|Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability (interim)|
October 6, 2008 – May 1, 2009
|President||George W. Bush, Barack Obama|
|Preceded by||(position created)|
|Succeeded by||Herbert M. Allison|
July 30, 1973 |
Akron, Ohio, U.S.
|Residence||Laguna Beach, California, U.S.|
|Alma mater||University of Illinois, Urbana-
University of Pennsylvania
Neel Tushar Kashkari (born July 30, 1973) is an American banker and politician. As interim Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability from October 2008 to May 2009, he was responsible for overseeing the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) that was a major component of the U.S. government's response to the financial crisis of 2007–08. A Republican, he is running for Governor of California in the 2014 election.
Born and raised in Ohio and educated at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Kashkari worked initially as an aerospace engineer. After attending business school at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, he became an investment banker, covering the information technology security sector for Goldman Sachs.
When Henry Paulson, the former head of Goldman, was appointed Secretary of the Treasury in 2006, he brought Kashkari on as an aide. Kashkari was eventually named Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Economics and Development. At Treasury he played a number of roles in the response to the financial crisis and the subprime mortgage crisis that preceded it, most notably administering TARP.
Kashkari left government in May 2009 and began working for Pimco later that year, leading that company's push into the equities market. In January 2013 he resigned from Pimco to explore a run for public office. On January 21, 2014, he announced his candidacy for Governor of California.
Early life and education
Kashkari was born on July 30, 1973, in Akron, Ohio, to Sheila Kashkari, a pathologist at Akron City Hospital, and Chaman Kashkari, a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Akron. His parents are Kashmiri Pandits who immigrated to the United States from Kashmir in the 1960s. Kashkari grew up in Stow, a suburb of Akron, where his parents were well known within the local community of Indian Hindus. His older sister, Meera Kashkari Kelley, is a physician specializing in infectious diseases. Growing up, his parents and sisters were liberal, but his free-market views led him to identify more with the Republican Party.
Kashkari attended Stow–Munroe Falls schools before transferring to the Western Reserve Academy, which his sister Meera attended. In high school he played football, wrestled, and appeared in musical theater. He graduated in 1991 with honors in Mathematics and was elected graduation speaker. In 2009 he described his high school grades as not good enough to apply to top-tier universities.
Kashkari earned bachelor’s (1995) and master’s (1998) degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. He was the team leader for the mechanical engineering component of the school's entry in the 1997 Sunrayce, a solar-powered vehicle race from Indianapolis, Indiana to Colorado Springs, Colorado. The UIUC car, nicknamed Photon Torpedo, weighed less than 600 pounds (270 kg), and its top was covered with solar cells. About 30 to 40 students worked on the car, which completed the race in just under 38 hours and 40 minutes, coming in 14th out of 36 competitors.
After completing his master's degree, Kashkari moved to Redondo Beach, California, to work as an engineer for TRW Inc., a contractor for NASA. There he worked on the James Webb Space Telescope, developing a component meant to reduce vibrations and keep the telescope steady after being deployed.
Kashkari left TRW to enter the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, earning an M.B.A. in 2002. At Wharton he was president of the Finance Club and organized the annual Wharton Finance Conference. Shortly before graduating he and other students traveled to Fort Dix to participate in a leadership training exercise run by the U.S. Army simulating a hostage rescue.
Kashkari interned at the investment bank Goldman Sachs during the summer between his two academic years at Wharton. His engineering background differentiated him from other potential hires. After graduating from Wharton he joined Goldman's San Francisco office covering software companies in the investment banking division. In this role he advised clients on mergers and acquisitions and other financial matters. He eventually rose to lead Goldman's information technology security practice.
In early 2006, Kashkari met with Hank Paulson, then chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs, to get a recommendation letter for the White House Fellows program. At this meeting they discussed Kashkari's interest in public service and Paulson's service in the Richard M. Nixon administration. Kashkari was a Regional Finalist for the fellowship but was ultimately rejected.
In May 2006 President George W. Bush announced his intention to appoint Paulson as Secretary of the Treasury. Kashkari contacted Paulson and asked to join him at Treasury. Despite not knowing Kashkari well, Paulson had him flown to Washington, D.C., and offered him a job as a policy generalist shortly after Kashkari had begun his pitch. Kashkari accepted, and then Paulson remembered to confirm that Kashkari was a Republican. After the U.S. Senate confirmed Paulson, he and Kashkari started at Treasury on the same day. Several other Goldman employees followed Paulson to Treasury, among them Robert K. Steel.
Kashkari began as a special assistant to Paulson working on energy policy. He and Allan B. Hubbard developed Bush's "Twenty in Ten" plan to promote energy conservation. He also worked on issues related to India, particularly infrastructure development. In November 2007, Bush nominated Kashkari to be Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Economics and Development. The U.S. Senate confirmed the nomination in June 2008, and Kashkari was sworn in the following month.
A growing crisis
Beginning in summer 2007, the value of some financial instruments backed by U.S. subprime mortgages declined sharply as it became clear that many of the borrowers would default on the mortgages. This caused a crisis as the banks holding the mortgages saw their assets decline in value and rushed to foreclose the loans. This ultimately intensified into a global financial crisis with broad implications.
Kashkari played important roles in several episodes of the crisis. He led Treasury's participation in the Hope Now Alliance, a mortgage industry initiative coordinated by the federal government in October 2007 that aimed to reduce foreclosures by modifying loan terms on a loan-by-loan basis. In March 2008 he represented Treasury at negotiations that led ultimately to the federally sponsored takeover and rescue of the investment bank Bear Stearns by JPMorgan Chase. He was in charge of Treasury's efforts to create a market in the U.S. for covered bonds, whose value would continue to be guaranteed by the issuing bank after the bank had sold them. He also worked closely with Paulson on Treasury's takeover of the government sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac on Septempber 6, 2008, and the federal bailout of American International Group on September 16.
In March 2008 Kashkari began to worry that, if the Bush administration never received the authority it needed to deal with the growing crisis, the next administration would blame them for everything wrong in the economy. Paulson scoffed at this idea, particularly Kashkari's speculation that Barack Obama, then a candidate in that year's presidential election, would win the presidency and use the crisis to ride to popularity just as former President Ronald Reagan had following the Iran hostage crisis.
In early 2008, Paulson directed Kashkari and fellow Treasury aide Phillip Swagel to write a plan to recapitalize the banking system in case the crisis worsened. The plan called for Congress to authorize Treasury to spend $500 billion to buy mortgage-backed securities from troubled banks, replacing them on banks' balance sheets with safe, liquid Treasury bills. This would prevent runs on the banks and encourage them to lend. The plan was conceived as an alternative to proposals from the staff of the House Financial Services Committee, then led by Democratic Representative Barney Frank.
Following the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) was enacted on October 3. Kashkari was one of several Paulson aides who was heavily involved in the crafting the legislation. Based in large part on Kashkari and Swagel's recapitalization plan, the act created created the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), a $700 billion bailout fund for financial institutions threatened with collapse. Kashkari favored getting distressed assets away from the banks the most among Treasury staff. He initially proposed a $1 trillion fund, but Paulson vetoed that number as too large. Kashkari came up with the lesser figure of $700 billion by taking 5% of the $14 trillion in then-outstanding mortgages in the United States.
To administer TARP, the EESA created within the Treasury Department a new Office of Financial Stability to be headed by an Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability to be nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. However, it also specified that the Treasury Secretary could designate an interim Assistant Secretary to run the office. Kashkari first came to widespread public attention on October 6, when Paulson named him to this position, earning Kashkari the nicknames "bailout czar" and "the $700 billion man". During his time running TARP he retained his title as Assistant Secretary for International Economics and Development, but his international affairs responsibilities were delegated to another Treasury official.
The program underwent some change after its creation. On October 13, Kashkari announced in a speech that TARP would not only purchase distressed mortgage assets from banks, as had been announced already, but would also purchase stock in the banks themselves. Noticing a lack of necessary expertise in investment within Treasury, Kashkari recruited new staff for the program, some from government and others from industry, ultimately hiring about 100 people by January 2009. Kashkari also chaired the five-member investment committee within Treasury that decided which banks would receive TARP money.
With Bush scheduled to leave office on January 20, 2009, following the November 2008 election, Kashkari's appointment was initially viewed as temporary. There were even plans to replace him before Bush left office. However, after Obama won the election, his transition team asked Kashkari to remain at Treasury after the inauguration for a limited period. He left the Treasury Department on May 1, 2009, replaced at the helm of TARP by Herbert M. Allison.
During his time heading TARP, Kashkari was frequently called to testify before Congressional oversight panels. The House members would often question him hostilely over the politically unpopular program, but at least one, Representative Dennis Kucinich, assured Kashkari privately that he thought Kashkari was doing a great job. Another public critic, Representative Gregory Meeks, later thanked Kashkari for his service. Kashkari also won praise from Paulson and Timothy Geithner, Paulson's successor as Treasury Secretary and Kashkari's boss under the Obama administration. Neil Barofsky, who oversaw TARP within Treasury as a special inspector general, commended Kashkari's commitment to the job but criticized his actions. Kashkari later said that Bush not running for reelection allowed the government to "do things that were deeply unpopular but we knew were the right thing."
Return to California
One week after his resignation, he and his wife moved to a cabin in rural Northern California near Lake Tahoe as part of what he called a "detox" from Washington. He worked on home improvement projects and helped Paulson write a memoir.
In December 2009 Kashkari was named a managing director at the investment firm Pimco, in charge of new investment initiatives. Pimco, which had traditionally focused on bonds, hired him to broaden its focus into equities; Pimco later named him global head of equities. Kashkari had met Bill Gross, Pimco's co-founder, in December 2007 as part of his work at Treasury. Kashkari's move to Pimco attracted attention because Pimco benefited from the government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, though it did not receive TARP funds. Pimco cited Kashkari's expertise in a confidential presentation encouraging investment in a new fund of distressed mortgage bonds. The six equity mutual funds Pimco launched under Kashkari all underperformed benchmarks in 2012; Kashkari attributed this to the funds hedging risk, which decreases returns when stock prices increase.
Kashkari says he first considered running for Governor of California after Republican nominee Mitt Romney lost the 2012 presidential election to Obama. He spent the year after his resignation from Pimco preparing to campaign in the 2014 gubernatorial election, touring the state, hiring a staff, and meeting with potential donors. He announced his candidacy on January 21, 2014, citing jobs and education as his top priorities. It is his first run for elected office. He faces incumbent Governor Jerry Brown, a Democrat, and fellow Republicans Andrew Blount and Tim Donnelly. Brown is considered the favorite in the race.
A December 2013 Field Poll found that fewer than 10% of Californians would vote for Kashkari, compared to 52% for Brown, but 80% were unfamiliar with him. No Republican has won statewide office in California since 2006. In an interview with BuzzFeed, Kashkari acknowledged that Brown will likely come in first place in the nonpartisan blanket primary preceding the general election. He cited Bush's upset victory over Ann Richards in the 1994 election for Governor of Texas as a reason for hope.
The San Francisco Chronicle reported in January 2014 that, since 1998, Kashkari had been eligible to vote in 23 elections in California and Pennsylvania but had only voted in 13 of them. His campaign disputed some aspects of the reporting and said that Kashkari's Treasury Department service proves his commitment to civic life. Kashkari later acknowledged his imperfect voting record.
Kashkari raised nearly $1 million in campaign donations within two weeks of announcing his candidacy. This was more money than Donnelly raised in the previous year of campaigning but well short of the $17 million Brown raised before even declaring his candidacy.
Kashkari has been a Republican his whole life. In a 2008 speech to the American Enterprise Institute, Kashkari described himself as "a free-market Republican." In 2013 he described himself as a "pro-growth Republican". He opposes most of Obama's economic agenda and supports cutting business regulations. In a December 2013 opinion column he explained his desire for changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act by citing his own difficulties signing up for Covered California, the health insurance marketplace run by the State of California. He has also called for cuts to Social Security and Medicare. In 2012 he voted against California's Proposition 30, which raised taxes in the state, and for Proposition 32, which would have weakened labor unions' political influence.
On social issues, he has described himself as libertarian and "a different kind of Republican", supporting abortion rights, marriage equality, and a path to legal status for illegal immigrants. He voted against California's Proposition 8, which banned same-sex marriage in 2008. In 2013 he was one of 131 Republicans who signed a pro-marriage equality amicus curiae brief submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court as part of Hollingsworth v. Perry, the case in which Proposition 8 was ultimately found unconstitutional. Kashkari owns four guns but considers waiting periods and background checks before purchasing a firearm to be reasonable, going as far as saying that "If you're a single issue voter, and you just want someone to give you a full capacity assault rifle magazine, God bless you, you can go vote for somebody else."
On environmental issues, he voted against California's Proposition 23, which would have suspended the state law that limits greenhouse gas emissions. He believes climate change is real and man-made. He has spoken positively of fracking and offshore oil drilling and negatively of California's cap-and-trade program.
Kashkari met his ex-wife Minal in college at the University of Illinois. They married in a traditional Indian ceremony in Chicago. Neel Kashkari filed for divorce in November 2011 and later described the split as amicable. They have no children. He lives in Laguna Beach, California.
- The White House announces regional finalists for the 2006–2007 White House Fellowships. George W. Bush administration archives, Feb. 27, 2006. Hosted at Archives.gov. Accessed Jan. 19, 2014.
- Theresa Howard. $700B man: Former adviser to Paulson takes bailout post. USA Today, Oct. 7, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Sabrina Eaton. Browns fan Neel Kashkari hopes to topple California Gov. Jerry Brown. The Plain Dealer, Feb. 11, 2014. Accessed Feb. 11, 2014.
- Associated Press. Kashkari faces major task as 'bailout czar'. USA Today, Oct. 11, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Muzamil Jaleel. Kashkari family just memories under a bridge. The Indian Express, Oct. 8, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Heidi N. Moore. Neel Kashkari: a portrait of the $700 billion man as a young banker. The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 10, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Charlie Savage and Ben White. Bailout role elevates U.S. official. The New York Times, Oct. 8, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Gilbert Cruz. Neel Kashkari, the $700 billion man. Time, Oct. 8, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Colin McEwen. Stow man nominated for U.S. Treasury position. Hudson Hub-Times, Nov. 28, 2007. Archived from the original at the Internet Archive on Mar. 6, 2012. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Betty Lin-Fisher. Bailout czar gives local alma mater lesson on recovery. Akron Beacon Journal, Apr. 11, 2009. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Wailin Wong. The rapid rise of bailout czar. Chicago Tribune, Oct. 13, 2008. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Rose–Hulman Institute of Technology. Solar Phantom Online: Sunrayce 97. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Jane M. Von Bergen. Wharton grad's new job: clean up credit mess. The Philadelphia Inquirer, Oct. 8, 2008. Accessed Jan. 2, 2014.
- Justin Fox. Neel Kashkari tries to get through to January 20. Time, Nov. 7, 2008. Accessed Jan. 15, 2014.
- U.S. Department of the Treasury. Biography of Neel Kashkari, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Economics. Archived from the original at the Internet Archive on Jan. 18, 2009. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Jim Rutenberg and Edmund L. Andrews. Bush selects Goldman chief to take over Treasury Dept. The New York Times, May 30, 2006. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- David Cho. After months on the hot seat, bailout director nears exit. Washington Post, Apr. 29, 2009. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Sorkin, pp. 84–5.
- Francesco Guerrera, Henny Sender, Ben White, James Politi. Wachovia appoints Steel as new chief. Financial Times, Jul. 10, 2008. Accessed Jan. 2, 2014.
- Michael S. Rosenwald. The $700 billion man with an engineer's mind. Washington Post, Oct. 9, 2008. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Matthew Yglesias. All your financial system are belong to Neel Kashkari. ThinkProgress, Oct. 6, 2008. Accessed Jan. 2, 2014.
- For a detailed account, see Sorkin.
- Jeanne Sahadi. Subprime: 'HopeNow' may help only so much. CNNMoney.com, Oct. 12, 2007. Accessed Jan. 2, 2014.
- Julie Creswell, Ben White. The guys from 'Government Sachs'. The New York Times, Oct. 17, 2008. Accessed Jan. 3, 2014.
- Jim Zarroli. Paulson pushes 'covered bonds' in housing fix. NPR, Jul. 29, 2008. Accessed Jan. 2, 2014.
- Sorkin, pp. 92–3.
- Sorkin, pp. 83–4.
- David Wessel. In Fed We Trust. Crown Business, 2010, pp. 176–7.
- Mark Landler, Edmund L. Andrews. For Treasury Dept., now comes hard part of bailout. The New York Times, Oct. 4, 2008. Accessed Jan. 2, 2014.
- Laura Blumenfeld. The $700 billion man. Washington Post, Dec. 6, 2009. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- James B. Stewart. Eight days. The New Yorker, Sep. 21, 2009. Accessed Jan. 8, 2014.
- Sorkin, p. 450
- Patrick Rucker. Treasury names rescue program chief. Reuters, Oct. 6, 2008. Accessed Jan. 3, 2014.
- Kevin G. Hall, Dion Nissenbaum. Treasury will buy stock in banks; stocks bounce back. McClatchy Newspapers, Oct. 12, 2008. Accessed Jan. 3, 2014.
- Silla Brush. Kashkari defends bailout from assertions of critics. The Hill, Jan. 8, 2009. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Edmund L. Andrews, Stephen Labaton. Geithner, with few aides, is scrambling. The New York Times, Mar. 8, 2009. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Mark Landler. New terrain for panel on bailout. The New York Times, Nov. 4, 2008. Accessed Jan. 9, 2014.
- Edwin Chen. Bush praised by both parties for transition planning. Bloomberg News, Nov. 3, 2003. Accessed Jan. 3, 2014.
- Deborah Solomon. Kashkari, Lambright to stay with TARP. The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 9, 2009. Accessed Mar. 7, 2010.
- Devin Leonard. Neel Kashkari's quiet path to Pimco. The New York Times, Dec. 31, 2009. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- David Siders. Neel Kashkari's run for governor tied up in the federal bank bailout. Sacramento Bee, Feb. 8, 2014. Accessed Feb. 10, 2014.
- Quoted in Zachary A. Goldfarb, Neil Irwin. Geithner, Bernanke have little in arsenal to fight new crisis. Washington Post, Aug. 14, 2011. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- DealBook. Pimco hires ex-Treasury official who led bailout. The New York Times, Dec. 7, 2009. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Anousha Sakoui, David Oakley. Pimco's move into equities reflects diversification trend. Financial Times, Jun. 15, 2010. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Randy Diamond. Neel Kashkari is planning for the future. Pensions & Investments, Jun. 25, 2012. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Sewell Chan. In marketing of a new mortgage fund, Pimco lists former Bush officials. The New York Times, Dec. 16, 2010. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- David Wessel, Kirsten Grind. TARP czar to take shot in politics. The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 23, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Michael J. de la Merced. Kashkari, onetime $700 billion man at Treasury, weighs political bid. The New York Times, Jan. 23, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Julia La Roche. Goldman Sachs, bank bailouts, no experience: Why these stigmas won't stop Neel Kashkari from running for governor. Business Insider, Feb. 15, 2014. Accessed Feb. 16, 2014.
- Seema Mehta, Chris Megerian. Neel Kashkari, ex-Treasury official, running for California governor. Los Angeles Times, Jan. 21, 2014. Accessed Jan. 21, 2014.
- David Siders. Neel Kashkari announces he will run for California governor. Sacramento Bee, Jan. 21, 2014. Accessed Jan. 21, 2014.
- Christopher Cadelago. California Gov. Jerry Brown to run for reelection. Sacramento Bee, Feb. 27, 2014. Accessed Feb. 27, 2014.
- Seema Mehta. Laguna Hills mayor enters governor's race. Los Angeles Times, Feb. 26, 2014. Accessed Feb. 28, 2014.
- Jessica Calefati. California Gov. Jerry Brown leads in a landslide, Field Poll finds. San Jose Mercury-News, Dec. 5, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Seema Mehta. Ex-Treasury official considers challenging Jerry Brown in 2014. Los Angeles Times, Nov. 18, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Hunter Schwarz. The man who ran the $700 billion bailout wants to be California's next governor. BuzzFeed, Jan. 30, 2014. Accessed Feb. 1, 2014.
- Carla Marinucci. Neel Kashkari's voting record spotty since 1998. San Francisco Chronicle, Jan. 20, 2014. Accessed Jan. 20, 2014.
- Seema Mehta. Kashkari acknowledges that he did not always vote. Los Angeles Times, Jan. 23, 2014. Accessed Jan. 24, 2014.
- William Bradley. California elections: The fights to lose to Jerry Brown and succeed Henry Waxman come into more focus. Huffington Post, Feb. 10, 2014. Accessed Feb. 10, 2014.
- Carla Marinucci. Excloo! Republican Neel Kashkari — edging closer to 2014 gov run — on the issues. San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 14, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Neel Kashkari. The consequences of Obamacare. The Orange County Register, Dec. 30, 2013. Accessed Jan. 8, 2014.
- FAQ: What is Covered California? Los Angeles Daily News, Sep. 21, 2013. Accessed Jan. 8, 2014.
- Robert Steyer. Congressional gridlock keeps DC industry off the legislative agenda. Pensions & Investments, Nov. 14, 2011. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Neel Kashkari. No more 'me first' mentality on entitlements. Washington Post, Jul. 26, 2010. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- David Siders. Kashkari seeks to build image as Republican 'fighting for the poor'. Sacramento Bee, Dec. 9, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Associated Press. Former bailout boss weighs run for California governor. CBS San Francisco, Dec. 4, 2013. Accessed Jan. 10, 2014.
- John Avlon. The pro-freedom Republicans are coming: 131 sign gay-marriage brief. The Daily Beast, Feb. 28, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Bill Mears. Supreme Court dismisses California's Proposition 8 appeal. CNN, Jun. 27, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- David Siders. Gun owner Kashkari says he's not running on Second Amendment agenda. Sacramento Bee, Feb. 20, 2014. Accessed Feb. 20, 2014.
- Josh Richman. Neel Kashkari calls for bigger GOP tent. San Jose Mercury News, Feb. 20, 2014. Accessed Feb. 21, 2014.
- Carla Marinucci. Neel Kashkari explores GOP bid for governor. San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 15, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- James Nash, Michael B. Marois. Kashkari bets on U.S. rescue to fuel challenge of Brown. Bloomberg News, Dec. 2, 2013. Accessed Jan. 5, 2014.
- Seema Mehta. California gubernatorial candidate Kashkari putting himself out there. Los Angeles Times, Jan. 24, 2014. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.