Neil D. Fleming

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Neil D. Fleming is a teacher from New Zealand. He has taught in universities, teacher education centers and high schools. Before working for eleven years in faculty development at Lincoln University, he was for nine years a senior inspector for the over 100 high schools in the South Island of New Zealand. This involved being a critical observer of over 9000 'lessons' in classrooms.

Learning styles: VARK Model[edit]

He is best known worldwide for the design of the VARK model.[1] which expanded upon earlier Neuro-linguistic programming (VARK) models.[2] His VARK model was launched in 1987 through work done at Lincoln University. Prior to Fleming's work, VAK was in common usage. Fleming split the Visual dimension (the V in VAK) into two parts - symbolic as Visual (V) and text as Read/write (R). This created a fourth mode, Read/write and brought about the word VARK for a new concept, a learning-preferences approach, a questionnaire and support materials.


  1. ^ Leite, Walter L.; Svinicki, Marilla; and Shi, Yuying: Attempted Validation of the Scores of the VARK: Learning Styles Inventory With Multitrait–Multimethod Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models, pg. 2. SAGE Publications, 2009.
  2. ^ Thomas F. Hawk, Amit J. Shah (2007) "Using Learning Style Instruments to Enhance Student Learning" Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education doi:10.1111/j.1540-4609.2007.00125.x

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