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Vikrama Simhapuri, Thermal City 
Nellore Montage Clockwise from top left: Nellore City View, Narayana Colleges, A Ship at Krishnapatnam Port, Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Nellore
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Nellore Municipal Corporation|
|• City||149.96 km2 (57.90 sq mi)|
|Elevation||18 m (59 ft)|
|• Density||3,400/km2 (8,700/sq mi)|
|• Official||Telugu, Urdu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||AP 26|
|Website||Nellore Municipal Corporation Website|
Nellore is a city and municipal corporation in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Nellore is the 4th most populous city in Andhra Pradesh after the separation of telengana from Andhra Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore district. The ancient name of Nellore was "Vikrama Simhapuri". Nellore is situated about 279 kilometres (173 mi) south of Vijayawada the state capital and 168 kilometres (104 mi) north of Chennai on the Chennai-Kolkata highway. It is located on the banks of the Penner River and is well known for its agricultural and aquaculture produce.
Nellore existed from the times of Mauryan empire and was ruled by Ashoka in the 3rd century B.C. It was annexed by the Pallavas between the fourth and sixth century A.D. Nellore was known by the name of Vikrama Simhapuri till the 13th century. It was later part of Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda, Mughal Empire and Arcot Nawabdom. In the 18th century, Nellore was taken over by the British from the Arcot Nawabs and was part of the Madras Presidency of British India. The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Potti Sriramulu who fasted until death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh, hailed from Nellore.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The climate of Nellore city is a typical tropical maritime climate, with warm, humid summers and mild winters. April and May are the hottest months and the hot conditions generally last till the end of the June. December, January and February are the coolest months. As the Bay of Bengal is at a distance of 24 kilometres (15 mi) from the city, the sea breeze renders the climate of the city moderate both in winter and in summer. Humidity level in the city is high due to its proximity to the coast. Nellore does not receive the south-west monsoon. Rainfall in Nellore occurs between the months of October and December due to the north-east monsoon. This period gives about 60 percent of the city's annual rainfall. Cyclones are common in the city during this period, causing floods and havoc.
- Winter: January and February
- Summer: March to May
- South West Monsoons – June to September
- North East Monsoons – October to December
The maximum temperature is 36-46c during summer and the minimum temperature is 23-25c during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700–1000 mm through South West and North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject both to droughts and to floods based on the seasons.
As of 2011[update] Indian census, Nellore city had a population of 565,258; in the same year the population of its urban agglomeration was 564,148. The sex ratio in Nellore is 966 females per 1000 males. Effective literacy is 83.59%; male literacy is 87.53% and female literacy is 79.52%. 8.32% of the population is under 6 years of age.
As a large percent of population is rural and dependent on agriculture, their way of life is more traditional in nature. Telugu is the official language of Nellore district and most widely spoken language in Nellore. Languages such as Tamil and Urdu are spoken by minority of the population.
Proximity to the sea and fertile land towards the east have led to agriculture and aquaculture being the backbone of the economy. The district has a cultivable area equal to 41.3 percent and the crops which are most commonly grown in the district are paddy, jowar, bajra along with tobacco, chillies, groundnut and sugarcane. Handloom, mica mines, thermal power generation and hand made jewellery are other industries that contribute to the economic development. Also salt production is the most popular in nellore mostly (Gogulapalli, Iskapalli and Ramathirdam villages). For the salt production nellore takes the top most place in AP. Krishnapatnam port which is located 20 kilometers from the district serves as a major center for economic activity of the district.
Nellore is well connected by road with National Highway 5 from Chennai to Kolkata, part of the Golden Quadrilateral expressway project, passing through it. Nellore is connected by APSRTC (Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation) to major parts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, TNSTC from Chennai and KSRTC from Bangalore. Nellore is a zonal headquarters of APSRTC, comprising Nellore, Prakasam and Chittoor districts. There are 2 bus stations in the city:
- RTC Bus Station- for intercity and interstate mofussil buses
- Potti Sreeramulu Bus Station or Atmakur Bus Station- for intra district and town buses
Nellore railway station (IR code: NLR) lies on Vijayawada-Chennai section of Chennai - Howrah trunk line and hence well connected by rail to most parts of India. Nellore railway station is also connected by Chennai Suburban Railway, lying on the North Line which terminates at Bitragunta.
Krishnapatnam Port Company in the sea is where Nellore live. (KPCL) was formed by government of Andhra Pradesh to develop the existing minor port into modern, deep water and high productivity port, on BOST (Build–Operate-Share-Transfer) concession basis for 50 years. It was opened on July 17, 2008. On May 9, 2013, Government of India decided to set up a second major port at Dugarajapatnam in Nellore District. It will be the second major port in Andhra Pradesh after the Visakhapatnam Port.And its gonna be the Asia's largest port. <rref>
The nearest airport is at Tirupati (Renigunta), which is 130 km from the city which has limited services to certain domestic destinations like Vijayawada, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Mumbai and Delhi. The nearest major airport is the Chennai International Airport, about 189 km from the city, which is an international airport providing connectivity to major parts of India and the world. The Government of Czech Republic has evinced interest in building a domestic airport in Nellore. However so far no concrete work has been done on this front as the process of land acquisition for the airport is posing a problem.
Secondary and higher secondary education are handled by SSC board. Although many schools have a choice to pursue school education through Central board (CBSC). Prominent institutions include Vikrama Simhapuri University, Rao's Educational Society, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Veda and Sanskrit college, Narayana medical and engineering colleges, Government Medical College, and Venkatagiri Raja's College (VRC) and high school.
Places of interest
- "History of Nellore". Nellore Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "NELLORE MUNICIPAL CORPORATION INTRODUCTION". Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Urdu second official language of 5 more districts of AP, The Milli Gazette, Vol. 2 No. 19
- Indian Census Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
- "Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore District". Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Nellore
- "January Climate History for Nellore". Myweather2.com. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- Nellore City Population Census 2011 | Andhra Pradesh
- The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh / Nellore News : Czech Republic offers to build airport in Nellore
- Aviation India: Minister upset over delay in Nellore airport land acquisition
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