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In baseball, a neighborhood play is a force play where a fielder receiving the ball in attempting to force out a runner at second base, catches and quickly throws the ball to first base in a double play attempt without actually touching second base, or by touching second base well before catching the ball. By every rules code, such a play is not an out, because to record a force out, the fielder with the ball must actually touch a force base (or tag the forced runner) before the forced runner arrives (OBR Rule 7.08(e)).
The neighborhood play is called differently at various levels and in various leagues in amateur baseball (such as men's amateur, college, high school, or youth leagues). Its appropriateness and necessity in amateur and even professional baseball is debated. The safety necessity of the rule is lessened by most amateur leagues' use of the force play slide rule, which requires forced-out runners to either slide directly to the base or completely avoid the fielder, but some amateur umpires still treat the neighborhood play as an out.
The traditional application of the neighborhood play for an out developed because it is common for a sliding runner to collide with the fielder at second base, sometimes causing injury. On a double play attempt, the fielder must throw the ball to first base, which would generally require a step directly into the path of the incoming runner. On a close force out at second, a fielder often cannot avoid a collision while completing a throw to first base unless he stays some distance away from second base. For the sake of safety, umpires allowed fielders to score the first out of an attempted double play without actually touching second base as long as it "looked like" an out, i.e. the fielder made a clean catch, turn, and throw near second base before the runner arrived. This allowed the tradition of the take-out slide to continue while still providing a means of safety for middle infielders.
There is some evidence that the culture among umpires is changing, and that the neighborhood play will not be called an out when the fielder obviously fails to touch the base in question. The neighborhood play is less likely to be called if the fielder is not being threatened by a take-out slide. For example, in Game 2 of the 2009 American League Championship Series, Los Angeles Angels shortstop Erick Aybar, straddling second base, caught a throw for an out at second base and immediately threw to first to put out the batter-runner in an apparent double play. Second base umpire Jerry Layne called the runner safe at second base; replays showed that Aybar never came close to touching the base. Aybar was not threatened by the incoming runner on this play.
In 2014, instant replay was added to Major League Baseball, but will not allow the review of the neighborhood play. However, during the April 2nd game between the Chicago Cubs and Pittsburgh Pirates the Cubs challenged a play initially ruled a successful 4-6-3 double play. Crew chief John Hirschbeck allowed the review and it was determined that the force was missed due a poor throw from the second baseman rather than safety concerns (and therefore not a neighborhood play) and the runner was ruled safe, allowing a run a to score from third.
On July 7th, 2014, during a game between the Atlanta Braves and New York Mets at Citi Field, a similar incident occurred. In the bottom of the 9th inning and the game tied at 3, Juan Lagares bunted towards third base to advance base runner Eric Campbell to second base. Braves third baseman Chris Johnson fielded the ball and threw to shortstop Andrelton Simmons, who was covering second base. Simmons was in no danger of being hit by the runner, yet the umpires ruled the runner out, claiming it was a neighborhood play. Mets manager Terry Collins argued that it could not have been a neighborhood play, since it was a bunt play and recording a double play would be almost impossible. Simmons was moving away from 2nd base, and didn't record an out at 1st, either. Therefore, Collins claimed the only reason Simmons had to come off the base was an errant throw. The umpires accepted the claim and reviewed the play, and after review the out call was overturned. This led to an argument and ejection of Braves manager Fredi Gonzalez, who later said about the call that it was one of the worst calls he's seen in his life.