Near-close central unrounded vowel

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Near-close central unrounded vowel
ɪ̈
ɨ̞
ɘ̝
IPA number 319 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+026A U+0308
X-SAMPA I\ or 1_o or @\_r
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
Sound

The near-close central unrounded vowel, or near-high central unrounded vowel, is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ɪ̈ (centralized [ɪ]) and ɨ̞ (lowered [ɨ]). In many British dictionaries, this vowel has been transcribed ɪ, which captures its height; in the American tradition it is more often ɨ, which captures its centrality, or ,[1] which captures both. The third edition of the OED adopted as a conflation of ɪ and ɨ to represent either [ɪ̈] or a vowel that varies between [ɪ] and [ə].

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority in the USA, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪ̈ʊ̈
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[2] kind [kïnt] 'child' See Afrikaans phonology
Berber Central Atlas Tamazight[3] [example needed] Epenthetically inserted into consonant clusters before labial and coronal consonants.
English Some dialects glasses [ˈɡlæsɪ̈z] 'glasses' Reduced vowel for speakers who have a contrast between schwa and a near-close central unrounded vowel. See English phonology
South African[4] bit [bɪ̈t] 'bit' For some speakers it can be equal to [ə]. General and Broad varieties of SAE have an allophonic variation, with [ɪ] ([i] in Broad) occurring near velar and palatal consonants, and [ɪ̈~ə] elsewhere.
Southeastern English[5] good [ɡɪ̈d] 'good' May be rounded [ʊ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Irish Munster[6] goirt [ɡɨ̞ɾˠtʲ] 'salty' Allophone of /ɪ/ between broad consonants.[6] See Irish phonology
Ulster[7] [example needed] Allophone of /ɪ/.[7]
Russian[8] жена [ʐɨ̞ˈn̪ä] 'wife' Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Welsh Northern dialects[9] pump [pɨ̞mp] 'five' /ɪ/ or /i/ in southern dialects. See Welsh phonology

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971), A Reference Grammar of Tamazight, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9 
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), A Grammar of Afrikaans, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1–24, ISBN 9783110134261 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, p. 174 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Pullum, Geoffrey K.; Ladusaw, William A. (1996), Phonetic Symbol Guide, Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 9780226685366