. Constituency Reservation Extent of the Assembly Constituency (Blocks) Member of 14th Assembly Party
119 Ranpur None Ranpur, Odagaon (part) Satyanarayan Pradhan BJD
120 Khandapada None Khandapada (NAC), Khandapada, Bhapur Siddharth Sekhar Singh BJD
121 Daspalla SC Daspalla, Gania, Nuagaon Kashinath Mallik BJD
122 Nayagarh None Nayagarh (NAC), Nayagarh, Odagaon (part) Arun Kumar Sahu BJD

References[edit]

  1. ^ "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  2. ^ "Indian Maoists kill 14 in Orissa". BBC. 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  3. ^ "13 police personnel killed in Naxal attack in Orissa". headlines india. Retrieved 2008-02-16. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  5. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Fiji 883,125 July 2011 est." 
  6. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Montana 989,415" 
  7. ^ Assembly Constituencies and their EXtent
  8. ^ Seats of Odisha
  9. ^ "List of Member in Fourteenth Assembly". ws.ori.nic.in. Retrieved 19 February 2013. "MEMBER NAME" 

External links[edit]