Near-close near-back vowel

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Near-close near-back rounded vowel
ʊ
IPA number 321
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ
Unicode (hex) U+028A
X-SAMPA U
Kirshenbaum U
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
Sound
Near-close near-back unrounded vowel
ɯ̽
ʊ̜

The near-close near-back vowel, or near-high near-back vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol for the near-close near-back rounded vowel is ʊ. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, ɷ, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA. In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol (a small capital U) is used.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Some languages may have a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, which can be represented with ɯ̽ or ʊ̜ in the IPA.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, an unrounded vowel is represented by the "less-rounded" diacritic [ʊ̜], and a back rounded vowel is represented by the "retracted" diacritic [ʊ̠]:

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic[citation needed] كتب [ˈkʊtʊb] 'books' See Arabic phonology
Cabécar[citation needed] Köpö´ [kʊpʊː] 'sleep'
Chinese Cantonese hung4 [hʊŋ˨˩] 'red' It can be pronounced [o̞] too. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin hóng [xʊŋ˧˥] See Mandarin phonology
Shanghainese
[citation needed]
ho [hʊ] 'flower'
Dutch Some speakers
[citation needed]
door [dʊ̠ːr] 'through' Retracted. Allophone of /oː/ before /r/ for some speakers, may be [oː~oə̯] instead. See Dutch phonology
Dutch Low Saxon
[citation needed]
Some speakers doar
Tweants bloom [blʊ̠ːm] 'flower' Retracted. Pronounced [oː~oʊ̯] in other dialects.
English Most dialects hook [hʊk] 'hook' May be only slightly rounded. See English phonology
Australian[1] pool [pʰʊːɫ] 'pool' Allophone of /ʉː/ before /l/, used in some regions. See Australian English phonology
Southern Irish plus [plʊs] 'plus' Present in dialects without the foot-strut split.
Northern English
Hindustani गुलाब/گلاب [gʊˈläːb] 'rose' See Hindustani phonology
Faroese hvalur [kvɛalʊɹ] 'whale'
French Quebec foule [fʊl] 'crowd' Allophone of /u/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[2] Schutz [ʃʊt͡s] 'protection' See German phonology
Korean[3] 어른 eoreun [ɘːɾɯ̽n] 'seniors' Typically transcribed as ɯ. See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[4] Sprooch [ʃpʀʊ̠ːχ] 'language' Fully back. May be transcribed /oː/.
Mongolian[5] ус [ʊs] 'water'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[6] ond [ʊn̪] 'bad' May be transcribed /u/. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese European[7] pegar [pɯ̽ˈɣäɾ] 'to hold' Unstressed vowel. Most often transcribed as /ɨ/. See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian[8] bonito [bʊˈn̠ʲit̪ʊ] 'handsome', 'beautiful' (m.) Unstressed vowel o in some dialects.[8] Corresponds to [u ~ o̞] in Brazil and /u/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਪੁਦੀਨਾ [pʊˈd̪iːnäː] 'mint'
Russian[9] сухой About this sound [s̪ʊˈxo̞j]  'dry' Unstressed allophone of /u/. See Russian phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[10] tus [t̪ʊ̠ː] 'your' (pl.) Fully back. Corresponds to [u] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[10]
Swedish Central Standard[11] ort About this sound [ʊ̠ᵝʈː]  'locality' Retracted and exolabial (compressed). See Swedish phonology
Vietnamese[citation needed] thu [tʰʊw] 'autumn' See Vietnamese phonology

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), Brazilian Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), European Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Durie, M.; Hajek, J. (1994), A revised standard phonemic orthography for Australian English vowels, Australian Journal of Linguistics 14: 93–107, doi:10.1080/07268609408599503 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), Luxembourgish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6