|Classification and external resources|
Myopia (Ancient Greek: μυωπία, muōpia, from myein "to shut (like a mole - mys/mus in Greek)" – ops (gen. opos) "eye, look, sight"[not in citation given]) literally meaning "trying to see like a mole" (mys/mus), commonly known as near-sightedness (American English) and short-sightedness (British English), is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it, causing the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus, but in focus when looking at a close object.
When used colloquially, 'myopia' can also refer to a view on or way of thinking about something which is—by extension of the medical definition—hyper-focused and fails to include a larger context beyond the focus.
Eye care professionals most commonly correct myopia through the use of corrective lenses, such as glasses or contact lenses. It may also be corrected by refractive surgery, though there are cases of associated side effects. The corrective lenses have a negative optical power (i.e. have a net concave effect) which compensates for the excessive positive diopters of the myopic eye. Negative diopters are generally used to describe the severity of the myopia, as this is the value of the lens to correct the eye. High-degree myopia, or severe myopia, is defined as -6 diopters or worse.
The opposite of myopia is hyperopia (long-sightedness).
- 1 Classification
- 2 Signs and symptoms
- 3 Correlations and Theories of Causes
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Management
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 Society and culture
- 9 Research
- 10 Evolutionary explanations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length.
- Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the refractive elements of the eye. Borish further subclassified refractive myopia:
- Curvature myopia is attributed to excessive, or increased, curvature of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, especially the cornea. In those with Cohen syndrome, myopia appears to result from high corneal and lenticular power.
- Index myopia is attributed to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media.
Elevation of blood-glucose levels can also cause edema (swelling) of the crystalline lens as a result of sorbitol (sugar alcohol) accumulating in the lens. This edema often causes temporary myopia (near-sightedness).
- Simple myopia, more common than other types of myopia, is characterized by an eye that is too long for its optical power (which is determined by the cornea and crystalline lens) or optically too powerful for its axial length. Both genetic and environmental factors, particularly significant amounts of near work, are thought to contribute to the development of simple myopia.
- Degenerative myopia, also known as malignant, pathological, or progressive myopia, is characterized by marked fundus changes, such as posterior staphyloma, and associated with a high refractive error and subnormal visual acuity after correction. This form of myopia gets progressively worse over time. Degenerative myopia has been reported as one of the main causes of visual impairment.
- Nocturnal myopia, also known as night or twilight myopia, is a condition in which the eye has a greater difficulty seeing in low-illumination areas, even though its daytime vision is normal. Essentially, the eye's far point of an individual's focus varies with the level of light. Night myopia is believed to be caused by pupils dilating to let more light in, which adds aberrations, resulting in becoming more near-sighted. A stronger prescription for myopic night drivers is often needed. Younger people are more likely to be affected by night myopia than the elderly.
- Pseudomyopia is the blurring of distance vision brought about by spasm of the ciliary muscle.
- Induced myopia, also known as acquired myopia, results from exposure to various pharmaceuticals, increases in glucose levels, nuclear sclerosis, oxygen toxicity (e.g., from diving or from oxygen and hyperbaric therapy) or other anomalous conditions. The encircling bands used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.
- Index myopia is attributed to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media. Cataracts may lead to index myopia.
- Form deprivation myopia occurs when the eyesight is deprived by limited illumination and vision range, or the eye is modified with artificial lenses or deprived of clear form vision. In lower vertebrates, this kind of myopia seems to be reversible within short periods of time. Myopia is often induced this way in various animal models to study the pathogenesis and mechanism of myopia development.
- Nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) is defined as short-term myopic far point shift immediately following a sustained near visual task. Some authors argue for a link between NITM and the development of permanent myopia.
- Instrument myopia is defined as over-accommodation when looking into an instrument such as a microscope.
- Low myopia usually describes myopia of −3.00 diopters or less (i.e. closer to 0.00).
- Medium myopia usually describes myopia between −3.00 and −6.00 diopters. Those with moderate amounts of myopia are more likely to have pigment dispersion syndrome or pigmentary glaucoma.
- High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more. People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal detachments and primary open angle glaucoma. They are also more likely to experience floaters, shadow-like shapes which appear singly or in clusters in the field of vision. Roughly 30% of myopes have high myopia.
Age at onset
Myopia is sometimes classified by the age at onset:
- Congenital myopia, also known as infantile myopia, is present at birth and persists through infancy.
- Youth onset myopia occurs in the early childhood or teenage, and the ocular power can keep varying until the age of 21, before which any form of corrective surgery is usually not recommended by ophthalmic specialists around the world.
- Adult onset myopia
Signs and symptoms
Myopia presents with blurry distance vision, but generally gives good near vision. In high myopia, even near vision is affected as objects must be extremely close to the eyes to see clearly, and patients cannot read without their glasses prescribed for distance. On fundoscopic examination of the eye, the optic nerve appears to be tilted and an area of white sclera could be seen on next to the disc with a line of hyperpigmentation separating this area from normal retina. The macula will have some retinal pigmentary changes and sometimes will have subretinal hemorrhages. The retina in myopic patients is thin and thorough evaluation of the periphery might show retinal holes and lattice degeneration. In addition, myopic patients might develop choroidal neovascularization in the macula.
Correlations and Theories of Causes
A 2012 review of animal and human epidemiological studies of heredity and environmental factors could not find strong evidence for any cause, although many theories have been discredited. Because twins and relatives are more likely to get myopia under similar circumstances, there must be a hereditary factor, but because myopia has been increasing so rapidly throughout the developed world, environmental factors must be more important.
Education and IQ
A number of studies have shown the incidence of myopia increases with level of education, and many studies have shown a correlation between myopia and a higher intelligence quotient (IQ).
A 2008 literature review reported studies in several nations have found a relationship between myopia and higher IQ and between myopia and school achievement. A common explanation for myopia is near-work. Regarding the relationship to IQ, several explanations have been proposed. One is that the myopic child is better adapted at reading, and reads and studies more, which increases intelligence. The reverse explanation is that the intelligent and studious child reads more, which causes myopia.
According to the two most recent studies, higher IQ may be associated with myopia in schoolchildren, independent of books read per week. Myopia is more common among students in gifted education.
Other risk factors
Other personal characteristics, such as value systems, school achievements, time spent in reading for pleasure, language abilities and time spent in sport activities correlated to the occurrence of myopia in studies.
A diagnosis of myopia is typically confirmed during an eye examination performed by a specialized doctor who is an expert in refractive conditions of the eye, the optometrist, or by an ophthalmologist or orthoptist. Frequently an autorefractor or retinoscope is used to give an initial objective assessment of the refractive status of each eye, then a phoropter is used to subjectively refine the patient's eyeglass prescription.
