Neo-Nazism

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Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism.[1][2][3][4] The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of these movements.[5][6]

Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including militant nationalism, racism, xenophobia, homophobia, antisemitism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler.

Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries, as well as international networks. Some European and Latin American countries have laws prohibiting the expression of pro-Nazi, racist, anti-Semitic or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism.

Europe[edit]

Neo-Nazi march in Leipzig, Germany on October 17, 2009

Austria[edit]

The major postwar far-right party was the Austrian National Democratic Party (NDP), until it was banned in 1988 for violating Austria's anti-Nazi legislation, Verbotsgesetz 1947.[7] The Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) served as a shelter for ex-Nazis almost from its inception. In 1980, scandals undermined Austria's two main parties, and the economy stagnated. Jörg Haider became leader of the FPÖ and offered partial justification for Nazism, calling its employment policy effective. In 1994, the FPÖ won 33 percent of the vote in Carinthia and 22 percent in Vienna, showing that it had become a force capable of reversing the old pattern of Austrian politics. In the 1994 Austrian election, the FPÖ won 22 percent of the vote.[8]

Historian Walter Laqueur writes that even though Haider welcomed former Nazis at his meetings and went out of his way to address Schutzstaffel (SS) veterans, the FPÖ is not a fascist party in the traditional sense, since it has not made anti-communism an important issue, and does not advocate the overthrow of the democratic order or the use of violence. In his view, the FPÖ is "not quite fascist", although it is part of a tradition, similar to that of 19th-century Viennese mayor Karl Lueger, that involves nationalism, xenophobic populism, and authoritarianism.[9] Professor Ali Mazrui, however, identified the FPÖ as neo-Nazi in a BBC world lecture.[10]

Haider, who in 2005 left the Freedom Party and formed the Alliance for Austria's Future, was killed in a traffic accident in October, 2008.[11]

Barbara Rosenkranz, the Freedom Party's candidate for the Austrian presidential election, 2010, is controversial for having made allegedly pro-Nazi statements.[12] Rosenkranz is married to Horst Rosenkranz, a key member of a banned neo-Nazi party, and known for publishing far-right books. Rosenkranz says she cannot detect anything "dishonourable" in her husband's activities.[13]

The volume Rechtsextremismus in Österreich seit 1945 (Right-wing Extremism in Austria since 1945), issued by DÖW in 1979, listed nearly 50 active far right organizations in Austria. Their influence waned gradually, partly due to liberalization programs in secondary schools and universities that emphasized Austrian identity and democratic traditions. Votes for the RFS (Ring Freiheitlicher Studenten), the Freedom Party's academic student organization, in student elections fell from 30% in the 1960s to 2% in 1987. In the 1995 elections for the student representative body Österreichische Hochschülerschaft (Austrian Students' Association), the RFS got 4% of the vote. The FPÖ won 22% of the votes at the General Election in the same year.[14]

A radical non-parliamentary, anti-democratic far-right organization active in Austria was the VAPO (Volkstreue Außerparlamentarische Opposition) founded by the Austrian neo-Nazi Gottfried Küssel in 1986, who publicly declared to be a member of the US-American neo-Nazi organization NSDAP/AO since 1977. Neither an association nor a party, the VAPO was loosely organized in "Kameradschaften" (comradeships) and defined itself as a "battle alliance of nationalist groups and persons" with the aims of "reestablishing the NSDAP" and the "seizure of power".[15] In 1993 Küssel was repeatedly convicted on charges of "NS-Wiederbetätigung" (re-engagement in national socialism) under the Austrian anti-Nazi law (Verbotsgesetz 1947) and sentenced to ten years of prison.[16] The VAPO de facto disbanded in the course of the imprisonment of its leading figures, much due to its loose organizational structure. Due to procedural errors Küssel's sentence was revoked by the OGH (Austrian Supreme Court) and the trial reheld in 1994 where Küssel was sentenced to eleven years in prison.[17]

Belgium[edit]

