Nemesis (Agatha Christie novel)
Dust-jacket illustration of the first UK edition
|Cover artist||Not known|
|Publisher||Collins Crime Club|
|Publication date||November 1971|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|Pages||256 pp (first edition, hardcover)|
|LC Classification||PR6005.H66 N4 1971b|
|Preceded by||The Golden Ball and Other Stories|
|Followed by||Elephants Can Remember|
Nemesis is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie (1890–1976) and first published in the UK by the Collins Crime Club in November 1971 and in the US by Dodd, Mead and Company later in the same year. The UK edition retailed at £1.50 and the US edition at $6.95. It was the last Miss Marple novel the author wrote, although Sleeping Murder was the last Christie novel to be published.
Miss Marple receives a post card from the recently deceased Jason Rafiel, a millionaire whom she had met during a holiday on which she had encountered a murder, which asks her to look into an unspecified crime; if she succeeds in solving the crime, she will inherit £20,000. Rafiel, however, has left her few clues, not even when or where the crime was committed nor who was involved. Her first clue is a tour of British famous houses and gardens, arranged by Mr Rafiel prior to his death. She is accompanied on the trip by fourteen other people, at least one of whom she suspects to be related to her enquiries. She learns that one of her companions, Elizabeth Temple, is the retired headmistress of the school which a girl who was engaged to Rafiel's ne'er-do-well son, Michael, attended. Another member of the tour group, Miss Cooke, is a woman she had previously met and discussed gardening with.
Her next clue comes in the form of a woman named Lavinia Glynne; Rafiel had written to Mrs Glynne and her two sisters before his death, suggesting that Miss Marple spend the most physically challenging few days of the tour with them. Miss Marple accepts Lavinia's invitation, assuming it to be the next part of Mr Rafiel's instructions. She then meets Lavinia's spinster sisters, Clotilde and Anthea Bradbury-Scott, and immediately senses something odd about Anthea. On talking to the servant, Miss Marple learns that the girl engaged to Michael Rafiel had been adopted by Clotilde after the death of her parents.
On the morning of her return to her party, Miss Marple is told by another member of the tour group that Miss Temple had been knocked unconscious by a rock slide during the previous day's hike, and was lying in a coma in hospital. The group stays over an extra night to wait for news from the tour guide about Miss Temple's health. It turns out that Professor Wanstead, a pathologist and psychologist interested in the different types of criminal brains, had been instructed by Mr Rafiel to go on the tour. He had examined Michael Rafiel at the request of the head of the prison where Michael was incarcerated; he came to the same conclusion as his friend: Michael was not capable of murder. He also tells her how uninterested Michael's father seemed. Wanstead takes Miss Marple to see Miss Temple; in a moment of consciousness, Miss Temple had asked for Miss Marple. Miss Temple wakes only long enough to tell Miss Marple to "search for Verity Hunt", and dies that night. The three sisters extend their invitation to Miss Marple when she returns to the tour, and she promptly accepts. That night, she discovers that Verity was the girl Clotilde had adopted.
After the inquiry into Miss Temple's death, Miss Marple is visited by Archdeacon Brabazon, a friend of Miss Temple's. He tells Miss Marple that he was going to marry Verity Hunt and Michael Rafiel, but had been sworn to secrecy by Verity. While he disapproved of the secrecy and of Verity marrying Michael, he agreed to marry them because he could see they were in love. He was most surprised when neither turned up for the wedding. Miss Marple decides to stay another few nights with the three sisters when the tour moves on. Prof. Wanstead travels to London by train on an errand for Miss Marple. Miss Barrow and Miss Cooke decide they would like to visit a nearby church. Later that evening, Miss Marple talks with the sisters about what she thinks may have happened and, while they are doing so, Miss Barrow and Miss Cooke appear, to talk to Miss Marple. They stay for a time and are then invited back for coffee that evening.
