Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Sound
Near-close front unrounded vowel
ɪ̟

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɪ, i.e. a small capital letter i.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for classifying vowels. Some linguists use the terms "high" and "low," respectively, instead of "close" and "open."[citation needed]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, a fully front vowel is represented by the "advanced" diacritic [ɪ̟].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Yue bing1 [pɪŋ˥] 'ice' See Cantonese phonology
Wu ih [iɪʔ˥] 'one'
Czech byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[1] hel [ˈhɪ̟ːˀl] 'whole' Fully front; often transcribed /e/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Rotterdam[2] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Somewhat fronted;[2] corresponds to [ɘ̟] in standard Dutch.[3][4] See Dutch phonology
The Hague[2]
English Most dialects bit About this sound [bɪt]  'bit' See English phonology
Australian[5] [bɪ̟t] Fully front and somewhat raised, tenser than in most other dialects. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [bɪd] 'bed' Some speakers. For others it's more open [e], or even [ɛ], in case of South African English.
South African
French Quebec petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[6] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtʰə]  'please' May be somewhat lowered.[7] See German phonology
Hindustani दिन/دن [d̪ɪn] 'day' See Hindustani phonology
Irish duine [dˠɪnʲə] 'person' See Irish phonology
Lithuanian viltis [vʲɪlʲˈtʲɪs] 'hope'
Luxembourgish[8] Been [bɪ̟ːn] 'leg' Fully front. May be transcribed /eː/.
Mongolian[9] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Plautdietsch winta [ˈvɪntə] 'winter'
Portuguese Brazilian[10] Filipe [fɪˈɫipɪ] 'Filipe' Unstressed vowel e in some dialects. Corresponds to [i ~ ] in Brazil and /ɨ/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਨਿੰਬੂ [nɪmbu] 'lemon'
Norwegian litt [lɪt] 'a little' May be fully front. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[11] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə]  'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic thig [hɪk] 'come' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sicilian arrìriri [aˈrɪɾiɾi] 'smile'
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[12] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Fully front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[12]
Swedish Central Standard[13] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪]  'herring' Fully front and lowered, more like [e̝]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian[14] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese ch [cɪj˧ˀ˨] 'elder sister' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian Standard lippe [ˈɫɪ̽pə] 'lip' Backed and slightly lowered, more like [ɘ̟].
Hindelopers beast [bɪːst] 'animal'

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grønnum (1998)
  2. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:131)
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  4. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  5. ^ Robert Mannell and Felicity Cox (2009-08-01). "Australian English Monophthongs". Clas.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  6. ^ Kohler (1999:87), Mangold (2005:37)
  7. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  8. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  9. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  10. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  11. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:37)
  12. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  13. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  14. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos