In 1839 Abbott moved to Columbus, Mississippi, where he continued the practice of law, but the following year he returned to Maine and settled in Belfast, Waldo County, where he resumed the practice of law. In 1842 and 1843 he was a member of the Maine House of Representatives. He was elected as a Republican to the U.S. House of Representatives, serving from March 4, 1857 to March 3, 1859. He did not run for reelection, but continued to practice law, and served as the mayor of Belfast in 1865 and 1866. He died in Belfast.