As they talk about Miss Temple, Miss Marple suggests, albeit dissembling, that Joanna Crawford and Emlyn Price pushed the boulder, and their alibis are mere fabrication. As they get ready to leave, Miss Cooke suggests that the coffee wouldn't suit Miss Marple, as it will keep her up all night and Miss Marple asks for some warm milk. The two ladies soon depart, although each returns to retrieve a forgotten item. At three o'clock in the morning, Clotilde enters Miss Marple's room, surprised that Miss Marple is still "awake" (i.e. alive). Miss Marple tells her that she didn't drink the milk. Clotilde offers to warm it up, but Miss Marple tells her she still would not drink it because she knows that Clotilde killed Verity Hunt and hid her in the now-destroyed greenhouse, because she could not stand to see Verity leave her for someone else. She also knows that Clotilde murdered Nora Broad to (mis)identify the body as Verity's and thus throw suspicion on Michael Rafiel. Clotilde also murdered Miss Temple. As Clotilde advances toward her, Miss Marple blows on a whistle, which brings Miss Cooke and Miss Barrow — they are bodyguards employed by Mr Rafiel to protect Miss Marple — to her defence. Clotilde later drinks the milk herself, which is, of course, poisoned. Michael Rafiel is set free. Miss Marple collects her "fee".
Literary significance and reception
Maurice Richardson in The Observer of 31 October 1971 said of Miss Marple in this story, "The showdown when, alone in bed, quite defenceless with not even a knitting-needle, she is confronted by a brawny great fiend of a butch, is devilish fine. Not one of her best, perhaps, but remarkably inventive, quite worthy of the Picasso of the detective story."
Robert Weaver in the Toronto Daily Star of 4 December 1971 said, "Christie richly deserves the loyalty offered up to her by devotees of the traditional mystery. She is readable and ingenious, and in Nemesis she has going for her the amateur lady sleuth Miss Jane Marple deep in a murder case as she tries to carry out a request that comes in effect from beyond the grave. Beyond 80 Miss Christie remains unflagging."
Robert Barnard: "Miss Marple is sent on a tour of stately gardens by Mr Rafiel. The garden paths we are led up are neither enticing nor profitable. All the usual strictures about late Christie apply."
Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
BBC 'Miss Marple' Series
Nemesis was filmed by the BBC as a 100-minute film in the eighth adaptation (of twelve) in the series Miss Marple starring Joan Hickson as Miss Marple. It was transmitted in two 50-minute parts on Sunday, 8 February, and Sunday, 15 February 1987. It sticks relatively close to the novel, with the exception that Miss Temple is killed by a stone bust pushed off a balcony while she tours a library rather than by a rock slide during a hike. Nora Broad's name is changed to Norah Brent. Miss Marple stays in a larger, more luxurious hotel. A new fictional nephew/godson of Miss Marple, Lionel Peel, accompanies her; he is staying with her after his wife chucked him out.
Adaptor: TR Bowen
Director: David Tucker
Barbara Franceschi as Miss Kurnowitz
Frank Gatliff as Jason Rafiel
Peter Tilbury as Lionel Peel
John Horsley as Professor Wanstead
Jane Booker as Miss Cooke
Alison Skilbeck as Miss Barrow
Valerie Lush as Lavinia Glynne
Margaret Tyzack as Clothilde Bradbury-Scott
Anna Cropper as Anthea Bradbury-Scott
Jonathan Adams as Carter
Oliver Parker as London Policeman
Bruce Payne as Michael Rafiel
Roger Hammond as Mr Broadribb
Patrick Godfrey as Mr Schuster
Joanna Hole as Madge
Helen Cherry as Miss Temple
ITV 'Marple' Series
A later ITV adaptation was also produced in 2007 (aired 1 January 2009) with Geraldine McEwan as part of the third season of her Marple series. As with other adaptations made for this series, this version was only very loosely based on the novel, with the plot, motives and identity of most of the characters and scenes altered, and almost everything about the character of the murderer very substantially changed. Miss Temple and Professor Wanstead are eliminated, the murder of Norah Broad is missing, the characters of Madge and Miss Barrow are merged into one and the Bradbury-Scott sisters are nuns.
