Nenagh

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For the city in Wisconsin, United States, see Neenah.
Nenagh
an tAonach / Aonach Urmhumhan
Town
Pearse Street, Nenagh
Pearse Street, Nenagh
Nenagh is located in Ireland
Nenagh
Nenagh
Location in Ireland
Coordinates: 52°51′48″N 8°11′58″W / 52.8632°N 8.1995°W / 52.8632; -8.1995Coordinates: 52°51′48″N 8°11′58″W / 52.8632°N 8.1995°W / 52.8632; -8.1995
Country Ireland
Province Munster
County County Tipperary
Elevation 72 m (236 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Urban 7,995
 • Rural 1,877
Irish Grid Reference R865787
Website www.nenagh.ie

Nenagh (/nˈnɑː/ or /ˈnnə/, locally /ˈnnə/; Irish: Aonach Urmhumhan or simply An tAonach)[1] is the county town and second largest town in County Tipperary in Ireland. In 2011 it had a recorded population of 7,995.[2] It is a civil parish in the historical barony of Ormond Lower. It is also an Ecclesiastical parish in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe.[3]

Nenagh was originally a market town, and its name in Irish means "The Fair of Ormond" – a reference to the Ormond (East Munster) Fair, of which it was the site. Nenagh is today a busy commercial town and is governed by Nenagh Town council.[4]

Location and access[edit]

Nenagh, the largest town in northern County Tipperary, lies to the west of the Nenagh River, which empties into Lough Derg at Dromineer, 9 km to the north-west, a popular centre for sailing and other water sports.[5] The Silvermine Mountain range lies to the south of the town, with the highest peak being Keeper Hill (Irish: Sliabh Ciamalta) at 694 m.[6] The Silvermines have been intermittently mined for silver and base metals for over seven hundred years. Traces of 19th century mine workings remain.[7]

Nenagh, Ireland
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
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Transport[edit]

Nenagh is situated on the R445 Regional Road, which links it to the M7. The M7 by-passes the town to the south and provides high quality access to the cities of Limerick and Dublin. The N52 National Secondary Route to Birr (and through the Midlands to Dundalk) starts/terminates at Nenagh. This route also bypasses Nenagh to the north and connects with the M7 to the west of the town towards Limerick.

Bus[edit]

Nenagh is connected to other main towns and cities by bus services. The main carriers are JJ Kavanagh and Sons, Bus Éireann and Bernard Kavanagh & Sons.[8][9][10] Both JJ Kavanagh and Sons and Bus Éireann now offer services 24 hours a day to Dublin and Limerick with JJ Kavanagh buses offering direct services to both Dublin and Shannon airports.[11] The town centre bus stops are located at Banba Square. Nenagh railway station is also served infrequently by a small number of journeys on Bus Éireann route 323.[12]

Rail[edit]

Nenagh railway station is on the Limerick to Ballybrophy line. Passengers can connect at Ballybrophy halt to trains heading northeast to Dublin or southwest to Cork or Tralee. The station opened on 5 October 1863.[13]

The railway line is lightly used. Lack of upkeep means that the line is restricted to a maximum speed of 40 km/h and the existing trains are poorly timetabled for commuters. A committee (the Nenagh Rail Steering Committee) working in conjunction with Irish Railway News, had a meeting with the national railway company Iarnród Éireann (IÉ) on 1 September 2005 to present the results of a traffic study funded by Nenagh Town Council and North Tipperary County Council, and to seek a morning and evening service between Nenagh and Limerick which would increase commuter traffic. IÉ agreed to delay an afternoon service from the December 2005 timetable and to work towards an early service when equipment permitted from 2007. A January 2012 national newspaper article suggested that Irish Rail was expected to seek permission from the National Transport Authority to close the line.[14] An enhanced timetable was in force during 2012 on a trial basis however the service was reduced again from February 2013.[15]

While the twice-a-day service on the Ballybrophy/Limerick line is poor, Nenagh is only 37 km from Thurles, which is on the main Dublin/Cork line, and which has around 18 trains daily in each direction, including non-stop services to and from Dublin. However there are only two buses each weekday from Nenagh to Thurles (and vice versa) so this option is generally only practical for motorists.[16]

Features and attraction[edit]

The town's historic attractions include Nenagh Castle, the Heritage Centre and the ruined Franciscan abbey. It has a mild climate, with the average daily maximum in July of 19 °C and the average daily minimum in January of 3 °C.

