Near-open central vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Near-open central vowel
ɐ
IPA number 324
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
X-SAMPA 6
Kirshenbaum &"
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
Sound

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɐ, a rotated lowercase letter a.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
Symbols with diacritics do not appear on the official IPA vowel chart. They are shown here for an easier access to articles.
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic [1] قطة [qɪtˤ.tˤɐ] 'cat' Allophone of long and short /a/ for Persian Gulf speakers. See Arabic phonology
Bulgarian ъгъл [ˈɤ̞ɡɐɫ] 'angle'
Catalan Barcelona
metropolitan area
[2][3]
emmagatzemar [ɐm(ː)ɐɰɐd͡z̺ɐˈmä] 'to store' Local realization of /ə/.[2][3] See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese sam1 [sɐm˥] 'heart' See Cantonese phonology
Danish Standard[4] ånd [ɐ̠nˀ] 'spirit' Somewhat retracted, often transcribed /ʌ/. See Danish phonology
Dawsahak [nɐ] 'to give'
Dutch Limburg letter [ˈlɛtɐ] 'letter' Not all dialects. Corresponds to /ər/ in standard Dutch.
Eastern
Flemish Brabant
The Hague
Twente
English California[5] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ʌ may be used to transcribe this vowel. For most Australians it's fully open [ä], the same is true for some South Africans. In New Zealand it may be fronted [ɐ̟] or somewhat lower [ä].[6] See English phonology
Cultivated Australian
New Zealand[7][6]
Received Pronunciation[8]
South African
Scottish[9] stack [stɐ̟k] 'stack' Fronted; corresponds to [æ] in other dialects, and also [ɑː] in some other dialects.
Cockney[10][11] stuck 'stuck' Fronted; may be [a] instead.
Inland Northern American[12] bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
German Standard[13] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects. See German phonology
Greek[14] ακακία akaa [ɐkɐˈci.ɐ] 'acacia' Most often transcribed /a/ for simplicity. See Modern Greek phonology
Korean[15] bal [pɐl] 'foot' Somewhat lowered. Typically transcribed as /a/. See Korean phonology
Lombard Sant [ˈsɐnt] 'saint'
Luxembourgish[16] Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ̠] 'wall' Somewhat retracted. Allophone of word-final /əʀ/.
Portuguese Fluminense açúcar [ɐˈsukɐχ] 'sugar' In complementary distribution with /a/.[17] Raised to [ɜ̝] in other variants (where it is a phoneme). See Portuguese phonology
General Brazilian[17] cana [ˈkɐ̃n̪ɐ] 'cane'
European[18] pão [pɐ̃w̃] 'bread' Stressed vowel, mostly as a phonemic nasal vowel (when not followed by a nasal stop). Raised otherwise.
Russian[19] голова About this sound [ɡəɫ̪ɐˈva]  'head' Occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Ukrainian дитина [dɪ'tɪnɐ] 'kid, child' Unstressed a. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese ăn [ɐn] 'to eat' See Vietnamese phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 39.
  2. ^ a b Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  3. ^ a b Harrison (1997), pp. 2.
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998), pp. 100–101.
  5. ^ Ladefoged (1999), p. ?.
  6. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  7. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  8. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 186.
  9. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  10. ^ Wells (1982), p. 305.
  11. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  12. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997), A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved March 15, 2013 
  13. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  14. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 25.
  15. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  16. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  17. ^ a b Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), pp. 91–92.
  19. ^ Padgett & Tabain (2005), p. 16.

References[edit]