Nehushtan

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Moses lifts up the brass snake, curing the Israelites of snakebites. Hezekiah called the snake Nehushtan.

In the biblical Book of Numbers, the Nehushtan (or Nohestan) (Hebrew: נחושתן or נחש הנחושת) was a "bronze serpent" on a pole which God told Moses to erect to prevent the Israelites who saw it of dying from the bites[1] of "fiery serpents" which God had sent to punish them for speaking against God and Moses.

Later in the biblical story, King Hezekiah institutes a religious iconoclastic reform and destroys "the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan." (2 Kings 18:4)

Alternate transliterations[edit]

The name is transliterated as "Nohestan" in the Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition,[2] as "N’chushtan" in the Complete Jewish Bible[3] and as "Nechushtan" in the Orthodox Jewish Bible.[4]

Serpent image[edit]

In 1508 Michelangelo's image of the Israelites deliverance from the plague of serpents by the creation of the bronze serpent on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

Snake cults had been well established in Canaan in the Bronze Age: archaeologists have uncovered serpent cult objects in Bronze Age strata at several pre-Israelite cities in Canaan: two at Megiddo,[5] one at Gezer,[6] one in the Kodesh Hakodashim (Holy of Holies) of the Area H temple at Hazor,[7] and two at Shechem.[8]

According to Lowell K. Handy, the Nehushtan may have been the symbol of a minor god of snakebite-cure within the Temple.[9]

Biblical context[edit]

In the biblical story, following the Exodus from Egypt, the Israelites set out from Mount Hor, where Aaron was buried, to go to the Red Sea. However they had to detour around the land of Edom (Numbers 20:21, 25). Frustrated and impatient, they complained against Yahweh and Moses (Num. 21:4-5). and God sent "fiery serpents" among them. For the sake of repentant ones, Moses was instructed by God to build a "serpent of bronze" that was used to heal those who looked upon it (Numbers 21:4-9).

The term also appears in 2 Kings 18:4 in a passage describing reforms made by King Hezekiah, in which he tore down altars), cut down symbols of Asherah, and destroyed the Nehushtan,[10][11][12]

The Brazen Serpent, by Benjamin West; among the overthrown, an unmistakable reference to the Laocoön

New Testament[edit]

in the Gospel of John, Jesus discusses his destiny with a Jewish teacher named Nicodemus and makes a comparison between the raising up of the Son of Man and the act of the Nehushtan being raised up by Moses.[13][14]

Linguistic study of the term[edit]

The tradition of naming it Nehushtan is no older than the time of Hezekiah.[15]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Numbers 21:4-9
  2. ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Kings+18%3A4&version=DRA
  3. ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Kings+18%3A4&version=CJB
  4. ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Kings+18%3A4&version=OJB
  5. ^ Gordon Loud, Megiddo II: Plates plate 240: 1, 4, from Stratum X (dated by Loud 1650-1550 BC) and Statum VIIB (dated 1250-1150 BC), noted by Joines 1968:245f.
  6. ^ R.A.S. Macalister, Gezer II, p. 399, fig. 488, noted by Joiner 1968:245 note 3, from the high place area, dated Late Bronze Age.
  7. ^ Yigael Yadin et al. Hazor III-IV: Plates, pl. 339, 5, 6, dated Late Bronze Age II (Yadiin to Joiner, in Joiner 1968:245 note 4).
  8. ^ Callaway and Toombs to Joiner (Joiner 1968:246 note 5).
  9. ^ Lowell K. Handy, The Appearance of Pantheon in Judah, in Diana Vikander Edelman, "The triumph of Elohim", 1995, p.41
  10. ^ Noth 1968, p. 156
  11. ^ "The Mystery of the Nechushtan", Hershel Shanks, Biblical Archaeology Review, pp.58-63, March/April 2007.
  12. ^ Joines, Karen Randolph (1968). The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult. JOBL, 87. p. 245, note 1. 
  13. ^ Olson 1996, p. 137
  14. ^ C. H. Spurgeon, "The Mysteries of the Brazen Serpent", 1857
  15. ^ "Modern exegesis holds two different opinions in regard to the meaning of the word "Nehushtan," which is explained either as denoting an image of bronze, and as entirely unconnected with the word "naḥash" (serpent), or as a lengthened form of "naḥash" (comp. νεεσθάν in the Septuagint), and thus as implying that the worship of serpents was of ancient date in Israel. The assumption that the tradition about "Nehushtan" is not older than the time of Hezekiah is, however, not contested." Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. "Nehushtan"; H. H. Rowley, "Zadok and Nehushtan" Journal of Biblical Literature 58.2 (June 1939:113-141) p. 132 observes, "We have no record of this Brazen Serpent before this time, save for the obvious aetiological story in Num. 8 f, which states that this sacred symbol had its origin in the Mosaic age".

References[edit]

External links[edit]