Nehalem (microarchitecture)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Nehalem (disambiguation).
Nehalem
Intel Nehalem.jpg
L1 cache 64 KB per core
L2 cache 256 KB per core
L3 cache 4 MB to 24 MB shared
Predecessor Core (tock)
Penryn (tick)
Successor Westmere (tick)
Sandy Bridge (tock)
Socket(s)

Nehalem /nəˈhləm/[1] is the codename for an Intel's processor microarchitecture, which is the successor to the older Core microarchitecture.[2] A preview system with two Nehalem processors was shown at Intel Developer Forum in 2007, and the first processor released with the Nehalem architecture was the desktop Core i7,[3] which was released in November 2008.

"Nehalem" is a recycled Intel codename and namesake of the Nehalem River.[4][5] It is an architecture that differs radically from Netburst, while retaining some of the latter's minor features. Nehalem-based microprocessors use the 45 nm process, run at higher clock speeds and are more energy-efficient than Penryn microprocessors. Hyper-threading is reintroduced, along with a reduction in L2 cache size, as well as an enlarged L3 cache that is shared by all cores. Nehalem was replaced with the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture, released in January 2011.

Technology[edit]

Microarchitecture of a processor core in the quad-core implementation
Translation lookaside buffer sizes[7]
Cache Page Size
Name Level 4 KB 2 MB
DTLB 1st 64 32
ITLB 1st 128 7 / logical core
STLB 2nd 512 none

Performance and power improvements[edit]

It has been reported that Nehalem has a focus on performance, thus the increased core size.[8] Compared to Penryn, Nehalem has:

  • 10-25% more single-threaded performance / 20-100% more multithreaded performance at the same power level
  • 30% lower power consumption for the same performance
  • Nehalem provides a 15–20% clock-for-clock increase in performance per core(average)

Overclocking is possible with Bloomfield processors and the X58 chipset. Lynnfield processors use a PCH removing the need for a northbridge chipset.[9]

Nehalem processors incorporate SSE 4.2 SIMD instructions, adding 7 new instructions to the SSE 4.1 set in the Core 2 series. The Nehalem architecture reduces atomic operation latency by 50% in an attempt to eliminate atomic overhead .[10]

Variants[edit]

Processing Cores (interface) Process Die Size CPUID Model Stepping Mobile Desktop, UP Server DP Server MP Server
Eight-Core (Quad-Channel) 45 nm 684 mm² 206E6 46 D0 Beckton (80604)
Quad-Core (Triple-Channel) 45 nm 263 mm² 106A4
106A5
26 C0
D0
Bloomfield (80601) Gainestown (80602)
Quad-Core (Dual-Channel, PCIe) 45 nm 296 mm² 106E4
106E5
30 B0
B1
Clarksfield (80607) Lynnfield (80605) Jasper Forest (80612)
Dual-Core (Dual-Channel, PCIe, Graphics Core) 45 nm Auburndale (canceled) Havendale (canceled)


  • Lynnfield processors feature integrated PCIe 1 x16 or 2 x8.
  • 1 6500 series scalable up to 2 sockets, 7500 series scalable up to 4/8 sockets.[11]

Server and desktop processors[edit]