History[edit]

Nenagh is located in the Barony of Ormond Lower which was the traditional territory of the O'Kennedys prior to the Norman invasion of Ireland. This land was included in the grant made by King John of England to Theobald, eldest son of Hervey Walter of Lancashire, England. Theobald was subsequently appointed Chief Butler of Ireland.[17]

Surviving east gable of the Priory and Hospital of St. John the Baptist at Tyone of the Fratres Cruciferi
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1821 6,335 —    
1831 8,466 +33.6%
1841 8,618 +1.8%
1851 6,818 −20.9%
1861 6,204 −9.0%
1871 5,696 −8.2%
1881 5,422 −4.8%
1891 4,722 −12.9%
1901 4,704 −0.4%
1911 4,776 +1.5%
1926 4,524 −5.3%
1936 4,902 +8.4%
1946 4,516 −7.9%
1951 4,420 −2.1%
1956 4,568 +3.3%
1961 4,317 −5.5%
1966 4,609 +6.8%
1971 5,174 +12.3%
1981 5,871 +13.5%
1986 5,777 −1.6%
1991 5,825 +0.8%
1996 5,913 +1.5%
2002 6,054 +2.4%
2006 7,751 +28.0%
[18]

Nenagh Castle was built c. 1216 and was the main castle of the Butler family before they moved to Gowran, County Kilkenny in the 14th century. The family later purchased Kilkenny Castle which was to the main seat of their power for the next 500 years.[17] The town was one of the ancient manors of the Butlers who received the grant of a fair from Henry VIII of England. They also founded the medieval priory and hospital of St John the Baptist, just outside the town at Tyone. A small settlement grew up around the castle, but it never seems to have been of any great importance other than as a local market throughout the medieval period.[19] An important Franciscan friary was founded in the town in 1252 in the reign of Henry III of England which became the head of the Irish custody of West Ireland and was one of the richest religious houses in Ireland.[17] The Abbey was in use for six hundred years; Fr. Patrick Harty, who died in 1817, was its last inhabitant.

East gable with lancet windows of the Franciscan Friary

The town seems to have been refounded in the 16th century. In 1550 the town and friary were burned by O'Carroll. In 1641 the town was captured by Owen Roe O'Neill, but shortly afterwards it was recaptured by Lord Inchiquin. It surrendered to Ireton in 1651 during the Cromwellian period and was burned by Sarsfield in 1688 during the Williamite Wars. Apart from the Castle and Friary most of the town's buildings date from the mid-18th century onwards when its sale out of Butler ownership led to the large-scale grant of leases and the subsequent growth of industries and buildings. The town's growth and development was accelerated in 1838 when the geographical county of Tipperary was divided into two ridings and Nenagh became the administrative capital of the North Riding.[17] In this period Daniel O'Connell held one of his Monster meetings for Repeal of the Act of Union at Grange outside of Nenagh.

In the 19th century Nenagh was primarily a market town providing services to the agricultural hinterland. Industries included brewing, corn processing, coach building and iron works with the addition of cottage industries such as tailoring, dressmaking, millinery, shoemaking, carpentry, wood-turning, wheelwrighting, harnessmaking, printing, and monumental sculpting. The Nenagh Co-operative Creamery was established in 1914 providing employment in milk processing and butter-making.[17]

Politics and governance[edit]

The town is part of the nine member municipal district of Nenagh for elections to Tipperary County Council and is part of the Tipperary North constituency.

Twin town[edit]

Flag of France.svg Tonnerre in the Yonne département, France[20]

Major buildings[edit]

Nenagh Castle[edit]

Nenagh Castle

Architecture[edit]

This fine Norman Keep was built c1200 by Theobald Walter, 1st Baron Butler and completed by his son Theobald le Botiller c1220.[21] The circular keep is over thirty metres high, and has a base of sixteen metres and is one of the finest of its kind in Ireland.[21] The crown of mock crenellations and ring of clerestory windows were added at the instigation of Bishop Michael Flannery in 1861. The intention was that the keep would become the Bell tower of a Pugin-designed cathedral which was never built.[21] Though not true to historic character these additions have ensured the iconic status of the keep which ensures that it features on the logos of many local clubs and businesses including Nenagh Town Council.[4] A project is currently under way to develop the castle and its surrounds. This project will position the castle as the main tourist attraction in the area.