The National Institutes of Health says there is no known way of preventing myopia, and the use of glasses or contact lenses does not affect its progression. There is no universally accepted method of preventing myopia; proposed procedures have not been studied for effectiveness.
Various methods have been employed in an attempt to decrease the progression of myopia, although studies show mixed results. Many myopia treatment studies suffer from any of a number of design drawbacks: small numbers, lack of adequate control group, failure to mask examiners from knowledge of treatments used, etc.
Using Reading Glasses, Bifocals, or Special Contact Lenses
The use of reading glasses when doing close work may provide success by reducing or eliminating the need to accommodate. Altering the use of eyeglasses between full-time, part-time, and not at all does not appear to alter myopia progression. The American Optometric Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Myopia refers to numerous studies which indicated the effectiveness of bifocal lenses and recommends it as the method for "Myopia Control". In some studies, bifocal and progressive lenses have not shown significant differences in altering the progression of myopia.
Anti-muscarinic topical medications in children under 18 years of age slow the worsening of myopia. These treatments include pirenzepine gel, cyclopentolate eye drops, and atropine eye drops. While these treatments were shown to be effective in slowing the progression of myopia, side effects included light sensitivity and near blur.
Dr Chua Weihan and his team at National Eye Centre Singapore have conducted large scale studies on the effect of atropine of varying strength in stabilizing, and in some case, reducing myopia.
Scleral reinforcement surgery is aimed to cover the thinning posterior pole with a supportive material to withstand intraocular pressure and prevent further progression of the posterior staphyloma. The strain is reduced, although damage from the pathological process cannot be reversed. By stopping the progression of the disease, vision may be maintained or improved.
Eyeglasses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery are the primary options to treat the visual symptoms of those with myopia. Lens implants are now available offering an alternative to glasses or contact lenses for myopics for whom laser surgery is not an option. Orthokeratology is the practice of using special rigid contact lenses to flatten the cornea to reduce myopia. Occasionally, pinhole glasses are used by patients with low-level myopia. These work by reducing the blur circle formed on the retina, but their adverse effects on peripheral vision, contrast and brightness make them unsuitable in most situations.
For people with a high degree of myopia, very strong eyeglass prescriptions are needed to correct the focus error. However, strong eyeglass prescriptions have a negative side effect in that off-axis viewing of objects away from the center of the lens results in prismatic movement and separation of colors, known as chromatic aberration. This prismatic distortion is visible to the wearer as color fringes around strongly contrasting colors. The fringes move around as the wearer's gaze through the lenses changes, and the prismatic shifting reverses on either side, above, and below the exact center of the lenses. Color fringing can make accurate drawing and painting difficult for users of strong eyeglass prescriptions.
Strongly near-sighted wearers of contact lenses do not experience chromatic aberration because the lens moves with the cornea and always stays centered in the middle of the wearer's gaze.
Refractive surgery includes procedures which alter the corneal curvature or which add additional refractive means inside the eye.
PRK / LASEK
Ablation of corneal tissue from the corneal surface using an Excimer Laser. The amount of tissue ablation corresponds to the amount of myopia. Advantage: Relatively safe procedure up to 6 dioptres of myopia. Disadvantage: postoperatively painful.
In a preprocedure a corneal flap is cut into the cornea and lifted to allow the Excimer laser beam access to the exposed corneal tissue. After that the Excimer laser ablates the tissue according to the required correction. When the flap again covers the cornea the change in curvature generated by the laser ablation proceeds to the corneal surface. Advantage: Not painful and short rehabilitation time. Disadvantage: Potential flap complications and potential loss of corneal stability (post-LASIK Keratectasia).
Instead of modifying the corneal surface, as in laser vision correction (LVC), an additional lens is implanted inside the eye (i.e., in addition to the already existing natural lens). Advantage: Relatively good control of the refractive change. Disadvantage: Potential serious long-term complications such as glaucoma, cataract and endothelial decompensation.
CISIS / MyoRing
After creation of an almost completely closed corneal pocket, a compressible yet rigid complete ring is inserted 0.3 mm under the cornea surface into the cornea. This procedure changes the central corneal curvature required for the myopic correction. Advantage: Safe and reversible. Disadvantage: Good predicatability of the refractive result only in moderate and high myopia above 5 dioptres.
A number of alternative therapies exist including eye exercises and relaxation techniques, such as the Bates method by William H. Bates, an American ophthalmologist who discovered adrenaline's usage for eye surgeries. He states in his book that "It is as natural for the eye to see as it is for the mind to acquire knowledge, and any effort in either case is not only useless, but defeats the end in view". However, the efficacy of these practices is disputed by scientists and eye care practitioners. A 2005 review of scientific papers on the subject concluded that there was "no clear scientific evidence" that eye exercises were effective in treating myopia.
In the 1980s and 1990s, biofeedback created a flurry of interest as a possible treatment for myopia. A 1997 review of this biofeedback research concluded "controlled studies to validate such methods ... have been rare and contradictory." One study found that myopes could improve their visual acuity with biofeedback training, but that this improvement was "instrument-specific" and did not generalize to other measures or situations. In another study, an "improvement" in visual acuity was found, but the authors concluded this could be a result of subjects learning the task. Finally, in an evaluation of a training system designed to improve acuity, "no significant difference was found between the control and experimental subjects".
Global refractive errors have been estimated to affect 800 million to 2.3 billion. The incidence of myopia within sampled population often varies with age, country, sex, race, ethnicity, occupation, environment, and other factors. Variability in testing and data collection methods makes comparisons of prevalence and progression difficult.
The prevalence of myopia has been reported as high as 70–90% in some Asian countries, 30–40% in Europe and the United States, and 10–20% in Africa. Myopia is about twice as common in Jews than in Gentiles. Myopia is less common in African people and associated diaspora. In Americans between the ages of 12 and 54, myopia has been found to affect African Americans less than Caucasians.
In some parts of Asia, myopia is very common. Singapore is believed to have the highest prevalence of myopia in the world; up to 80% of people there have myopia, but the accurate figure is unknown. China's myopia rate is 31%: 400 million of its 1.3 billion people are myopic. The prevalence of myopia in high school in China is 77.3%, and in college is more than 80%. In some areas, such as China and Malaysia, up to 41% of the adult population is myopic to 1.00 dpt, and up to 80% to 0.5 dpt. A study of Jordanian adults aged 17 to 40 found over half (53.7%) were myopic. However, some research suggests the prevalence of myopia in India in the general population is only 6.9%.
