Nebraska Legislature

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Nebraska State Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Term limits
2 consecutive terms
History
New session started
January 9, 2013
Leadership
Speaker of the Legislature
Greg L. Adams
since January 9, 2013
Structure
Seats 49
Political groups
Nonpartisan
Length of term
4 years
Authority Article III, Nebraska Constitution
Salary $12,000/year + per diem
Elections
Last election
November 6, 2012
(25 seats)
Next election
November 4, 2014
(24 seats)
Redistricting Legislative Control
Meeting place
Nebraska State Legislature.jpg
Legislative Chamber
Nebraska State Capitol
Lincoln, Nebraska
Website
Nebraska State Legislature
The "Unicameral" convenes at the Nebraska State Capitol.

The Nebraska Legislature (sometimes referred to as "the Unicameral")[1] is the supreme legislative body of the State of Nebraska, in the Great Plains region of the United States. The Legislature meets at the Nebraska State Capitol in the City of Lincoln, Lancaster County.

Nebraska's Legislature is unusual in that it is unicameral and nonpartisan. No other U.S. state has a single-chamber legislative body or a non-partisan legislature. However, the legislatures of two U.S. territories—the Virgin Islands and Guam—are unicameral. The Council of the District of Columbia is also unicameral; however, the United States Congress retains ultimate authority over the District and can overrule acts passed by its Council. At 49 members, the Nebraska Legislature is also the smallest state legislature (the next smallest is the 60-member bicameral Alaska Legislature).

History[edit]

The First Nebraska Territorial Legislature met in Omaha in 1855, staying there until statehood was granted in 1867.[2] Nebraska originally operated under a bicameral legislature, but over time dissatisfaction with the bicameral system grew. Bills were lost because the two houses could not agree on a single version. Conference committees that formed to merge the two bills coming out of each chamber often met in secret, and thus were unaccountable for their actions. Campaigns to consolidate the Nebraska Legislature into a single chamber date back as early as 1913, meeting with mixed success.[3]

After a trip to Australia in 1931, George Norris, then U.S. Senator for Nebraska, campaigned for reform, arguing that the bicameral system was based on the inherently undemocratic British House of Lords, and that it was pointless to have two bodies of people doing the same thing and hence wasting money. He specifically pointed to the example of the Australian state of Queensland, which had adopted a unicameral parliament nearly ten years before. In 1934, voters approved a constitutional amendment to take effect with the 1936 elections, abolishing the House of Representatives and granting its powers to the Senate. The amendment was based on a bill to establish a unicameral legislature that had been introduced years earlier by Nebraska legislator and later U.S. Congressman John Nathaniel Norton.[citation needed]

Many possible reasons for the 1934 amendment's victory have been advanced: the popularity of George Norris, a fervent proponent of single-chamber government; the Depression-era desire to cut costs; public dissatisfaction with the previous year's legislature; or even the fact that, by chance, it was on the ballot in the same year as an amendment to legalize parimutuel betting on horse races.[4] This latter coincidence may have aided the measure's passage in Omaha, where the unicameral issue was not a pressing one but horse racing was. (Gambling interests campaigned for "yes" votes on all amendments in hopes of assuring the horse-racing amendment's passage.)

The new unicameral Legislature met for the first time in 1937. Though the name of the body is formally the "Nebraska Legislature", its members are commonly referred to as "senators". In Nebraska, the Legislature is also often known as "the Unicameral".

Selection, composition and operation[edit]

The Legislature is composed of forty-nine members, chosen by a single-member district or constituency. Senators are chosen for four-year terms, with one-half of the seats up for election every second year. In effect, this results in half the chamber being elected at the same time as the President of the United States, and the other half elected at the same time as other statewide elections. Senators must be qualified voters who are at least 21 years old and have lived in the district they wish to represent for at least one year. A constitutional amendment passed in 2000 limits senators to two consecutive terms. However, a former senator is re-eligible for election after four years. Senators receive $12,000 a year.

Members are selected in nonpartisan elections. Rather than separate primaries held to choose Republican, Democratic, and other partisan contenders for a seat, Nebraska uses a single nonpartisan primary election, in which the top two vote-getters are entitled to run in the general election. There are no formal party alignments or groups within the Legislature. Coalitions tend to form issue by issue based on a member's philosophy of government, geographic background, and constituency. However, almost all the members of the legislature are known to be either Democrats or Republicans, and the state branches of both parties explicitly endorse candidates for legislative seats.[5] As an illustration of how partisanship can intrude upon the officially nonpartisan chamber, in January 2010 it was reported that the Legislature debated whether or not there was partisanship in Legislature, and "then finished the talk with a vote that followed party lines."[6]

Sessions of the Nebraska Legislature last for 90 working days in odd-numbered years and 60 working days in even-numbered years.

