Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Sound
Near-close front unrounded vowel
ɪ̟

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɪ, i.e. a small capital letter i.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for classifying vowels. Some linguists use the terms "high" and "low," respectively, instead of "close" and "open."[citation needed]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
Symbols with diacritics do not appear on the official IPA vowel chart. They are shown here for an easier access to articles.
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, a fully front vowel is represented by the "advanced" diacritic [ɪ̟].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic sitwa [sɪtwɐ] 'winter' Used mostly in the Tyari dialects. [ə] is used predominantly in other dialects.
Chinese Yue bing1 [pɪŋ˥] 'ice' See Cantonese phonology
Wu ih [iɪʔ˥] 'one'
Czech byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[1] hel [ˈhɪ̟ːˀl] 'whole' Fully front; often transcribed /e/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Rotterdam[2] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Somewhat fronted;[2] corresponds to [ɘ̟] in standard Dutch.[3][4] See Dutch phonology
The Hague[2]
English Most dialects bit About this sound [bɪt]  'bit' See English phonology
Australian[5] [bɪ̟t] Fully front and somewhat raised, tenser than in most other dialects. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [bɪd] 'bed' Some speakers. For others it's more open [e], or even [ɛ], in case of South African English.
South African
French Quebec petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[6] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtʰə]  'please' May be somewhat lowered.[7] See German phonology
Hindustani दिन/دن [d̪ɪn] 'day' See Hindustani phonology
Irish duine [dˠɪnʲə] 'person' See Irish phonology
Lithuanian viltis [vʲɪlʲˈtʲɪs] 'hope'
Luxembourgish[8] Been [bɪ̟ːn] 'leg' Fully front. May be transcribed /eː/.
Mongolian[9] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Plautdietsch winta [ˈvɪntə] 'winter'
Portuguese Brazilian[10] Filipe [fɪˈɫipɪ] 'Filipe' Unstressed vowel e in some dialects. Corresponds to [i ~ ] in Brazil and /ɨ/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਨਿੰਬੂ [nɪmbu] 'lemon'
Norwegian litt [lɪt] 'a little' May be fully front. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[11] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə]  'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic thig [hɪk] 'come' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sicilian arrìriri [aˈrɪɾiɾi] 'smile'
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[12] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Fully front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[12]
Swedish Central Standard[13] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪]  'herring' Fully front and lowered, more like [e̝]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian[14] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese ch [cɪj˧ˀ˨] 'elder sister' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian Standard lippe [ˈɫɪ̽pə] 'lip' Backed and slightly lowered, more like [ɘ̟].
Hindelopers beast [bɪːst] 'animal'

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grønnum (1998)
  2. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:131)
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  4. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  5. ^ Robert Mannell and Felicity Cox (2009-08-01). "Australian English Monophthongs". Clas.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  6. ^ Kohler (1999:87), Mangold (2005:37)
  7. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  8. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  9. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  10. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  11. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:37)
  12. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  13. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  14. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), Brazilian Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), Luxembourgish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), Danish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), Belgian Standard Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos