Near-close central unrounded vowel

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Near-close central unrounded vowel
ɪ̈
ɨ̞
ɘ̝
IPA number 319 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+026A U+0308
X-SAMPA I\ or 1_o or @\_r
Sound

The near-close central unrounded vowel, or near-high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ɪ̈ (centralized [ɪ]) and ɨ̞ (lowered [ɨ]). In many British dictionaries, this vowel has been transcribed ɪ, which captures its height; in the American tradition it is more often ɨ, which captures its centrality, or ,[1] which captures both. The third edition of the OED adopted as a conflation of ɪ and ɨ to represent either [ɪ̈] or a vowel that varies between [ɪ] and [ə].

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority in the USA, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪ̈ʊ̈
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Berber Central Atlas Tamazight[2] [example needed] Epenthetically inserted into consonant clusters before labial and coronal consonants.
English Some dialects glasses [ˈɡlæsɪ̈z] 'glasses' Reduced vowel for speakers who have a contrast between schwa and a near-close central unrounded vowel. See English phonology
South African[3] bit [bɪ̈t] 'bit' For some speakers it can be equal to [ə]. General and Broad varieties of SAE have an allophonic variation, with [ɪ] ([i] in Broad) occurring near velar and palatal consonants, and [ɪ̈~ə] elsewhere.
Southeastern English[4] good [ɡɪ̈d] 'good' May be rounded [ʊ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Russian[5] жена [ʐɨ̞ˈn̪ä] 'wife' Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Welsh Northern dialects[6] pump [pɨ̞mp] 'five' /ɪ/ or /i/ in southern dialects. See Welsh phonology

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971), A Reference Grammar of Tamazight, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, p. 174 
  • Pullum, Geoffrey K.; Ladusaw, William A. (1996), Phonetic Symbol Guide, Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 9780226685366