Chair[edit]

The Lieutenant Governor is the official presiding officer. However, the highest position amongst the actual members is the Speaker, who presides over the Legislature in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor.

Executive Board[edit]

The day-to-day matters of the body are dealt with by the Executive Board. The Board includes the Speaker, a chairman, a vice chairman, and six other senators. The chairman and vice chairman are chosen for two year terms by the entire legislature. The chairman of the Appropriations Committee serves, but cannot vote on any matter, and can only speak on fiscal matters.

Caucuses[edit]

Senators are classified into three geographically based "caucuses"; each caucus elects two board members.

General powers[edit]

The Legislature is responsible for law-making in the state, but the Governor has the power to veto any bill. The Legislature may override the governor's veto by a vote of three-fifths (30) of its members. The Legislature also has the power, by a three-fifths vote, to propose constitutional amendments to the voters, who then decide upon it through a referendum.

Membership[edit]

Note: The Nebraska Legislature is nonpartisan; members' party affiliations are for informational purposes only.

District Senator Home First elected
  1 Dan Watermeier Syracuse 2012
  2 Bill Kintner Papillion 2012
  3 Tommy Garrett Bellevue 2013 App.
  4 Pete Pirsch Omaha 2006
  5 Heath Mello Omaha 2008
N/A 6 vacant vacant N/A
  7 Jeremy Nordquist Omaha 2008
  8 Burke Harr Omaha 2010
  9 Sara Howard Omaha 2012
  10 Bob Krist Omaha 2009
  11 Ernie Chambers Omaha 1970
  12 Steve Lathrop Omaha 2006
  13 Tanya Cook Omaha 2008
  14 Jim Smith Papillion 2010
  15 Charlie Janssen Fremont 2008
  16 Lydia Brasch Bancroft 2010
  17 Dave Bloomfield Hoskins 2010
  18 Scott Lautenbaugh Omaha 2007 app.
  19 Jim Scheer Norfolk 2012
  20 Brad Ashford Omaha 1986
  21 Ken Haar Malcolm 2008
  22 Paul Schumacher Columbus 2010
  23 Jerry Johnson Wahoo 2012
  24 Greg L. Adams* York 2006
  25 Kathy Campbell Lincoln 2008
  26 Amanda McGill Lincoln 2006
  27 Colby Coash Lincoln 2008
  28 Bill Avery Lincoln 2006
  29 Kate Bolz Lincoln 2012
  30 Norm Wallman Cortland 2006
  31 Rick Kolowski Omaha 2012
  32 Russ Karpisek Wilber 2006
  33 Les Seiler Hastings 2012
  34 Annette M. Dubas Fullerton 2006
  35 Mike Gloor Grand Island 2008
  36 John Wightman Lexington 2006
  37 Galen Hadley Kearney 2008
  38 Tom Carlson Holdrege 2006
  39 Beau McCoy Omaha 2008
  40 Tyson Larson O'Neill 2010
  41 Kate Sullivan Cedar Rapids 2008
  42 Tom Hansen North Platte 2006
  43 Al Davis Hyannis 2012
  44 Mark R. Christensen Imperial 2006
  45 Sue Crawford Bellevue 2012
  46 Danielle Conrad Lincoln 2006
  47 Ken Schilz Ogallala 2008
  48 John N. Harms Scottsbluff 2006
  49 John Murante Gretna 2012

* Speaker of the Nebraska Legislature

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://nebraskalegislature.gov/about/about.php
  2. ^ "More about Nebraska statehood, the location of the capital, and the story of the commissioner's homes", Nebraska State Historical Society. Retrieved 12/14/08.
  3. ^ Michael S. Dulaney, J.D., Ph.D., Executive Director, Nebraska Council of School Administrators. "The Nebraska Legislature: A Brief History". Retrieved 2008-09-07. [dead link]
  4. ^ Berens, Charlene (2004). Power to the People: Social Choice and the Populist/Progressive Ideal. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-7618-2763-4. 
  5. ^ See, e.g., lists of endorsed candidates for the Legislature on the webpages of both the Nebraska Democratic Party and the Nebraska Republican Party.
  6. ^ "Is There A Partisan or Non-Partisan Legislature in NE?", wowt.com, 2010-01-28.

External links[edit]