Negros Oriental

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Negros Oriental
Lalawigan sa Negros Oriental
Lalawigan ng Negros Oriental
Province
Negros Oriental Provincial Capitol in Dumaguete City
Negros Oriental Provincial Capitol in Dumaguete City
Flag of Negros Oriental
Flag
Official seal of Negros Oriental
Seal
Map of the Philippines with Negros Oriental highlighted
Map of the Philippines with Negros Oriental highlighted
Coordinates: 09°45′N 123°00′E / 9.750°N 123.000°E / 9.750; 123.000Coordinates: 09°45′N 123°00′E / 9.750°N 123.000°E / 9.750; 123.000
Country  Philippines
Region Central Visayas (Region VII)
Founded March 10, 1917
Capital Dumaguete City
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Roel Degamo (PDP-LABAN/UNA)
 • Vice Governor Mark Macias (Liberal Party)
Area[1]
 • Total 5,385.53 km2 (2,079.36 sq mi)
Area rank 18th out of 80
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 1,286,666
 • Rank 18th out of 80
 • Density 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
 • Density rank 33rd out of 80
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 6
 • Municipalities 20
 • Barangays 557
 • Districts 1st to 3rd districts of Negros Oriental
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 6200 - 6224
Dialing code 35
Spoken languages Cebuano, Hiligaynon, English, Tagalog[3]
Website negor.gov.ph

Negros Oriental (Cebuano: Sidlakang Negros), also called Oriental Negros or "Eastern Negros", is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. It occupies the south-eastern half of the island of Negros, with Negros Occidental comprising the north-western half. It also includes Apo Island — a popular dive site for both local and foreign tourists. Negros Oriental faces Cebu to the east across the Tañon Strait and Siquijor to the south east. The primary spoken language is Cebuano, and the predominant religious denomination is Roman Catholicism. Dumaguete City is the capital, seat of government, and most populous city.

History[edit]

Negros Island, the third largest island in the Philippines, is believed to have once been part of the island of Mindanao, but was cut off by rising waters at the end of the last ice age.[4]

Among the early inhabitants of the island were Negritos, as well as Han Chinese and Malays.[5] They called the island "Buglas", a native word which is believed to mean "cut off".[4]

The Dumaguete Belfry was built in 1760s and 1870s to warn townsfolk of attacks by marauding pirates.

Spanish explorers on the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi first came to the island in April 1565. Legazpi dropped anchor in Bohol and sent his men to scout the island.[5] Because of the strong currents of the Tañon Strait between Cebu and Negros, they were carried for several days and forced to land on the western side of the island. They reported seeing many dark-skinned inhabitants, and they called the island "Negros" ("Negro" means "black" in Spanish). The island was sparsely settled at the time, except for a few coastal settlements including Ilog and Binalbagan. In 1571, Legaspi assigned encomiendas on the island to 13 of his men.[5] Augustinian friars began the Christianization of the island the next year. The island was administered as part of the jurisdiction of Oton until 1734 when it became a military district, and Ilog became the capital of the island. The capital was transferred to Himamaylan in 1795. Negros became a politico-military province in 1856 and the capital was transferred to Bacolod.

Due to its proximity to Mindanao, the south eastern coast of Negros was in constant threat from Moro marauders looking for slaves, and watchtowers were built to protect the Christian villages. The Moro raids and Negros Oriental's distance from the Negros capital in Bacolod induced 13 Recollectionist priests to petition for the division of the island in July 1876.[5] The island of Negros was then divided into the provinces of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental by a royal decree executed by Governor General Valeriano Weyler on January 1, 1890. Dumaguete City was made the first capital of Negros Oriental. In 1892, Siquijor became a part of Negros Oriental, having previously been administered by Spain under the politico-military province of Bohol.

The Philippine Revolution reached the province in 1898, disrupting government functions but without bloodshed. Revolutionary troops in the province were composed mostly of farm laborers and other prominent people of the Negros Oriental province who were organized and led by Don Diego de la Viña. The Spanish government in Dumaguete was overthrown on November 24, 1898. Later, the Negros Occidental area under the leadership of Gen. Araneta only, in contrast to the Negros Oriental area under the leadership of Don Diego de la Viña, formed the Cantonal Republic of Negros, a separate government from the more familiar Malolos Republic established in Luzon.[6] In 1901 the Negros Oriental province was reorganized by the United States and a civil government was established with Demetrio Larena as governor. The American government made Siquijor a "sub-province" of Negros Oriental. Negros Oriental became a province under the American civil government on March 10, 1917. In 1934 Negros Oriental became a corregimiento, a separate military district. Under the American colonial government, transportation infrastructure was developed with improvements of roads and new bridges.[7]

During World War II, the province was invaded by Japanese forces and many residents were forced to flee to the mountains to escape.[8] Negros Island was liberated by combined Filipino & American troops with the local Negrosanon guerillas attacking the Japanese on August 6, 1945.

The 7th, 73rd, 74th and 75th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was established 1942 to 1946 and the 7th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was active 1944 to 1946 at the Military General Headquarters in Negros Oriental. Started the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Negros Oriental 1942 to 1945 against the Japanese Imperial forces.

When the Filipino soldiers of the 7th, 73rd and 75th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 7th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was started the Liberation of Negros Oriental in 1945 and fought against the Japanese forces.

On September 17, 1971, Siquijor finally became an independent province by virtue of Republic Act No. 6396. (See Province of Siquijor)

Geography[edit]

Rock Formations at Apo Island.

Topography[edit]

Negros Oriental occupies the south-eastern half of the island of Negros, with Negros Occidental comprising the western half. It has a total land area of 5,402.30 km².[9] A chain of rugged mountains separates Negros Oriental from Negros Occidental. Unlike its sister province, which belongs to the Western Visayas region, Negros Oriental belongs to the Central Visayas region. Negros Oriental faces Cebu to the east across the Tañon Strait and Siquijor to the south-east. The Sulu Sea borders it to the south.

The province's topography is characterized by low, grooved mountain ranges which mostly lie close to the shoreline. At the southern end of the province is the Cuernos de Negros (Horns of Negros) stratovolcano which rises to a height of 1864 meters. At the northern end of the province is Mount Canlaon, the highest peak in the island with a height of 2465 meters and an active volcano. There are a few plateaus in the interior to the west of the province.

One of the landmarks of Dumaguete is the Dumaguete Bell Tower which stands next to the St Catherine of Alexandria Cathedral.[10] It once used to warn the city of impending pirate attacks.[11]

Climate[edit]

Negros Oriental has a tropical climate. Because of the mountain range running from the north to the south, the province has two types of climatic conditions.[12] The eastern part of the province is characterized by unpronounced maximum rainfall with a short dry season lasting from one to three months. The western half of the province is characterized by a distinct wet season and dry season.

Subdivisions[edit]

Map of Negros Oriental (click for larger version).

Negros Oriental is subdivided into 19 municipalities and 6 cities, which are further subdivided into 557 barangays.

Dumaguete City is the provincial capital and seat of government. It is also the most populous city, despite having the smallest land area.

City Population
(2000)
Population
(2010)[13]
Area (km²)[14] Pop. density
(per km²)
Bais City
68,115
74,722
319.64
234
Bayawan City
101,391
114,074
699.08
163
Canlaon City
46,548
50,627
170.93
296
Dumaguete City
102,265
120,883
33.62
3596
Guihulngan City
84,607
93,675
388.56
241
Tanjay City
70,169
79,098
276.05
287
Municipality Population
(2000)
Population
(2010)[13]
Area (km²)[14] Pop. density
(per km²)
Amlan
19,227
22,206
111.85
199
Ayungon
40,744
46,146
265.10
174
Bacong
23,219
32,286
40.30
801
Basay
21,366
24,913
162.00
154
Bindoy
34,773
39,416
173.70
227
Dauin
21,077
25,239
114.10
221
Jimalalud
26,756
29,044
139.50
208
La Libertad
35,122
38,904
139.60
279
Mabinay
70,548
74,187
319.44
232
Manjuyod
37,863
41,107
264.60
155
Pamplona
32,790
34,906
202.20
173
San Jose
15,665
19,098
54.46
351
Santa Catalina
72,629
73,306
523.10
140
Siaton
67,943
73,285
335.90
218
Sibulan
47,162
51,519
163.00
316
Tayasan
30,477
34,609
154.20
224
Valencia[15][16]
24,365
31,477
147.49
213
Vallehermoso
33,914
36,943
101.25
365
Zamboanguita
23,338
24,996
85.86
291

