Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Sound
Near-close front unrounded vowel
ɪ̟

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɪ, i.e. a small capital letter i.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, a fully front vowel is represented by the "advanced" diacritic [ɪ̟].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Yue bing1 [pɪŋ˥] 'ice' See Cantonese phonology
Wu ih [iɪʔ˥] 'one'
Czech byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[1] hel [ˈhɪ̟ːˀl] 'whole' Fully front; often transcribed /e/. See Danish phonology
English Most dialects bit About this sound [bɪt]  'bit' See English phonology
Australian[2] [bɪ̟t] Fully front and somewhat raised, tenser than in most other dialects. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [bɪd] 'bed' Some speakers. For others it's more open [e], or even [ɛ], in case of South African English.
South African
French Quebec petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[3] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtʰə]  'please' See German phonology
Irish duine [dˠɪnʲə] 'person' See Irish phonology
Lithuanian viltis [vʲɪlʲˈtʲɪs] 'hope'
Luxembourgish[4] Been [bɪ̟ːn] 'leg' Fully front. May be transcribed /eː/.
Mongolian[5] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Plautdietsch winta [ˈvɪntə] 'winter'
Portuguese Brazilian[6] Filipe [fɪˈɫipɪ] 'Filipe' Unstressed vowel e in some dialects. Corresponds to [i ~ ] in Brazil and /ɨ/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Norwegian litt [lɪt] 'a little' May be fully front. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[7] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə]  'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic thig [hɪk] 'come' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sicilian arrìriri [aˈrɪɾiɾi] 'smile'
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[8] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Fully front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[8]
Swedish Central Standard[9] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪]  'herring' Fully front and lowered, more like [e̝]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian ходити [xɔˈd̪ɪt̪ɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese ch [cɪj˧ˀ˨] 'elder sister' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian Standard lippe [ˈɫɪ̽pə] 'lip' Backed and slightly lowered, more like [ɘ̟].
Hindelopers beast [bɪːst] 'animal'

The Dutch vowel /ɪ/ is actually lower than near-close; it's [ɘ̟] in the Netherlands,[10] and [ë̞] in Belgium.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grønnum (1998)
  2. ^ Robert Mannell and Felicity Cox (2009-08-01). "Australian English Monophthongs". Clas.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  3. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  4. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  5. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  6. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  7. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:37)
  8. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  9. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  10. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos