Negative verb

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A negative verb is a type of auxiliary that is used to form the negative of a main verb. The main verb itself has no personal endings, while the negative verb takes the inflection. The English auxiliary don't/doesn't performs a similar function by acting as a negative verb that indicates whether one or multiple individuals are involved while the verb referring to the negated activity remains uninflected, e.g. "he cares"/"we care" versus "he doesn't care"/"we don't care."

English[edit]

In English, ordinary verbs take the auxiliary do when negated by not.

Tense Affirmative Negative
With a negative verb With a negative adverb
Nonpast I go there
he goes there
I don't go there
he doesn't go there
I never go there
he never goes there
Past I went there
he went there
I didn't go there
he didn't go there
I never went there
he never went there

Uralic languages[edit]

The negative verb is typical of the Uralic languages. Uralic languages inflect by person, thus one word, the negative verb corresponds to e.g. "I don't" (Finnish en) or "doesn't" (ei).

Finnish[edit]

The negative verb is conjugated in moods and personal forms in Finnish. In the present tense, the form of the main verb is just the stem of the present form without a personal ending, e.g. lähdenen lähde ("I leave" – "I do not leave"), menisitet menisi ("you would go" – "you would not go"), syöneeei syöne ("he/she may eat" – "he/she may not eat"), ottakaammeälkäämme ottako ("let's take" – "let's not take"). In the imperfect tense, the form of the main verb is the past participle, e.g. otinen ottanut ("I took" – "I did not take"), otimmeemme ottaneet ("we took" – "we did not take").

Indicative, conditional, and potential

Person Singular Plural
1. en emme
2. et ette
3. ei eivät

Imperative

Person Singular Plural
1. - älkäämme
2. älä älkää
3. älköön älkööt

Estonian[edit]

In Estonian, the negative verb is evident only in the imperative mood.

Indicative, conditional, and oblique

Person Singular Plural
1. ei ei
2. ei ei
3. ei ei

Imperative

Person Singular Plural
1. - ärgem; ärme
2. ära ärge
3. ärgu ärgu

Inari Sami[edit]

The negative verb is conjugated in moods and personal forms in Inari Sami:

Indicative, conditional, and potential mood

Person Singular Dual Plural
1. jie´m eän ep
2. jie´h eppee eppeđ
3. ij eä´vá

Imperative

Person Singular Dual Plural
1. eällum eäl´loon eällup
2. ele ellee elleđ
3. eä´lus eällus eällus

Northern Sami[edit]

The negative verb is conjugated in moods and personal forms in Northern Sami.

Indicative, conditional, and potential mood

Person Singular Dual Plural
1. in ean eat
2. it eahppi ehpet
3. ii eaba eai

Imperative

Person Singular Dual Plural
1. allon allu allot
2. ale alli allet
3. allos alloska alloset

Hungarian[edit]

Hungarian has lost most evidence of a negative verb, but the negation particle nem becomes ne before verbs in the jussive/imperative (also sometimes called the conditional mood, or J-mood).

Furthermore, the 3rd person present indicative of the copular verb (lenni) has unique negative forms nincs(en) and nincsenek as opposed to nem van and nem vannak, but only when the particle and verb would occur adjacently. In all other instances the copular verb acts regularly. These forms are also unique in that they have an existential role "there is (not)" and "there are (not)". In the present indicative 3rd person, copular verbs are not used; rather the absence of a verb (with or without a negation particle) implies the copula.

Japanese[edit]

The basic pattern is u becomes anai.

Type Negative Examples Negative
Irregular verbs
suru shinai benkyō suru benkyō shinai
kuru konai
aru nai
da de wa nai
ja nai
masu stem masen ikimasu (go, polite) ikimasen
Regular verbs
u wanai tsukau (use) tsukawanai
ku kanai yaku (burn) yakanai
gu ganai oyogu (swim) oyoganai
su sanai hanasu (speak) hanasanai
tsu tanai matsu (wait) matanai
nu nanai shinu (die) shinanai
bu banai yobu (call) yobanai
mu manai yomu (read) yomanai
ru (consonant stem) ranai hashiru (run) hashiranai
iru, eru (vowel stem) inai, enai kaeru (change) kaenai
Adjectives
i adjectives ku nai itai (painful) itaku nai
na adjectives de wa nai
ja nai
kantan da kantan de wa nai
kantan ja nai
  • The nai ending conjugates in two ways.
    1. As an i adjective. For example the past tense of tabenai is tabenakatta and the te form is tabenakute.
    2. There is a special te form made by adding de. For example, tabenaide. This is used, for example, in tabenaide kudasai: "Please don't eat (this)".

Korean[edit]

Korean verbs can be negated by the negative verbs 않다 anta and 못하다 mothada or by the negative adverbs an and mot. The copula 이다 ida has a corresponding negative copula 아니다 anida.

Verb Tense Affirmative With a negative verb With a negative adverb
않다 anta 못하다 mothada an mot
가다
gada
Nonpast 간다
ganda
가지 않는다
gaji anneunda
가지 못한다
gaji mothanda
안 간다
an ganda
못 간다
mot ganda
Past 갔다
gatda
가지 않았다
gaji anatda
가지 못했다
gaji mothaetda
안 갔다
an gatda
못 갔다
mot gatda
먹다
meokda
Nonpast 먹는다
meongneunda
먹지 않는다
meokji anneunda
먹지 못한다
meokji mothanda
안 먹는다
an meongneunda
못 먹는다
mot meongneunda
Past 먹었다
meogeotda
먹지 않았다
meokji anatda
먹지 못했다
meokji mothaetda
안 먹었다
an meogeotda
못 먹었다
mot meogeotda

Chinese[edit]

For any verbs, adding a 不(bu)in the front means not doing this verb. E.g 吃(chi) eat The negative verb would be 不吃 (bu chi). 看(kan) look/watch 不看(bu kan) 坐(zuo)sit 不坐(bu zuo) Note: This form is more used to express the unwillingness of the subject to carry out the verb, or say used for unhappened cases. For things that has already happened or not happened, replace the 不 with 没(mei). 

Dravidian languages[edit]

Kannada[edit]

The negative mood in Kannada is conjugated by adding the PNG (Person-Number-Gender) marker to the root without a tense marker. It is occasionally used in common speech conjugated, usually with a few common defective verbs in the Negative Mood. e.g. ಸಾಲದು (saaladu) - It is not sufficient, ಕೂಡದು (kUDadu) - It is not fitting (Not possible / Should not) However, it is very often used in negative adjectives derived from verbal roots' participial forms.

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
ಮಾಡೆನು (maaDenu) I do (will) not do ಮಾಡೆವು (maaDevu) We do (will) not do
ಮಾಡೆ (maaDe) You (Informal) do (will) not do ಮಾಡರಿ (ಮಾಡಿರಿ) (maaDari (maaDiri)) You (Formal) do (will) not do
ಮಾಡನು (maaDanu) He does (will) not do ಮಾಡರು (maaDaru) They do (will) not do (This can also be used to refer formally to the third person)
ಮಾಡಳು (maaDaLu) She does (will) not do ಮಾಡರು (maaDaru) They do (will) not do
ಮಾಡದು (maaDadu) It does (will) not do ಮಾಡವು (maaDavu) They do (will) not do