In first-year undergraduate students in the United Kingdom found 50% of British whites and 53.4% of British Asians were myopic. In Greece, the prevalence of myopia among 15- to 18-year-old students was found to be 36.8%. A recent review found 26.6% of Western Europeans aged 40 or over have at least −1.00 diopters of myopia and 4.6% have at least −5.00 diopters.
Myopia is common in the United States, with research suggesting this condition has increased dramatically in recent decades. In 1971–1972, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provided the earliest nationally representative estimates for myopia prevalence in the U.S., and found the prevalence in persons aged 12–54 was 25.0%. Using the same method, in 1999–2004, myopia prevalence was estimated to have climbed to 41.6%.
A study of 2,523 children in grades 1 to 8 (age, 5–17 years) found nearly one in 10 (9.2%) have at least − 0.75 diopters of myopia . In this study, 12.8% had at least +1.25 D hyperopia (farsightedness), and 28.4% had at least 1.00-D difference between the two principal meridians (cycloplegic autorefraction) of astigmatism. For myopia, Asians had the highest prevalence (18.5%), followed by Hispanics (13.2%). Caucasian children had the lowest prevalence of myopia (4.4%), which was not significantly different from African Americans (6.6%).
A recent review found 25.4% of Americans aged 40 or over have at least −1.00 diopters of myopia and 4.5% have at least −5.00 diopters.
In Australia, the overall prevalence of myopia (worse than −0.50 diopters) has been estimated to be 17%. In one recent study, less than one in 10 (8.4%) Australian children between the ages of four and 12 were found to have myopia greater than −0.50 diopters. A recent review found 16.4% of Australians aged 40 or over have at least −1.00 diopters of myopia and 2.8% have at least −5.00 diopters.
In Brazil, a 2005 study estimated 6.4% of Brazilians between the ages of 12 and 59 had −1.00 diopter of myopia or more, compared with 2.7% of the indigenous people in northwestern Brazil. Another found nearly 1 in 8 (13.3%) of the students in the city of Natal were myopic.
Society and culture
The terms "myopia" and "myopic" (or the common terms "short-sightedness" or "short-sighted", respectively) have been used metaphorically to refer to cognitive thinking and decision making that is narrow in scope or lacking in foresight or in concern for wider interests or for longer-term consequences. It is often used to describe a decision that may be beneficial in the present, but detrimental in the future, or a viewpoint that fails to consider anything outside a very narrow and limited range. Hyperopia, the biological opposite of myopia, may also be used metaphorically for a value system or motivation that exhibits "farsighted" or possibly visionary thinking and behavior; that is, emphasizing long-term interests at the apparent expense of near-term benefit.
Normally eye development is largely genetically controlled, but it has been shown that the visual environment is an important factor in determining ocular development . Some research suggests that myopia may be inherited from one's parents.
Genetic basis for myopia
Genetically, linkage studies have identified 18 possible loci on 15 different chromosomes that are associated with myopia, but none of these loci are part of the candidate genes that cause myopia. Instead of a simple one-gene locus controlling the onset of myopia, a complex interaction of many mutated proteins acting in concert may be the cause. Instead of myopia being caused by a defect in a structural protein, defects in the control of these structural proteins might be the actual cause of myopia. A collaboration of all myopia studies worldwide, identified 16 new loci for refractive error in individuals of European ancestry, of which 8 were shared with Asians. The new loci include candidate genes with functions in neurotransmission, ion transport, retinoic acid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and eye development. The carriers of the high-risk genes have a tenfold increased risk of myopia.
To induce myopia in lower as well as higher vertebrates, translucent goggles can be sutured over the eye, either before or after natural eye opening. Form-deprived myopia (FDM) induced with a diffuser, like the goggles mentioned, shows significant myopic shifts. Anatomically, the changes in axial length of the eye seem to be the major factor contributing to this type of myopia. Diurnal growth rhythms of the eye have also been shown to play a large part in FDM. Chemically, daytime retinal dopamine levels drop about 30%.
Normal eyes grow during the day and shrink during the night, but occluded eyes are shown to grow both during the day and the night. Because of this, FDM is a result of the lack of growth inhibition at night rather than the expected excessive growth during the day, when the actual light deprivation occurred. Elevated levels of retinal dopamine transporter (which is directly involved in controlling retinal dopamine levels) in the RPE have been shown to be associated with FDM.
Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the retina involved in signal transmission in the visual system. In the retinal inner nuclear layer, a dopaminergic neuronal network has been visualized in amacrine cells. Also, retinal dopamine is involved in the regulation of electrical coupling between horizontal cells and the retinomotor movement of photoreceptor cells. Although FDM-related elongations in axial length and drops in dopamine levels are significant, after the diffuser is removed, a complete refraction recovery is seen within four days in some laboratory mice. Although significant, what is even more intriguing is that within just two days of diffuser removal, an early rise and eventual normalization of retinal dopamine levels in the eye are seen. This suggests dopamine participates in visually guided eye growth regulation, and these fluctuations are not just a response to the FDM.
L-Dopa has been shown to re-establish circadian rhythms in animals whose circadian rhythms have been abolished. Dopamine, a major metabolite of levodopa, releases in response to light, and helps establish circadian clocks that drive daily rhythms of protein phosphorylation in photoreceptor cells. Because retinal dopamine levels are controlled on a circadian pattern, intravitreal injection of L-dopa in animals that have lost dopamine and circadian rhythms has been shown to correct these patterns, especially in heart rate, temperature, and locomotor activity. The occluders block light completely for the animals, which does not allow them to establish correct circadian rhythms, which leads to dopamine depletion. This depletion can be rectified with injections of L-dopa and hopefully contribute to the recovery from FDM.
- L-Dopa metabolism is important to consider due to its extensive presystemic metabolism, rapid absorption in the proximal small intestine and short plasma half-life. The major metabolites of L-dopa are dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 3-O-methyldopa and 3-methoxytyramine. Levodopa can be converted into dopamine in the presence of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (L-AAAD). L-AAAD activity in rat retinas is modulated by environmental light, and this modulation is associated with dopamine D1 receptors and alpha 2 adrenoceptors. Also, the synthesis and release of dopamine are light dependent, and light accelerates the formation of dopamine from exogenous L-Dopa.
- Past treatments with dopamine has been used as the gold-standard drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and low-dose administration of the drug has been the most effective treatment of Parkinson’s. Possible treatments involving dopamine in preventing a decrease in visual acuity have been shown to be successful in the past. L-Dopa treatment in children with amblyopia showed an improvement in visual acuity. In rabbits, injections of dopamine prevented the myopic shift and vitreous chamber and axial elongation typically associated with FDM. In guinea pigs, systemic L-dopa has been shown to inhibit the myopic shift associated with FDM, and has compensated for the drop in retinal dopamine levels. These experiments show promise in treating myopia in humans.