Director: Nicolas Winding Refn Cast:
Laura Michelle Kelly as Verity Hunt/Margaret Lumley
Dan Stevens as Michael Rafiel
Richard E. Grant as Raymond West
Amanda Burton as Sister Clotilde
Anne Reid as Mother Agnes
Ronni Ancona as Amanda Dalrymple
Ruth Wilson as Georgina Barrow
Lee Ingleby as Detective Constable Colin Hards
Will Mellor as Martin Waddy
Emily Woof as Rowena Waddy
George Cole as Lawrence Raeburn
Johnny Briggs as Sydney Lumley
Adrian Rawlins as Derek Turnball
Graeme Garden as Matthew Broadribb
BBC Audiobook dramatisations
Nemesis was also adapted as an audiobook/dramatisation by the BBC starring June Whitfield.
June Whitfield as Miss Marple
George A. Cooper as Mr Rafael
David Swift as Professor Wanstead
Louie Ramsay as Lavinia Glynne
Thelma Barlow as Anthea Bradbury-Scott
Mary Wimbush as Clotilde Bradbury-Scott
Jill Balcon as Miss Temple
Desmond Llewelyn as Archdeacon Brabazon
Tricia Hitchcock as Miss Cooke
Delia Lindsay as Miss Barrow
Molly Gaisford as Joanna Crawford
Jane Whittenshaw as Cherry
Geoffrey Whitehead as Mr Broadribb
- 1971, Collins Crime Club (London), November 1971, Hardcover, 256 pp
- 1971, Dodd Mead and Company (New York), Hardcover, 271 pp
- 1973, Pocket Books (New York), Paperback, 229 pp
- 1974, Fontana Books (Imprint of HarperCollins), Paperback, 192 pp
- 1976, Ulverscroft Large-print Edition, Hardcover, 421 pp ISBN 0-85456-476-4
- 2006, Marple Facsimile edition (Facsimile of 1971 UK first edition), 2 May 2006, Hardcover, ISBN 0-00-720859-6
The novel was first serialised in the UK weekly magazine Woman's Realm in seven abridged instalments from 25 September (Vol 27, No 702) to 6 November 1971 (Vol 27, No 708), with illustrations by Len Thurston. In North America the novel was serialised in the Star Weekly Novel, a Toronto newspaper supplement, in two abridged instalments from 16 to 23 October 1971, with each issue containing the same cover illustration by Laszlo Gal.
- Czech: Nemesis (Nemesis)
- Dutch: De wraakgodin (The Goddess of Revenge)
- German: Das Schicksal in Person (Destiny in Person)
- Norwegian: Nemesis (Nemesis)
- Portuguese: Némesis (Nemesis)
- Chris Peers, Ralph Spurrier and Jamie Sturgeon. Collins Crime Club – A checklist of First Editions. Dragonby Press (Second Edition) March 1999 (Page 15)
- John Cooper and B.A. Pyke. Detective Fiction – the collector's guide: Second Edition (Pages 82 and 87) Scholar Press. 1994. ISBN 0-85967-991-8
- American Tribute to Agatha Christie
- The Guardian. 4 November 1971 (p. 14).
- The Observer, 31 October 1971 (p. 31)
- Daily Mirror, 28 October 1971 (p. 25)
- Toronto Daily Star, 4 December 1971 (p. 51)
- Barnard, Robert. A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie – Revised edition (p. 201). Fontana Books, 1990. ISBN 0-00-637474-3
- Nemesis at the official Agatha Christie website
- Nemesis (1987) at the Internet Movie Database
- Marple: Nemesis (2007) at the Internet Movie Database
- Analysis of novel by A.N Wilson in The Daily Telegraph