Codename Market Cores /
Threads
Socket Processor
Branding & Model
CPU
Clock rate
Turbo TDP Interfaces L3
cache
Release Date Price for
1k Unit
Chipset Memory
Beckton1 MP Server /
DP Server
8 (16) LGA
1567
Xeon [12] X7560 2.26 GHz Yes 130 W QPI 6.4 GT/s DDR3-800 /
1066
(Up to 4x with
SMB-Ready
Motherboard)
24 MB 2010-03-30[13] $3692
X7550 2.0 GHz 18 MB $2837
X6550 $2461
L7555 1.86 GHz 95 W 4× QPI 5.86 GT/s 24 MB $3157
6 (12) E7540 2.0 GHz 105 W 4× QPI 6.4 GT/s 18 MB $1980
E6540 12 MB $1712
E7530 1.86 GHz 4× QPI 5.86 GT/s $1391
L7545 18 MB $2087
6 (6) X7542 2.66 GHz 130 W $1980
4 (8) E7520 1.86 GHz No 105 W 4× QPI 4.8 GT/s $856
E6510 1.73 GHz 12 MB $744
Gainestown DP Server[14] 4 (8) LGA
1366
Xeon[15] W5590 3.33 GHz Yes 130 W 2× QPI 6.4 GT/s DDR3-13331 8 MB 2009-08-09 $1600
W5580 3.2 GHz 2009-03-29[16] $1500
X5570 2.93 GHz 95 W $1286
X5560 2.8 GHz $1072
X5550 2.66 GHz $858
E5540 2.53 GHz 80 W 2× 5.86 GT/s 3× DDR3-10661 $744
E5530 2.4 GHz $530
E5520 2.26 GHz $373
L5530 2.4 GHz 60 W 2009-08-09 $744
L5520 2.26 GHz 2009-03-30 $530
L5518 2.13 GHz $
4 (4) E5507 2.26 GHz No 80 W 2× 4.8 GT/s 3× DDR3-8001 4 MB 2010-03-16 $266
E5506 2.13 GHz 2009-03-29
L5506 2.13 GHz 60 W $423
E5504 2.0 GHz 80 W $224
2 (4) L5508 2.0 GHz Yes 38 W 2× 5.86 GT/s 3× DDR3-1066 8 MB $
2 (2) E5503 2.0 GHz No 80 W 2× 4.8 GT/s 3× DDR3-800 4 MB 2010-03-16 $224
E5502 1.86 GHz 2009-03-29 $188
Jasper Forest 4 (8) EC5549 2.53 GHz Yes 85 W 1× 5.86 GT/s 3× DDR3-1333 8 MB 2010-02-11 $530
LC5528 2.13 GHz 60 W 1× 4.8 GT/s 3× DDR3-1066 $519
LC5518 1.73 GHz 48 W
4 (4) EC5509 2 GHz No 85 W $265
2 (4) EC5539 2.27 GHz 65 W 1× 5.86 GT/s 3× DDR3-1333 4 MB $387
Bloomfield UP Server[17] 4 (8) Xeon[18] W3580 3.33 GHz Yes 130 W 1× QPI 6.4 GT/s 3× DDR3-1333 8 MB 2009-08-09 $999
W3570 3.2 GHz 2009-03-29[18]
W3565 3.2 GHz 1× QPI 4.8 GT/s 3× DDR3-1066 2009-11-01 $562
W3550 3.06 GHz 2009-08-09
W3540 2.93 GHz 2009-03-29[18]
W3530 2.8 GHz 2010-03-16 $294
W3520 2.66 GHz 2009-03-29[18] $284
2 (2) W3505 2.53 GHz No 4 MB $
W3503 2.4 GHz $
Jasper Forest 4 (4) EC3539 2.13 GHz 65 W DMI 8 MB 2010-02-11 $302
2 (4) LC3528 1.73 GHz Yes 35 W 3× DDR3-800 4 MB
1 (1) LC3518 No 23 W 2 MB $192
Lynnfield 4 (8) LGA
1156
X3480 3.06 GHz Yes 95 W DMI 2× DDR3-1333 8 MB 2010-05-30 $612
X3470 2.93 GHz 2009-09-08 $589
X3460 2.8 GHz $316
X3450 2.66 GHz $241
X3440 2.53 GHz $215
L3426 1.86 GHz 45 W $284
4 (4) X3430 2.4 GHz 95 W $189
Bloomfield Enthusiast
Desktop[19]
4 (8) LGA
1366
Core i7
Extreme
975[20] 3.33 GHz Yes 130 W 1× QPI 6.4 GT/s 3× DDR3-1066 2009-05-31 $999
965 3.2 GHz 2008-11-17
Core i7 960[21] 3.2 GHz 1× QPI 4.8 GT/s 2009-10-20 $562
950[20] 3.06 GHz 2009-05-31
940 2.93 GHz 2008-11-17
930 2.8 GHz 2010-02-28 $294
920 2.66 GHz 2008-11-17 $284
Lynnfield Performance
Desktop
LGA
1156
880 3.06 GHz Yes 95 W DMI 2× DDR3-1333 2010-05-30 $583
875K 2.93 GHz $342
870[22] 2009-09-08 $562
870S 2.66 GHz 82 W 2010-07-19 $351
860 2.8 GHz 95 W 2009-09-08 $284
860S 2.53 GHz 82 W 2010-01-07 $337
4 (4) Core i5 760 2.8 GHz 95 W 2010-07-17 $209
750[23] 2.66 GHz 95 W 2009-09-08 $196
750S 2.4 GHz 82 W 2010-01-07 $259
Jasper Forest Embedded
Desktop
1 (2) LGA
1366
Celeron P1053 1.33 GHz No 30 W 3× DDR3-800 2 MB 02-12-2010 $160
  • Intel states the Gainestown processors have six memory channels. Gainestown processors have dual QPI links and have a separate set of memory registers for each link in effect, a multiplexed six-channel system.[24][25]

Mobile processors[edit]

Codename Market Cores /
Threads
Socket Processor
Branding & Model
Core
Clock rate
Turbo TDP L3
cache
Interface Release Date Price for
1k Unit
Clarksfield Extreme /
Performance
Mobile
4 (8) µPGA
988
Core i7
Extreme
940XM 2.13 GHz Yes 55 W 8 MB * DMI
* 2x DDR3-1333
* PCIe 1 x16 / 2 x8
2010-06-21 $1096
920XM 2.0 GHz 2009-09-23 $1054
Core i7 840QM 1.86 GHz 45 W 2010-06-21 $568
820QM 1.73 GHz 2009-09-23 $546
740QM 6 MB 2010-06-21 $378
720QM 1.6 GHz 2009-09-23 $364

Roadmap[edit]

The main article for this category is Intel Tick-Tock.

The successor to Nehalem and Westmere is Sandy Bridge.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ I Am Nehalem 
  2. ^ Intel Details Upcoming New Processor Generations, Intel Corporation, 2007-03-28 
  3. ^ Gruener, Wolfgang (2008-08-10), Nehalem = i7: Intel unveils new Core processor brand, TG Daily 
  4. ^ Ian, King (2008-10-20), Intel's new faster chip right on AMD's heels, The Seattle Times 
  5. ^ Jones, George (2008-02-09), IAMD vs Intel: The future of desktop CPUs, PC Advisor UK 
  6. ^ QInside Nehalem: Intel's Future Processor and System
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Intel's dual teamed approached to micro-architecture development", PC Watch (in Japanese), 2008-01-29 
  9. ^ Botezatu, Bogdan (2008-04-22), Intel: No Overclocking for Mainstream Nehalems, Softpedia 
  10. ^ NO EXECUTE! 
  11. ^ High-End x86: The Nehalem EX Xeon 7500 and Dell R810
  12. ^ AMD launches 12-core Opteron server chips, Intel counters with the 8-core Xeon 7500, engadedget.com, 2010-03-31, retrieved 2010-03-31 
  13. ^ Nebojsa Novakovic (2009-02-12), Intel's next bunch of fun CPUs moves to 2010, CNN International, retrieved 2009-03-01 
  14. ^ Intel Xeon Processor 5500 Series Product brief, (Document Number: 321579-001US), Intel, 2009-04-01, retrieved 2010-08-27 
  15. ^ Core i7 to make leap to Xeon in early 2009, Legacy.macnn.com, retrieved 2008-11-24 
  16. ^ Fuad Abazovic (2009-01-28), Nehalem based Xeon comes Mar 29th, Fudzilla.com, retrieved 2009-01-28 
  17. ^ Intel Xeon Processor 3500 Series, Intel, 2009-04-01, retrieved 2009-04-10 
  18. ^ a b c d Teglet, Traian (2008-11-13), Intel to Add New Nehalem Xeon Processor, softpedia, retrieved 2008-11-13 
  19. ^ "Intel Core i7 Processor Extreme Datasheet, Volume 2, (Document Number: 320835-002)". Intel. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 
  20. ^ a b Worrel, Jon (2009-02-09), Core i7 950 and 975 to replace 940 and 965, Fudzilla, retrieved 2009-02-10 
  21. ^ Intel to launch new Core i7 960 and Celerons 
  22. ^ Intel Core i5-750, AnandTech, 2009-06-17 
  23. ^ Intel Quietly Announces Core i5, Xtreview, 2009-06-26 
  24. ^ Intel Xeon Processor 5000 SequenceTechnical Documents 
  25. ^ Intel Xeon Processor 5500 Series Datasheet Volume 2, Intel, March 2009, retrieved 2009-05-01 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]