History[edit]

The Butlers who descended from the 1st Baronlater became Earls of Ormond. Nenagh remained their principal seat until 1391 when it was moved to Kilkenny Castle.

In the rebellion of 1641 Neagh Castle was garrisoned by Sir George Hamilton for the twelfth Earl (later the twelth Duke). It was taken by Phelim O'Neill in 1648 during Owen Roe's journey south via the silvermines but was re-taken by Inchiquin in the same year and Sir George was back again as Governor to face Ireton and Abbott in 1650. After a short siege he surrendered on articles and was allowed to march out— not being hung out of the top window as asserted by many writers following an error apparently first made by a writer in the "Dublin Penny Journal" in 1833. Colonel Daniel Abbott then became Governor for the Cromwellians and withstood attacks on the Castle both by Colonel Grace from Birr and a Captain Loghlen O'Meara of a local family who defeated his forces in an engagement close by and forced them to take shelter in the Castle. After the Restoration, Sir William Flower came along in 1660 on behalf of the Marchioness of Ormond who had the ownership of the Manor on her marriage settlements.

—Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1925).[22]

The last Marquess (James Butler) died in 1997. Without a male heir the marquessate became extinct, while the earldom is dormant.[21]

Other historic buildings[edit]

The old jail, with its beautiful octagonal governor's residence, has been happily reduced to the status of an historic monument. Only one jail block remains intact. The Governor's Residence and jail Gatehouse currently house Nenagh & District Heritage centre.

Nenagh Courthouse

Nenagh Courthouse was built in 1843 to the design of Architect John B. Keane.[17] The design was similar to his previous courthouse in Tullamore which in turn followed William Morrison's designs for Carlow and Tralee.[17] The courthouse has recently been refurbished following the moving of the County council offices to the new Civic Offices. The grounds of the refurbished courthouse nearby have recently become the site of bronze sculptures of three Olympic gold medallists with Nenagh links.

Nenagh Arts Centre (formerly the Town Hall) in Banba Square

Nenagh Arts Centre (formerly the Town Hall) is a distinctive building built in 1895. It has been refurbished and now (as of October 2010) features a theatre and multi-purpose exhibition space.[23] Until 2005 it housed the offices of Nenagh Town Council and up until the 1980s Nenagh Public library. The building was designed by the then Town Engineer Robert Gill (grandfather of Tomás Mac Giolla)[17]

Religious buildings[edit]

St Mary's of the Rosary Catholic Church is a neo-gothic church and was built in 1895 to a design by architect Walter G Doolin.[24] It was constructed by John Sisk using Lahorna stone and Portroe slate with the Portland stone of the arches being the only imported material.[24]

The adjacent St Marys Church of Ireland Church was built in 1862 to a design by the architect Joseph Welland (1798–1860)[17] and features a stained glass window from the studio of Harry Clarke.[25] The building is striking in its simplicity in contrast to its larger and more ornate neighbour.

The town also contains the ruins of a Franciscan Friary, where the Annals of Nenagh were written and the medieval Priory of St John on the outskirts of the town at Tyone.

Modern buildings[edit]

The New Civic Offices on the Limerick Road house Tipperary County Council offices. Designed by Ahrends, Burton and Koralek, they have won international recognition for their striking modern design.[26]

The Mid-Western Regional Hospital, known locally as St. Joseph's Hospital, located on the Thurles Road (c1940). It is the only general hospital in north Tipperary. Built in the International Style of mostly flat roof and rendered walls. Retro-fitted with uPVC windows at a later date. Adjoining mortuary church with notable mosaics and stained glass.[27]

The mixed residential scheme known as 'Stafford Hall' Silver Street Nenagh was selected for exhibition in the R.I.A.I Architectural Awards in 2004.

