Near-close near-back vowel
|Near-close near-back rounded vowel|
|Near-close near-back unrounded vowel|
The near-close near-back vowel, or near-high near-back vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol for the near-close near-back rounded vowel is 〈ʊ〉. It derives from a small capital U. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, 〈ɷ〉, called "closed omega". Use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA. In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol 〈ᴜ〉 (a small capital U) is used.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Some languages may have a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, which can be represented with 〈ɯ̽〉 or 〈ʊ̜〉 in the IPA.
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • chart with audio • view
- Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
- Its vowel backness is near-back, which means the tongue is positioned as in a back vowel, but slightly further forward in the mouth.
- Its vowel roundedness is sometimes rather ambiguous, but it is generally a rounded vowel, which means that the lips are rounded to a greater or lesser degree.
In the following transcriptions, an unrounded vowel is represented by the "less-rounded" diacritic [ʊ̜], and a back rounded vowel is represented by the "retracted" diacritic [ʊ̠]:
|Arabic||كتب||[ˈkʊtʊb]||'books'||See Arabic phonology|
|Chinese||Cantonese||紅 hung4||[hʊ̜ŋ˨˩]||'red'||See Cantonese phonology|
|Mandarin||紅 hóng||[xʊ̜ŋ˧˥]||May be only slightly rounded. See Mandarin phonology|
|door||[dʊ̠ːr]||'through'||Retracted. Allophone of /oː/ before /r/ for some speakers, may be [oː~oə̯] instead. See Dutch phonology|
|Dutch Low Saxon
|Tweants||bloom||[blʊ̠ːm]||'flower'||Retracted. Pronounced [oː~oʊ̯] in other dialects.|
|English||Most dialects||hook||[hʊk]||'hook'||May be only slightly rounded. See English phonology|
|Australian||pool||[pʰʊːɫ]||'pool'||Allophone of /ʉː/ before /l/, used in some regions. See Australian English phonology|
|Southern Irish||plus||[plʊs]||'plus'||Present in dialects without the foot-strut split.|
|French||Quebec||foule||[fʊl]||'crowd'||Allophone of /u/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology|
|German||Standard||Schutz||[ʃʊt͡s]||'protection'||See German phonology|
|Korean||어른 eoreun||[ɘːɾɯ̽n]||'seniors'||Typically transcribed as 〈ɯ〉. See Korean phonology|
|Luxembourgish||Sprooch||[ʃpʀʊ̠ːχ]||'language'||Fully back. May be transcribed /oː/.|
|Norwegian||Standard Eastern||ond||[ʊn̪]||'bad'||May be transcribed /u/. See Norwegian phonology|
|Portuguese||European||pegar||[pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ]||'to hold'||Unstressed vowel. Most often transcribed as /ɨ/. See Portuguese phonology|
|Brazilian||bonito||[bʊˈn̠ʲitʊ]||'handsome', 'beautiful' (m.)||Unstressed vowel 〈o〉 in some dialects. Corresponds to [u ~ o̞] in Brazil and /u/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology|
|Russian||сухой||[s̪ʊˈxo̞j] (help·info)||'dry'||Unstressed allophone of /u/. See Russian phonology|
|Spanish||Eastern Andalusian||tus||[t̪ʊ̠ː]||'your' (pl.)||Fully back. Corresponds to [u] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||ort||[ʊ̠ᵝʈː] (help·info)||'locality'||Retracted and exolabial (compressed). See Swedish phonology|
|Vietnamese||thu||[tʰʊw]||'autumn'||See Vietnamese phonology|
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