Note: Bold face indicates applying for cityhood.

For purposes of legislative representation, the cities and municipalities are grouped into three congressional districts, with each district electing a congressman to the House of Representatives of the Philippines.

  • 1st District: Canlaon City, Vallehermoso, Guihulngan City, La Libertad, Jimalalud, Tayasan, Ayungon, Bindoy, Manjuyod
  • 2nd District: Amlan, Bais City, Mabinay, Pamplona, San Jose, Sibulan, Tanjay City, Dumaguete City
  • 3rd district: Bacong, Basay, Bayawan City, Dauin, Santa Catalina, Siaton, Valencia, Zamboanguita

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Negros Oriental
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1990 925,272 —    
1995 1,025,247 +1.94%
2000 1,130,088 +2.11%
2007 1,231,904 +1.20%
2010 1,286,666 +1.60%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

Negros Oriental's total population as of the 2010 census is 1,286,666.[2] 34.5% of the population is concentrated in the six most populous component LGUs of Dumaguete City, Bayawan City, Tanjay City, Bais City, Canlaon City, and Guihulngan. The province's average population density is 208 persons per km², lower than the national average of 276 persons per km². Population growth per year is about 2.11%, higher than the national average of 1.92%.[17]

Cebuano (sometimes known as Visayan) is the main language of the province, spoken by 95% of the population. Hiligaynon is spoken by the remaining 5%, and is common in areas close to the border with Negros Occidental. Filipino and English are generally understood, and are used for official, literary, and educational purposes.

Languages Spoken (2000)[18]
Language Speakers
Cebuano
  
541,757
Binisaya/Visayan
  
525,308
Hiligaynon
  
39,174
Kinaray-a
  
4,147
Kankanaey
  
2,241
Others
  
8,318
Not Reported
  
8,065

Christianity is the predominant religion in the province with Roman Catholicism as the biggest single denomination. Other denominations include mainline and evangelical Protestant groups, the Iglesia Ni Cristo, the Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses and the Aglipayan Church, also known as the Philippine Independent Church. Adherents of Islam and Buddhism constitute a minority of the population.

Economy[edit]

A Geothermal power station at Negros Oriental.

With its vast fertile land resources, Negros Oriental's major industry is agriculture. The primary crops are sugarcane, corn, coconut and rice. In the coastal area, fishing is the main source of income. People are also involved in cattle ranches, fish ponds and logging. There are also mineral deposits like gold, silver and copper.

Negros Oriental is emerging as a technological center in Central Philippines with its growing business process outsourcing (BPO) and other technology-related industries. Negros Oriental is also becoming a notable tourist destination in the Visayas.

Transportation[edit]

A motorized pedicab in Dumaguete City.

Negros Oriental has a network of roads, including a national road that spans the circumference of Negros Island. National and provincial roads in the province total more than 900 kilometers, though only about half of these are paved.[19]

A large portion of residents do not own private vehicles, and are totally reliant on public transport. The main form of public transport between the cities and municipalities of the province largely consists of privately operated jeepneys that link major towns to rural areas. For short distances within a town, motorized tricycles (locally known as pedicabs) are available.