- Side effects of L-dopa have been experimentally determined. L-Dopa and some of its metabolites have been shown to have pro-oxidant properties, and oxidative stress has been shown to increase the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. This promotion of free-radical formation by L-dopa does seem to directly affect its possible future treatment of myopia because free-radicals could cause further damage to those proteins responsible for controlling structural proteins in the eye. Levodopa and some of its metabolites such as dopa/dopamine quinone have also been shown to be toxic for nigral neurons. This toxic effect must be analyzed before treatment with levodopa for myopia to prevent damaging effects to these neurons.
L-Dopa inhibits myopic shifts
In guinea pigs, intraperitoneal injections of L-dopa have shown to inhibit the myopic shift associated with FDM and have compensated to the drop in retinal dopamine levels. In this study specifically, 60 animals were used and the L-dopa treatments inhibited the myopic shift (from −3.62 ± 0.98 D to −1.50 ± 0.38 D; p < 0.001) due to goggles occluding and compensated retinal dopamine (from 0.65 ± 0.10 ng to 1.33 ± 0.23 ng; p < 0.001). Daily L-dopa (10 mg/kg) was shown to increase the dopamine content in striatum. The axial length and retinal dopamine changes were positively correlated in the normal control eyes, deprived eyes, and L-dopa-treated deprived eyes. The increase in retinal dopamine and subsequent retardation of myopia may be associated with the fact that exogenous L-dopa was converted into dopamine. This suggests retinal dopaminergic function in the development of form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. The inhibitory effect of L-dopa on FDM may be associated with the fact that retinal L-AAAD can convert it into dopamine to balance the deficiency in the retina of the deprived eyes.
- Areas of future research include intraperitoneal injection of L-dopa; its use at 10 mg/kg could not completely suppress the development of form-deprivation myopia. Perhaps the dose may be too low to completely suppress myopia. Another possibility of the incomplete suppression of myopia may be because it is a complex process, and retinal dopamine content is only one factor. It is also unclear whether systemic application of L-dopa is able to suppress the development of form-deprivation myopia.
There are two main theories for the ultimate evolutionary cause for myopia with implications in evolutionary medicine. They both stem back to mismatch theory, which is the idea that the environment to which the human body was adapted over millions of years does not match our current environment. The transition from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle to the modern Western lifestyle has facilitated the development of chronic, noninfectious diseases such as myopia. Studies of modern hunter-gatherer populations in Africa and Inuit populations in the Arctic point to environmental factors as the leading cause of myopia  In ancestral populations, myopic genes would have been strongly selected against because of the survival disadvantage they caused.
“Near work” or “Close work” hypothesis
This hypothesis, also referred to as the “use-abuse theory”  states that many aspects of our modern environment involve near work, which strains our eyes. Examples include reading and looking at pixelated screens of computers and phones for long periods of time. A majority of people in the developed world spend most, if not all, of their days doing tasks defined as “close work”, steadily building up a pressure in the eye, as the ciliary fibers that focus the eye are constantly contracting in an effort to follow words on a page. This is especially exacerbated in children whose eyes are still developing; their eyes may grow permanently elongated and myopic. This hypothesis helps elucidate why some associations between myopia, intelligence, and education were made in some studies in the 20th century. People who have more access to education likely read much more and likely score higher on intelligence tests, therefore creating a spurious association between intelligence and myopia. This spurious association further explains the social and geographical patterns and trends in rates of myopia worldwide. Some trends include Africans and people of African descent having lower rates of myopia while Asians and people of Jewish descent have higher rates of myopia, perhaps due to differential education opportunities. 
"Visual stimuli" hypothesis
Although not mutually exclusive with the other hypotheses presented, the visual stimuli hypothesis adds another layer of mismatch to explain the modern prevalence of myopia. There is evidence that lack of normal visual stimuli causes improper development of the eyeball. In this case, “normal” refers to the environmental stimuli that the eyeball evolved for over hundreds of millions of years. These stimuli would include diverse natural environments—the ocean, the jungle, the forest, and the savannah plains, among other dynamic visually exciting environments. Modern humans who spend most of their time indoors, in dimly or fluorescently lit buildings are not giving their eyes the appropriate stimuli to which they had evolved and may contribute to the development of myopia. Experiments where animals such as kittens and monkeys had their eyes sewn shut for long periods of time also show eyeball elongation, demonstrating that complete lack of stimuli also causes improper growth trajectories of the eyeball. Further research shows that people, and children especially, who spend more time doing physical activity and outdoor activity have lower rates of myopia, relating the increased magnitude and complexity of the visual stimuli encountered during these types of activities.
- Harper, Douglas. "myopia". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Etiopathogenesis and management of high-degree myopia. Part I
- Borish, Irvin M. (1949). Clinical Refraction. Chicago: The Professional Press.
- Duke-Elder, Sir Stewart (1969). The Practice of Refraction (8th ed.). St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company. ISBN 0-7000-1410-1.
- Cline, D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR (1997). Dictionary of Visual Science (4th ed.). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0.
- Summanen P, Kivitie-Kallio S, Norio R, Raitta C, Kivelä T; Kivitie-Kallio; Norio; Raitta; Kivelä (2002). "Mechanisms of myopia in Cohen syndrome mapped to chromosome 8q22". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43 (5): 1686–1693. PMID 11980891.
- Goss, DA; Eskridge JB (1988). "Myopia". In Amos, JB (ed). Diagnosis and management in vision care. Boston: Butterworths. p. 445. ISBN 0-409-95082-3. OCLC 14967262.
- Richards, OW (1976). "Instrument myopia--microscopy". American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 53 (10): 658–663. doi:10.1097/00006324-197610000-00003. PMID 1015520.
- American Optometric Association. Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Care of the patient with myopia. 1997.
- Li CY, Lin KK, Lin YC, Lee JS; Lin; Lin; Lee (March 2002). "Low vision and methods of rehabilitation: a comparison between the past and present". Chang Gung Med J 25 (3): 153–61. PMID 12022735.
- The Eyecare Trust. Night Driving – The Facts. OR Eye care advice for driving in the dark 26 January 2005.'
- Chen JC, Schmid KL, Brown B; Schmid; Brown (2003). "The autonomic control of accommodation and implications for human myopia development: A review". Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists) 23 (5): 401–422. doi:10.1046/j.1475-1313.2003.00135.x. PMID 12950887.
- Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. (2001) Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, ISBN 0937404632.