Sport[edit]

GAA[edit]

Éire Óg Nenagh is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club and has had a deal of success in County Championships in both football and hurling, last winning the County Championship in 1995. The club has been strongly represented on All-Ireland winning Tipperary hurling teams with players such as Mick Burns, Michael Cleary, John Heffernan and Conor O'Donovan

Rugby[edit]

After years of being one of the stronger junior Rugby clubs in Munster winning many trophies in the late nineties and early part of the new century Rugby Union club Nenagh Ormond RFC became the first Tipperary club to gain senior status by being promoted to the third division of the Rugby AIB League in 2005. Since going senior the club has competed admirably in the AIL. The club has produced three full Irish International players: Tony Courtney in the 1920s and more recently Trevor Hogan and Donnacha Ryan.[28]

Athletics[edit]

Statue of Olympic gold medalists Hayes, McGrath and Tisdall in Nenagh, Co Tipperary, Ireland

The local athletic club Nenagh Olympic were named after three men (Johnny Hayes, Matt McGrath and Bob Tisdall) with Nenagh connections who won Olympic Gold Medals and the badge of the club is three interlocking Olympic Rings in green, white and orange. A statue of the three has been erected in Banba Square in the grounds of the Courthouse. The club has produced many fine athletes including recently Gary Ryan who also represented Ireland at the Olympics.[29] The club also possesses Ireland's first and to date only international standard indoor athletics track at Tyone. Many championships are held there including munster championships and even all Ireland championships[30][31]

Snooker[edit]

The New Institute Snooker Club is located in Friar Street in Nenagh. The club is one of the most decorated and distinguished in the country. The club was established in 1887 and held its 125th Anniversary celebrations in November 2012. The club were the All-Ireland Club champions in 2008 and have also produced a number of European Champions.

Soccer[edit]

Home to Nenagh A.F.C.(1951) and Nenagh Celtic F.C.(1981). Nenagh A.F.C.'s home grounds are Brickfields and Islandbawn. Nenagh Celtic's home ground is the VEC grounds. Nenagh Celtic over the last decade have dominated the north Tipperary soccer scene, winning numerous titles.[citation needed]

Golf[edit]

Nenagh Golf Club located at Beechwood on the "Old Birr Road" was affiliated to the Golfing Union of Ireland in 1929. The original 9-hole course was designed by Alister McKenzie, who along with Bobby Jones designed the legendary Augusta National. The course was expanded to 18 holes by Eddie Hackett in 1973. The course was expanded to 150 acres (0.61 km2) during the 1980s and 1990s and redevelopment to a new design by Patrick Merrigan was completed in 2001.[32]

Cycling[edit]

Banba Square is the hub of the North Tipperary Cycle Network. Signposted routes varying from 11km to 67km in length leave and loop back to Nenagh .[33][34][35][36]

Scuba Diving[edit]

Nenagh's Lough Derg Sub-Aqua Club is a SCUBA diving and snorkelling club affiliated to IRISH UNDERWATER COUNCIL (C.F.T) which is an affiliate member of CMAS the international umbrella organisation for recreational diver training organisations. It was registered with C.F.T. on the 15/08/1995. Most of our members are from Nenagh in Co.Tipperary and surrounding areas and some of our members come from as far as counties Offaly, Limerick, Clare and Galway. During the diving season, which runs from approximately March to November, weather permitting many of our members can be seen diving in Kilkee, Co Clare on a Sunday afternoon. During the Winter months, we meet every Wednesday Night from 7-8pm in Nenagh Swimming Pool to keep our fitness levels up. After a hard training session we retire to the Abbey Court Hotel to recover. We also hold lectures for the each years new trainees in the hotel. Come late February or March we head for open water to get the seasons diving under way again. Open water snorkels takes place in Lough Derg, only 5 miles from Nenagh.