The Dumaguete Airport located in Sibulan is the province's only government-operated airport.[19] It is a domestic airport with multiple daily flights to and from Manila, served by Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific. Based on 2002 statistics, an average of 5,800 outgoing passengers and 5,700 incoming passengers pass through the airport every month.[19]

The primary seaport of the province is located in Dumaguete City. Additionally, there are five other seaports in the province classified as tertiary.[20]

Education[edit]

Dumaguete City, the provincial capital, is known as a university town due to the existence of many universities and colleges in the city.[21] These universities include: Silliman University (1901), the oldest American established university in Asia;[22] St. Paul University Dumaguete (1904), the first Paulinian school in the Philippines; Negros Oriental State University (formerly NOTS-1927, EVSAT, CVPC); and Foundation University (1949). The Colegio de Sta. Catalina De Alejandria (COSCA), Negros Oriental High School (1902), Ramon Teves Pastor Memorial-Dumaguete Science High School (1986), Dumaguete City High School (1967), Catherina Cittadini (St. Louis) School, Holy Cross High School and St. Louis School-Don Bosco (1967) can be also found in the city. There are also institutions and colleges inside (e.g. Metro Dumaguete College, STI, Maxino College, PTC, AMA Computer College, Asian College) and outside the city.

Culture[edit]

Each town in Negros Oriental celebrates an annual town fiesta, usually dedicated to a saint who is the patron of the town. In some of the larger towns, there are particular fiestas for specific neighborhoods or barangays.

Additionally, the Buglasan Festival, which was revived in 2001, is celebrated annually in October in the provincial capital of Dumaguete and is hailed as Negros Oriental's "festival of festivals".[23] It is a week-long celebration where you can see unique booths of each town and city in Negros Oriental featuring their native products and tourist attractions. The highlight of the occasion is the float parade and street dancing competition.[24]

Media[edit]

There are at least four local publications in general circulation around the province. These publications include, the Dumaguete MetroPost, Negros Chronicle, Dumaguete Star Informer, and the Visayan Daily Star

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 11 March 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 11 March 2013. 
  3. ^ "Provincial Profile". Provincial Government of Negros Oriental. Retrieved April 28, 2010.[dead link]
  4. ^ a b Panay News - Negros History
  5. ^ a b c d WOW Philippines - Negros Oriental history[dead link]
  6. ^ Worldstatesmen.org - Philippines - Republic of Negros
  7. ^ Asia-planet.net - Dumaguete/Negros Oriental
  8. ^ Mills, S.A., 2009, Stranded in the Philippines, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 9781591144977
  9. ^ GlobalPinoy, Travel - Negros Oriental
  10. ^ "Dumaguete Belfry - Philippines". Dumaguete Info: the Website of Gentle People. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  11. ^ Grele, Dominique; Lily Yousry-Jouve (2004). 100 Resorts in the Philippines: Places with a Heart. Asiatype, Inc. p. 247. ISBN 978-971-91719-7-3. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  12. ^ Agribiz Oriental - Climate[dead link]
  13. ^ a b "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Province: Negros Oriental". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 11 March 2013. 
  15. ^ http://www.philstar.com/region/2013/08/30/1151491/negros-oriental-valencia-town-readies-bid-become-city
  16. ^ http://www.sunstar.com.ph/dumaguete/local-news/2013/11/21/house-hear-valencia-cityhood-314987
  17. ^ Negros Oriental economic indicators
  18. ^ Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Negros Oriental, 2000
  19. ^ a b c Agribiz Oriental - Transportation[dead link]
  20. ^ Department of Trade and Industry - Negros Oriental[dead link]
  21. ^ Bangayan, Dorothy (2006-12-14). "Let's do Dumaguete!". Sun.Star Davao. Retrieved 2008-04-06. [dead link]
  22. ^ Dexter R. Matilla. "Heritage diary of Negros Oriental". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  23. ^ http://www.inq7.net/reg/2003/oct/25/reg_8-1.htm Inq7.net - The 'fantastic' Buglasan Festival of Dumaguete
  24. ^ NegrosHub.com - Buglasan Festival[dead link]

External links[edit]