- Vukojević N, Sikić J, Curković T, Juratovac Z, Katusić D, Sarić B, Jukić T; Sikić; Curković; Juratovac; Katusić; Sarić; Jukić (2005). "Axial eye length after retinal detachment surgery". Collegium antropologicum 29 (Suppl 1): 25–27. PMID 16193671.
- Metge P, Donnadieu M; Donnadieu (1993). "Myopia and cataract". La Revue du praticien (in French) 43 (14): 1784–1786. PMID 8310218.
- Young, FA (1962). "The effect of nearwork illumination level on monkey refraction". Am J Optom and Arch Am Acad Optom 39 (2): 60–67. doi:10.1097/00006324-196202000-00002.
- Zhu X, Park TW, Winawer J, Wallman J; Park; Winawer; Wallman (2005). "In a Matter of Minutes, the Eye Can Know Which Way to Grow". Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 46 (7): 2238–2241. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-0956. PMID 15980206.
- Wallman J, Gottlieb MD, Rajaram V, Fugate-Wentzek LA; Gottlieb; Rajaram; Fugate-Wentzek (1987). "Local retinal regions control local eye growth and myopia". Science 237 (4810): 73–77. Bibcode:1987Sci...237...73W. doi:10.1126/science.3603011. JSTOR 1699607. PMID 3603011.
- Shen W, Vijayan M, Sivak JG; Vijayan; Sivak (2005). "Inducing form-deprivation myopia in fish". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46 (5): 1797–1803. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-1318. PMID 15851585.
- Ong E, Ciuffreda KJ; Ciuffreda (1995). "Nearwork-induced transient myopia: a critical review". Doc Ophthalmol. 91 (1): 57–85. doi:10.1007/BF01204624. PMID 8861637.
- Ciuffreda KJ, Vasudevan B; Vasudevan (2008). "Nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) and permanent myopia—is there a link?". Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 28 (2): 103–114. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2008.00550.x. PMID 18339041.
- Grosvenor T (July 1987). "A review and a suggested classification system for myopia on the basis of age-related prevalence and age of onset". Am J Optom Physiol Opt 64 (7): 545–54. doi:10.1097/00006324-198707000-00012. PMID 3307441.
- "Glaucoma." EyeMDLink.com. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- Larkin GL. "Retinal Detachment." eMedicine.com. 11 April 2006.
- "More Information on Glaucoma." AgingEye Times. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- Messmer DE (1992). "Retinal detachment". Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. (in German) 81 (19): 622–625. PMID 1589678.
- Verma A, Singh D. "Myopia, Phakic IOL." eMedicine.com. 19 August 2005.
- Morgan I, Rose K; Rose (January 2005). "How genetic is school myopia?". Prog Retin Eye Res 24 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2004.06.004. PMID 15555525.
- Sivak, Jacob (2012). "The cause(s) of myopia and the efforts that have been made to prevent it". Clinical and Experimental Optometry 95 (6): 572–582. doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.2012.00781.x. ISSN 0816-4622. PMID 22845416.
- Nature News Feature: The myopia boom. Short-sightedness is reaching epidemic proportions. Some scientists think they have found a reason why. Elie Dolgin. Nature, 519:276–278. 19 March 2015. doi:10.1038/519276a
- Sperduto RD, Seigel D, Roberts J, Rowland M; Seigel; Roberts; Rowland (1983). "Prevalence of myopia in the United States". Arch. Ophthalmol. 101 (3): 405–7. doi:10.1001/archopht.1983.01040010405011. PMID 6830491.
- Mavracanas TA, Mandalos A, Peios D, Golias V, Megalou K, Gregoriadou A, Delidou K, Katsougiannopoulos B; Mandalos; Peios; Golias; Megalou; Gregoriadou; Delidou; Katsougiannopoulos (2000). "Prevalence of myopia in a sample of Greek students". Acta Ophthalmol Scand 78 (6): 656–9. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0420.2000.078006656.x. PMID 11167226.
- Wu, Hui-Min; Seet, Benjamin; Yap, Eric Peng-Huat; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lim, Tock-Han; Chia, Kee-Seng (April 2001). "Does Education Explain Ethnic Differences in Myopia Prevalence? A Population-Based Study of Young Adult Males in Singapore". Optometry & Vision Science 78 (4): 234–239. doi:10.1097/00006324-200104000-00012.
- Rosenfield, Mark and Gilmartin, Bernard (1998). Myopia and nearwork. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7506-3784-8.
- Czepita D, Lodygowska E, Czepita M; Lodygowska; Czepita (2008). "Are children with myopia more intelligent? A literature review". Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis 54 (1): 13–16; discussion 16. PMID 19127804.
- Jensen, A.R. (1998) The g Factor. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, ISBN 0275961036
- Czepita D., Lodygowska E., Czepita M.; Lodygowska; Czepita (2008). "Are children with myopia more intelligent?" (PDF). Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis 54 (1): 13–16. PMID 19127804.
- Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Jones LA, Zadnik K; Mitchell; Moeschberger; Jones; Zadnik (2002). "Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children's refractive error". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 (12): 3633–3640. PMID 12454029.
- Cui, Dongmei; Trier, Klaus; Ribel-Madsen, Søren Munk (May 2013). "Effect of Day Length on Eye Growth, Myopia Progression, and Change of Corneal Power in Myopic Children". Ophthalmology 120 (5): 1074–1079. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.10.022. PMID 23380471.
- Sherwin, Justin (25 October 2011). "Lack of outdoor play linked to short-sighted children". BBC News. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- Beedle SL, Young FA; Young (1976). "Values, personality, physical characteristics, and refractive error". American journal of optometry and physiological optics 53 (11): 735–739. doi:10.1097/00006324-197611000-00005. PMID 998715.
- Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith W, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Saw SM; Morgan; Smith; Burlutsky; Mitchell; Saw (2008). "Myopia, Lifestyle, and Schooling in Students of Chinese Ethnicity in Singapore and Sydney" (PDF). Archives of Ophthalmology 126 (4): 527–530. doi:10.1001/archopht.126.4.527. PMID 18413523.
- "Orthoptists and Prescribing in NSW, VIC and SA". The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Near-sightedness. National Institutes of Health. 2010.
- Saw SM, Gazzard G, Au Eong KG, Tan DT; Gazzard; Au Eong; Tan (November 2002). "Myopia: attempts to arrest progression". Br J Ophthalmol 86 (11): 1306–11. doi:10.1136/bjo.86.11.1306. PMC 1771373. PMID 12386095.
- Ong E, Grice K, Held R, Thorn F, Gwiazda J; Grice; Held; Thorn; Gwiazda (June 1999). "Effects of spectacle intervention on the progression of myopia in children". Optom Vis Sci 76 (6): 363–9. doi:10.1097/00006324-199906000-00015. PMID 10416930.