Other sports[edit]

  • The World Taekwondo Association Ireland has its Irish headquarters in Nenagh[citation needed], under official kukkiwon Master Sheamus O'Neill.
  • The Nenagh Triathlon Club was formed in 2007 to cater for the growing number of triathlon enthusiasts in the town organises the annual North tipp Sprint Triathlon.[37]
  • Swimming is catered for by Nenagh Neptune Swimming club which is based at the town's 25m swimming pool.
  • Riverdale Pitch And Putt Club on the "Old Birr Road" is a registered Member of the pitch and putt union of Ireland.
  • Nenagh And District Darts run annual team and singles darts leagues in and around Nenagh.[38]
  • Nenagh Cricket Club is a member of the Munster Cricket Union and plays in Division Two of the Munster Cricket League.[39]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. [40]

  1. ^ http://www.logainm.ie/1165378.aspx
  2. ^ "Microsoft Word – Volume 1 2006 isbn.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  3. ^ Parishes of Killaloe Diocese.
  4. ^ a b "Nenagh Town Council – Homepage". Nenaghtc.ie. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  5. ^ "Nenagh Places to Visit". Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  6. ^ "Keeper Hill". Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "Silvermines". Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  8. ^ http://www.jjkavanagh.ie/en/timetables/scheduled-services
  9. ^ http://www.buseireann.ie
  10. ^ http://www.bkavcoaches.com/html/timetable.html
  11. ^ http://www.jjkavanagh.ie/timetables
  12. ^ http://www.buseireann.ie/pdf/1319729592-323.pdf
  13. ^ "Nenagh station". Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  14. ^ http://www.examiner.ie/ireland/iarnrod-eireann-may-close-rail-service-amid-falling-demand-178779.html
  15. ^ http://www.irishrail.ie
  16. ^ http://shamrockbuses.com/Templemore_Thurles_Nenagh.htm
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Murphy, Nancy (1994). Walkabout Nenagh. Relay Books. ISBN 0-946327-12-2. 
  18. ^ http://www.cso.ie/census and www.histpop.org. Post 1991 figures include environs of Nenagh. For a discussion on the accuracy of pre-famine census returns see JJ Lee "On the accuracy of the pre-famine Irish censuses" in Irish Population, Economy and Society edited by JM Goldstrom and LA Clarkson (1981) p54, and also "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850" by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó Gráda in The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Nov. 1984), pp. 473–488.
  19. ^ Brian Hodkinson, In search of Medieval Nenagh, North Munster Antiquarian Journal, Vol. 46, 2006, pp. 31–41
  20. ^ http://www.nenaghguardian.ie/news-detail.php?article=EBBTSI
  21. ^ a b c d Murphy, Nancy (1993). Nenagh Castle: Chronology and Architecture. Relay Books. ISBN 0-946327-10-6. 
  22. ^ Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1925). "The castle and manor of Nenach". The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (The Society): 257. 
  23. ^ Nenagh Guardian, Saturday 25 September 2010 page 11
  24. ^ a b Cotter, Rev. Pat (1990). St. Mary's of the Rosary, Nenagh, 1896–1990. 
  25. ^ http://www.buildingsofireland.ie
  26. ^ ABK
  27. ^ http://www.buildingsofireland.ie/niah/search.jsp?type=record&county=TN&regno=22305109
  28. ^ "Nenagh Ormond History". Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  29. ^ "Olympics at Sports-Reference.com". Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  30. ^ Athletics Ireland
  31. ^ Nenagh Olympic Stadium
  32. ^ "Nenagh Golf Club". nenaghgolfclub.com. Retrieved 6 February 2009. 
  33. ^ http://www.everytrail.com/guide/north-tipperary-cycle-routes-loop-1-nenagh-to-terryglass
  34. ^ http://www.everytrail.com/guide/north-tipperary-cycle-routes-loop-2-nenagh-to-garrykennedy
  35. ^ http://www.everytrail.com/guide/north-tipperary-cycle-routes-loop-3-nenagh-to-cloughjordan-and-borrisokane
  36. ^ http://www.tipperary.com/im_visiting/nenagh_cycle_hub/
  37. ^ "Nenagh Triathlon Club | Triathlon Ireland". Nenaghtriathlon.com. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  38. ^ "Nenagh And District Darts". nenaghdarts.blogspot.ie/. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  39. ^ "Nenagh Cricket Club". nenaghcricketclub.ie/. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  40. ^ Grace, D. (2000). The Famine in Nenagh Poor Law Union. Nenagh: Relay.