Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Sound
Near-close front unrounded vowel
ɪ̟

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɪ, i.e. a small capital letter i.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for classifying vowels. Some linguists use the terms "high" and "low," respectively, instead of "close" and "open."[citation needed]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, a fully front vowel is represented by the "advanced" diacritic [ɪ̟].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic sitwa [sɪtwɐ] 'winter' Used mostly in the Tyari dialects. [ə] is used predominantly in other dialects.
Chinese Yue bing1 [pɪŋ˥] 'ice' See Cantonese phonology
Wu ih [iɪʔ˥] 'one'
Czech byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[1][2][3][4][5][6] hel [ˈhɪ̟ːˀl] 'whole' Fully front.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Most often, it is transcribed e(ː) - the way it is pronounced in the conservative variety.[7] See Danish phonology
Dutch Rotterdam[8] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Somewhat fronted;[8] corresponds to [ɘ̟] in standard Dutch.[9][10] See Dutch phonology
The Hague[8]
English Most dialects bit About this sound [bɪt]  'bit' See English phonology
Australian[11] [bɪ̟t] Fully front and somewhat raised, tenser than in most other dialects. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [bɪd] 'bed' Some speakers. For others it's more open [e], or even [ɛ], in case of South African English.
South African
French Quebec petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[12][13] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtʰə]  'please' May be somewhat lowered.[12] See German phonology
Hindustani कि About this sound [kɪ]  'that' (subject/object of a relative clause) See Hindustani phonology
Irish duine [dˠɪnʲə] 'person' See Irish phonology
Lithuanian viltis [vʲɪlʲˈtʲɪs] 'hope'
Luxembourgish[14] Been [bɪ̟ːn] 'leg' Fully front. May be transcribed /eː/.
Mongolian[15] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Plautdietsch winta [ˈvɪntə] 'winter'
Portuguese Brazilian[16] Filipe [fɪˈɫipɪ] 'Filipe' Unstressed vowel e in some dialects. Corresponds to [i ~ ] in Brazil and /ɨ/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਨਿੰਬੂ [nɪmbu] 'lemon'
Norwegian litt [lɪt] 'a little' May be fully front. See Norwegian phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[17] râu [rɪu][stress?] 'river' Corresponds to [ɨ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə]  'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic thig [hɪk] 'come' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sicilian arrìriri [aˈrɪɾiɾi] 'smile'
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[19] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Fully front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[19]
Swedish Central Standard[20] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪]  'herring' Fully front and lowered, more like [e̝]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian[21] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese ch [cɪj˧ˀ˨] 'elder sister' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian Standard lippe [ˈɫɪ̽pə] 'lip' Backed and slightly lowered, more like [ɘ̟].
Hindelopers beast [bɪːst] 'animal'

Icelandic i is often transcribed as /ɪ/, but it is actually close-mid [e].[22][23][24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:268)
  3. ^ a b Grønnum (2003)
  4. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:45)
  5. ^ a b Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
  6. ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  7. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  8. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:131)
  9. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  10. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  11. ^ Robert Mannell and Felicity Cox (2009-08-01). "Australian English Monophthongs". Clas.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  12. ^ a b Kohler (1999:87)
  13. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  14. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  15. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  16. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  17. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  18. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:37)
  19. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  20. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  21. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14
  22. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  23. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  24. ^ Haugen (1958:65)

Bibliography[edit]