- Pärssinen O, Hemminki E, Klemetti A; Hemminki; Klemetti (1989). "Effect of spectacle use and accommodation on myopic progression: final results of a three-year randomised clinical trial among schoolchildren". Br J Ophthalmol 73 (7): 547–51. doi:10.1136/bjo.73.7.547. PMC 1041798. PMID 2667638.
- Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M; Cheung; Edwards (2005). "The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: A pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control". Current eye research 30 (1): 71–80. doi:10.1080/02713680590907256. PMID 15875367.
- Aller TA, Wildsoet C; Wildsoet (July 2008). "Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins". Clin Exp Optom 91 (4): 394–9. doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.2007.00230.x. PMID 18601670.
- Walline JJ, Lindsley K, Vedula SS, Cotter SA, Mutti DO, Twelker JD; Lindsley; Vedula; Cotter; Mutti; Twelker (2011). "Interventions to slow progression of myopia in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12): CD004916. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004916.pub3. PMC 4270373. PMID 22161388.
- Siatkowski RM, Cotter S, Miller JM, Scher CA, Crockett RS, Novack GD; Cotter; Miller; Scher; Crockett; Novack; Us Pirenzepine Study (2004). "Safety and efficacy of 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in children with myopia: a 1-year, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled parallel study". Arch Ophthalmol 122 (11): 1667–74. doi:10.1001/archopht.122.11.1667. PMID 15534128.
- Ward, B., Tarutta, E., & Mayer, M. (2009). The efficacy and safety of posterior pole buckles in the control of progressive high myopia. Eye, 23(12), 2169–2174.
- "AOA Clinical Practice Guidelines - Myopia" (PDF). American Optometric Association. 2006. Retrieved 2015-02-17.
- Trokel SL, Srinivasan R and Braren B. Excimer Laser Surgery of the cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;96:710-715.
- Seiler T, Berlin MS, Bende T and Trokel S. Excimer laser keratectomy for correction of astigmatism. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105:117-120.
- Pallikaris IG, Siganos DS. Laser in situ keratomileusis to treat myopia: early experience. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997;23:39-49.
- Pallikaris IG, Kymionis GD and Astyrakakis NI. Corneal ectasia induced by laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001;27:1796-1802.
- Menezo JL, Periz-Martinez C, Cisneros-Lanuza AL and Martinez-Costa R. Rate of cataract formation in 343 highly myopic eyes after implantation of 3 types of phacic intraocular lenses. J Refract Surg 2004;20:317-324.
- Torun et al. Posterior chamber phacic intraocular lens to correct myopia:long-term follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg 2013;39:1023-1028.
- Moshirfar M, Imbornoni LM, Ostler EM and Muthappan V. Incidence rate and occurrence of visually significant cataract formation and corneal decompensation after implantation of Verisyse/Artisan phakic intraocular lens. Clin Ophthalmol 2014;8:711-716.
- Daxer A. Corneal intrastromal implantation surgery for the treatment of moderate and high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2008;34:194-198.
- Daxer A. MyoRing Treatment for Cases of Myopia not eligible for Laser Vision Correction. International Journal of Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Diseases 2014;3:20-22.
- Wm H Bates: Perfect Sight Without Glasses 1920 pg 106[incomplete short citation]
- Bradley, Robyn E. (23 September 2003). "Advocates see only benefits from eye exercises" (PDF). The Boston Globe (MA).
- Rawstron JA, Burley CD, Elder MJ; Burley; Elder (2005). "A systematic review of the applicability and efficacy of eye exercises". J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 42 (2): 82–8. PMID 15825744.
- Rupolo G, Angi M, Sabbadin E, Caucci S, Pilotto E, Racano E, de Bertolini C; Angi; Sabbadin; Caucci; Pilotto; Racano; De Bertolini (1997). "Treating myopia with acoustic biofeedback: A prospective study on the evolution of visual acuity and psychological distress". Psychosomatic Medicine 59 (3): 313–317. doi:10.1097/00006842-199705000-00014. PMID 9178342.
- Randle RJ (1988). "Responses of myopes to volitional control training of accommodation". Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 8 (3): 333–340. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.1988.tb01063.x. PMID 3269512.
- Gallaway M, Pearl SM, Winkelstein AM, Scheiman M; Pearl; Winkelstein; Scheiman (1987). "Biofeedback training of visual acuity and myopia: A pilot study". Am J Optom Physiol Opt 64 (1): 62–71. doi:10.1097/00006324-198701000-00011. PMID 3826280.
- Koslowe KC, Spierer A, Rosner M, Belkin M; Spierer; Rosner; Belkin (1991). "Evaluation of accommotrac biofeedback training for myopia control". Optom Vis Sci 68 (5): 252–4. doi:10.1097/00006324-199105000-00003. PMID 1852394.
- Dunaway D, Berger I. "Worldwide Distribution of Visual Refractive Errors and What to Expect at a Particular Location". infocusonline.org.
- Fredrick DR (May 2002). "Myopia". BMJ 324 (7347): 1195–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7347.1195. PMC 1123161. PMID 12016188.
- National Research Council Commission (1989). Myopia: Prevalence and Progression, Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-04081-7
- "Discovery of Gene May Provide Treatment for Near-sightedness". Disabled-world.com. 12 September 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- 全国近视眼人数近4亿 近视已影响国人健康. Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved on 21 April 2013.
- Chandran S (1972). "Comparative study of refractive errors in West Malaysia". The British journal of ophthalmology 56 (6): 492–495. doi:10.1136/bjo.56.6.492. PMC 1208824. PMID 5069190.
- Wu HM, Seet B, Yap EP, Saw SM, Lim TH, Chia KS; Seet; Yap; Saw; Lim; Chia (2001). "Does education explain ethnic differences in myopia prevalence? A population-based study of young adult males in Singapore". Optom Vis Sci 78 (4): 234–239. doi:10.1097/00006324-200104000-00012. PMID 11349931.
- Mallen EA, Gammoh Y, Al-Bdour M, Sayegh FN; Gammoh; Al-Bdour; Sayegh (2005). "Refractive error and ocular biometry in Jordanian adults". Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 25 (4): 302–9. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2005.00306.x. PMID 15953114.
- Mohan M, Pakrasi S, Zutshi R; Pakrasi; Zutshi (1988). "Myopia in India". Acta Ophthalmol Suppl 185: 19–23. PMID 2853533.
- Logan NS, Davies LN, Mallen EA, Gilmartin B; Davies; Mallen; Gilmartin (April 2005). "Ametropia and ocular biometry in a U.K. university student population". Optom Vis Sci 82 (4): 261–6. doi:10.1097/01.OPX.0000159358.71125.95. PMID 15829853.
