Near-open central vowel

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Near-open central vowel
ɐ
IPA number 324
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
X-SAMPA 6
Kirshenbaum &"
Sound

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɐ, a rotated lowercase letter a.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
ɐ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Standard[1] قطة [qitˤːɐ] 'cat' Allophone of long and short /a/ before a word boundary. See Arabic phonology
Bulgarian ъгъл [ˈɤ̞ɡɐɫ] 'angle'
Catalan Barcelona
metropolitan area
[2][3]
se [sɐ] 'itself' Typically transcribed as /ə/. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese sam1 [sɐm˥] 'heart' See Cantonese phonology
Danish Standard[4] ånd [ɐ̠nˀ] 'spirit' Somewhat retracted, often transcribed /ʌ/. See Danish phonology
Dawsahak [nɐ] 'to give'
Dutch Standard Belgian[5] bad [bɐ̠t] 'bath' Somewhat retracted; it corresponds to fully back [ɑ] in standard Netherlandic Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Limburg letter [ˈlɛtɐ] 'letter' Not all dialects. Corresponds to /ər/ in standard Dutch.
Eastern
Flemish Brabant
The Hague
Twente
English California[6] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ʌ may be used to transcribe this vowel. For most Australians it's fully open [ä], the same is true for some South Africans. In New Zealand it may be fronted to [ɐ̟]. See English phonology
Cultivated Australian
New Zealand
RP[7]
South African
Scottish[8] stack [stɐ̟k] 'stack' Fronted, corresponds to [æ] in other dialects, and also [ɑː] in some other dialects.
Cockney[9][10] stuck 'stuck' Fronted. May be [a] instead.
Inland Northern American[11] bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
German Standard[12] oder About this sound [ˈoːdɐ]  'or' Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects. See German phonology
Greek[13] ακακία akaa [ɐkɐˈci.ɐ] 'acacia' Most often transcribed /a/ for simplicity.See Modern Greek phonology
Korean[14] bal [pɐl] 'foot' Somewhat lowered. Typically transcribed as /a/. See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[15] Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ̠] 'wall' Somewhat retracted. Allophone of word-final /əʀ/.
Portuguese Fluminense cana-de-açúcar [ˈkɜ̃nə d͡ʑ ɐˈsukɐχ] 'sugarcane' In complementary distribution with /a/.[16] Raised to [ɜ̝] in other variants (where it is a phoneme). See Portuguese phonology
General Brazilian[16] [ˈkɐ̃nɐ d͡ʑ ɐ̞ˈsukɐ̞h]
European[17] pão [pɐ̃w̃] 'bread' Stressed vowel, mostly as a phonemic nasal vowel (when not followed by a nasal stop). Raised otherwise.
Russian[18] голова About this sound [ɡəɫ̪ɐˈva]  'head' Occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Vietnamese ăn [ɐn] 'to eat' See Vietnamese phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:39)
  2. ^ Rafel (1999:14)
  3. ^ Harrison (1997:2)
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998:100–101)
  5. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  6. ^ Ladefoged (1999:?)
  7. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  8. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  9. ^ Wells (1982:305)
  10. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979:35)
  11. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997), A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved March 15, 2013 
  12. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  13. ^ Arvaniti (2007:25)
  14. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  15. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  16. ^ a b Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  17. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91–92)
  18. ^ Padgett & Tabain (2005:16)

References[edit]