- Kempen JH, Mitchell P, Lee KE, Tielsch JM, Broman AT, Taylor HR, Ikram MK, Congdon NG, O'Colmain BJ; Mitchell; Lee; Tielsch; Broman; Taylor; Ikram; Congdon; O'Colmain; Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group (2004). "The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia". Arch. Ophthalmol. 122 (4): 495–505. doi:10.1001/archopht.122.4.495. PMID 15078666.
- Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL; Sperduto; Ferris Fl (2009). "Increased Prevalence of Myopia in the United States Between 1971–1972 and 1999–2004". Arch Ophthalmol 127 (12): 1632–9. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.303. PMID 20008719.
- Kleinstein RN, Jones LA, Hullett S, Kwon S, Lee RJ, Friedman NE, Manny RE, Mutti DO, Yu JA, Zadnik K; Jones; Hullett; Kwon; Lee; Friedman; Manny; Mutti; Yu; Zadnik; Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity Refractive Error Study Group (August 2003). "Refractive error and ethnicity in children". Arch. Ophthalmol. 121 (8): 1141–7. doi:10.1001/archopht.121.8.1141. PMID 12912692.
- Wensor M, McCarty CA, Taylor HR; McCarty; Taylor (May 1999). "Prevalence and risk factors of myopia in Victoria, Australia". Arch. Ophthalmol. 117 (5): 658–63. doi:10.1001/archopht.117.5.658. PMID 10326965.
- Junghans BM, Crewther SG; Crewther (2005). "Little evidence for an epidemic of myopia in Australian primary school children over the last 30 years". BMC Ophthalmol 5: 1. doi:10.1186/1471-2415-5-1. PMC 552307. PMID 15705207.
- Thorn F, Cruz AA, Machado AJ, Carvalho RA; Cruz; Machado; Carvalho (April 2005). "Refractive status of indigenous people in the northwestern Amazon region of Brazil". Optom Vis Sci 82 (4): 267–72. doi:10.1097/01.OPX.0000159371.25986.67. PMID 15829854.
- Garcia CA, Oréfice F, Nobre GF, Souza Dde B, Rocha ML, Vianna RN; Oréfice; Nobre; Souza Dde; Rocha; Vianna (2005). "[Prevalence of refractive errors in students in Northeastern Brazil.]". Arq Bras Oftalmol (in Portuguese) 68 (3): 321–5. doi:10.1590/S0004-27492005000300009. PMID 16059562.
- Brooks, David (19 March 2009). "Perverse Cosmic Myopia". New York Times.
- Thompson, Clive (17 September 2009). "Don't Work All the Time". Wired 17 (08). Retrieved 14 August 2009.
- Jacobi FK, Pusch CM; Pusch (2010). "A decade in search of myopia genes". Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 15: 359–372. doi:10.2741/3625. PMID 20036825.
- Verhoeven VJ, Hysi PG, Wojciechowski R, Fan Q, Guggenheim JA, Höhn R, MacGregor S, Hewitt AW, Nag A, Cheng CY, Yonova-Doing E, Zhou X, Ikram MK, Buitendijk GH, McMahon G, Kemp JP, Pourcain BS, Simpson CL, Mäkelä KM, Lehtimäki T, Kähönen M, Paterson AD, Hosseini SM, Wong HS, Xu L, Jonas JB, Pärssinen O, Wedenoja J, Yip SP, Ho DW, Pang CP, Chen LJ, Burdon KP, Craig JE, Klein BE, Klein R, Haller T, Metspalu A, Khor CC, Tai ES, Aung T, Vithana E, Tay WT, Barathi VA, Chen P, Li R, Liao J, Zheng Y, Ong RT, Döring A, Evans DM, Timpson NJ, Verkerk AJ, Meitinger T, Raitakari O, Hawthorne F, Spector TD, Karssen LC, Pirastu M, Murgia F, Ang W, Mishra A, Montgomery GW, Pennell CE, Cumberland PM, Cotlarciuc I, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Schache M, Janmahasatian S, Janmahasathian S, Igo RP, Lass JH, Chew E, Iyengar SK, Gorgels TG, Rudan I, Hayward C, Wright AF, Polasek O, Vatavuk Z, Wilson JF, Fleck B, Zeller T, Mirshahi A, Müller C, Uitterlinden AG, Rivadeneira F, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, Oostra BA, Amin N, Bergen AA, Teo YY, Rahi JS, Vitart V, Williams C, Baird PN, Wong TY, Oexle K, Pfeiffer N, Mackey DA, Young TL, van Duijn CM, Saw SM, Bailey-Wilson JE, Stambolian D, Klaver CC, Hammond CJ; Hysi; Wojciechowski; Fan; Guggenheim; Höhn; MacGregor; Hewitt; Nag; Cheng; Yonova-Doing; Zhou; Ikram; Buitendijk; McMahon; Kemp; Pourcain; Simpson; Mäkelä; Lehtimäki; Kähönen; Paterson; Hosseini; Wong; Xu; Jonas; Pärssinen; Wedenoja; Yip et al. (2013). "Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia". Nature Genetics 45 (3): 314–318. doi:10.1038/ng.2554. PMC 3740568. PMID 23396134.
- Shen W, Vijayan M, Sivak JG; Vijayan; Sivak (2005). "Inducing Form-Deprivation Myopia in Fish". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46 (5): 1797–1803. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-1318. PMID 15851585.
- Ji FT, Li Q, Zhu YL, Jiang LQ, Zhou XT, Pan MZ, Qu J; Li; Zhu; Jiang; Zhou; Pan; Qu (2009). "Form deprivation myopia in C57BL/6 mice". Chinese journal of ophthalmology 45 (11): 1020–1026. PMID 20137422.
- Tejedor J, de la Villa P; de la Villa (2003). "Refractive changes induced by form deprivation in the mouse eye". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 44 (1): 32–36. doi:10.1167/iovs.01-1171. PMID 12506052.
- Boulamery A, Simon N, Vidal J, Bruguerolle B; Simon; Vidal; Bruguerolle (2010). "Effects of L-Dopa on Circadian Rhythms of 6-Ohda Striatal Lesioned Rats: A Radiotelemetric Study". Chronobiology International 27 (2): 251–264. doi:10.3109/07420521003664213. PMID 20370468.
- Weiss S, Schaeffel F; Schaeffel (1993). "Diurnal growth rhythms in the chicken eye: Relation to myopia development and retinal dopamine levels". Journal of comparative physiology. A, Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology 172 (3): 263–270. doi:10.1007/BF00216608. PMID 8510054.
- Xi X, Chu R, Zhou X, Lu Y, Liu X; Chu; Zhou; Lu; Liu (2002). "Retinal dopamine transporter in experimental myopia". Chinese medical journal 115 (7): 1027–1030. PMID 12150736.
- McMahon DG, Brown DR; Brown (1994). "Modulation of gap-junction channel gating at zebrafish retinal electrical synapses". Journal of neurophysiology 72 (5): 2257–2268. PMID 7533830.
- Pendrak K, Nguyen T, Lin T, Capehart C, Zhu X, Stone RA; Nguyen; Lin; Capehart; Zhu; Stone (1997). "Retinal dopamine in the recovery from experimental myopia". Current eye research 16 (2): 152–157. doi:10.1076/ceyr.220.127.116.1190. PMID 9068946.
- Fernandez N, Garcia JJ, Diez MJ, Sahagun AM, Díez R, Sierra M; Garcia; Diez; Sahagun; Díez; Sierra (2010). "Effects of dietary factors on levodopa pharmacokinetics". Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 6 (5): 633–642. doi:10.1517/17425251003674364. PMID 20384552.
- O'Malley KL, Harmon S, Moffat M, Uhland-Smith A, Wong S; Harmon; Moffat; Uhland-Smith; Wong (1995). "The human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene can be alternatively spliced to generate unique protein isoforms". Journal of Neurochemistry 65 (6): 2409–2416. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1995.65062409.x. PMID 7595534.
- Hadjiconstantinou M, Rossetti Z, Silvia C, Krajnc D, Neff NH; Rossetti; Silvia; Krajnc; Neff (1988). "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity of the rat retina is modulated in vivo by environmental light". Journal of Neurochemistry 51 (5): 1560–1564. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1988.tb01125.x. PMID 3139836.
- Rossetti ZL, Silvia CP, Krajnc D, Neff NH, Hadjiconstantinou M; Silvia; Krajnc; Neff; Hadjiconstantinou (1990). "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase is modulated by D1 dopamine receptors in rat retina". Journal of Neurochemistry 54 (3): 787–791. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1990.tb02320.x. PMID 2137529.
- Rossetti Z, Krajnc D, Neff NH, Hadjiconstantinou M; Krajnc; Neff; Hadjiconstantinou (1989). "Modulation of retinal aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase via alpha 2 adrenoceptors". Journal of Neurochemistry 52 (2): 647–652. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1989.tb09169.x. PMID 2536080.
- Leguire LE, Komaromy KL, Nairus TM, Rogers GL; Komaromy; Nairus; Rogers (2002). "Long-term follow-up of L-dopa treatment in children with amblyopia". Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus 39 (6): 326–330; quiz 330–6. PMID 12458842.
- Gao Q, Liu Q, Ma P, Zhong X, Wu J, Ge J; Liu; Ma; Zhong; Wu; Ge (2006). "Effects of direct intravitreal dopamine injections on the development of lid-suture induced myopia in rabbits". Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 244 (10): 1329–1335. doi:10.1007/s00417-006-0254-1. PMID 16550409.
- Mao J, Liu S, Qin W, Li F, Wu X, Tan Q; Liu; Qin; Li; Wu; Tan (2010). "Levodopa Inhibits the Development of Form-Deprivation Myopia in Guinea Pigs". Optometry and Vision Science 87 (1): 53–60. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181c12b3d. PMID 19901858.
- Martignoni E, Blandini F, Godi L, Desideri S, Pacchetti C, Mancini F, Nappi G; Blandini; Godi; Desideri; Pacchetti; Mancini; Nappi (1999). "Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. The role of L-DOPA". Free radical biology & medicine 27 (3–4): 428–437. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00075-1. PMID 10468218.
- Hattoria N, Wanga M, Taka H, Fujimura T, Yoritaka A, Kubo S, Mochizuki H; Wanga; Taka; Fujimura; Yoritaka; Kubo; Mochizuki (2009). "Toxic effects of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease". Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 15: S35–S38. doi:10.1016/S1353-8020(09)70010-0. PMID 19131041.
- Holm, S. (1937) The ocular refraction state of the Palaeo-Negroids in Gabon, French Equatorial Africa. Acta Ophthalmology 13(suppl.): 1-299.
- Young, F.A., et al. (1969). The transmission of refractive errors within Eskimo families. American Journal of Optometry and Archives of the American Academy of Optometry 46: 676-85.
- Angle, John, and David A. Wissman (1980). Epidemiology of Myopia. American Journal of Epidemiology 111: 220-228.
- Lieberman, Daniel E. The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease. New York: Pantheon Books, 2013. Print
- Shaw, Seang-Mei (2001). Nearwork in early-onset myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 43: 332-339.
- Nadell, M.C., and M.J. Hirsch (1958). The relationship between intelligence and the refractive state in a selected high school sample. American Journal of Optometry and Archives of AMerican Academy of Optometry 35: 321-326.
- Ebenholtz, SM,Citek, K (1995). Absence of adaptive plasticity after voluntary vergence and accommodation. Vision Research. 35: 2773-2783.
- Ebenholtz, SM (1991). Accommodative Hysteresis: Fundamental Asymmetry in Decay Rate After Near and Far Focusing. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.32: 148-153.
- Smith III, E.L., G.W. Maguire, and J.T. Watson (1980). Axial lengths and refractive errors in kittens reared with an optically induced anisometropia. Investigate Ophthalmology and Vision Science 19: 1250-55.
- Hubel D., T.N. Weisel (1985). Myopia and eye enlargement after neonatal lid fusion in monkeys. Nature 266: 485-88.
- Dirani, M., et al. (2009). Outdoor activity and myopia in Singapore teenage children. British Journal of Ophthalmology 93: 997-1000.
- Rose, K.A., et al. (2008). Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children. Ophthalmology 115: 1279-85.
- Dolgin, Elie (March 18, 2015). "The myopia boom". Nature 519 (519): 276–27. doi:10.1038/519276a. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
- How To Choose The Right Glasses For You
- Generation specs: Stopping the short-sight epidemic Article reviewing latest research in New Scientist
- Dolgin, Elie (March 18, 2015). "The myopia boom". Nature 519 (519): 276–27. doi:10.1038/519276a.
- pupilEyes – Learn how Myopia happens
- Myopia Manual — an impartial documentation of all the reasons, therapies and recommendations— a comprehensive summary of scientific publications, updated version January 2015, printed version ISBN 1-58961-271-X (2004, sorry, no longer up to date)
- Medical Info on Myopia from Scottish Sensory Centre
- Why Up to 90% of Asian Schoolchildren Are Near-sighted Time Magazine 7 May 2012