Anti-Nazi logo in Belgium

A Belgian neo-Nazi organization, Bloed, Bodem, Eer en Trouw (Blood, Soil, Honour and Loyalty), was created in 2004 after splitting from the international network (Blood and Honour). The group rose to public prominence in September 2006, after 17 members (including 11 soldiers) were arrested under the December 2003 anti-terrorist laws and laws against racism, antisemitism and supporters of censorship. According to Justice Minister Laurette Onkelinx and Interior Minister Patrick Dewael, the suspects (11 of whom were members of the military) were preparing terrorist attacks in order to "destabilize" Belgium.[18][19] According to journalist Manuel Abramowicz, of the Resistances network, the ultras of the radical right have always had as its aim to "infiltrate the state mechanisms," including the army in the 1970s and the 1980s, through Westland New Post and the Front de la Jeunesse.[20]

A police operation, which mobilized 150 agents, searched five military barracks (in Leopoldsburg near the Dutch border: Kleine-Brogel, Peer, Brussels (Royal military school) and Zedelgem– as well as 18 private addresses in Flanders. They found weapons, munitions, explosives, and a homemade bomb large enough to make "a car explode." The leading suspect, B.T., was organizing the trafficking of weapons, and was developing international links, in particular with the Dutch far right movement De Nationale Alliantie.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

Two further incidents of neo-Nazism in Belgium include: Demonstrators at an anti-Israel rally in Antwerp, on November 18, 2012 chanted “Hamas, Hamas, all Jews to the gas.", Murdering Jews by gas was the most common of murder methods by the Nazis, after 1941. On October 9, 2012 in Brussels, A synagogue was vandalized by two unidentified male perpetrators who spray-painted “death to the Jews” and “boom” on the wall of the Beth Hillel synagogue.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

The neo-Nazi white nationalist organization Bosanski Pokret Nacionalnog Ponosa (Bosnian Movement of National Pride) was founded in Bosnia and Herzegovina in July 2009. Their model is the Waffen-SS Handschar Division, composed of Bosnian Muslim volunteers.[27][citation needed] They proclaimed their main enemies to be "Jews, Gypsies, Serbian Chetniks, the Croatian separatists, Josip Broz Tito, Communists, homosexuals and blacks".[28][29] They mix an ideology of Bosnian nationalism, National Socialism and white nationalism. The group is led by a person nicknamed Sauberzwig, after the commander of the 13 SS Handschar. The group's strongest area of operations is in the Tuzla area of Bosnia.

Croatia[edit]

Neo-Nazis in Croatia base their ideology on the writings of Ante Pavelić and the Ustaše, a fascist anti-Yugoslav separatist movement.[30] The Ustaše regime committed a genocide against Serbs, Jews and Gypsies. At the end of World War II, many Ustaše members fled to the West, where they found sanctuary and continued their political and terrorist activities (which were tolerated because of Cold War hostilities).[31][32] Jonathan Levy, a lawyer who represented plaintiffs in a 1999 lawsuit against the Ustaše and others, said: "Many are still terrified of the Ustashe, the Serbs particularly. Unlike the Nazi Party, the Ustashe still exist and have a party headquarters in Zagreb."[33]

In 1999, Zagreb's Square of the Victims of Fascism was renamed The Square of The Great Men of Croatia, provoking widespread criticism of Croatia's attitude toward the Holocaust.[34] In 2000, city council renamed the square to Square of the Victims of Fascism again.[35] Many streets in Croatia were renamed after the prominent Ustaše figure Mile Budak, which provoked outrage amongst the Serbian minority. Since 2002, there has been a reversal of this development, and streets with the name of Mile Budak or other persons connected with the Ustaše movement are few or non-existent.[36] A plaque in Slunj with the inscription "Croatian Knight Jure Francetić" was erected to commemorate Francetić, the notorious Ustaše leader of the Black Legion. The plaque remained there for four years, until it was removed by the authorities.[36][37]

In 2003, an attempt was made to amend the Croatian penal code by adding articles prohibiting the public display of Nazi symbols, the propagation of Nazi ideology, historical revisionism and holocaust denial, but this attempt was prevented by the Croatian constitutional court.[38] An amendment was added in 2006 to prohibit any type of hate crime based on factors such as race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religion or national origin.[39]

There have been instances of hate speech in Croatia, such as the use of the phrase Srbe na vrbe! ("(hang) Serbs on the willow trees!"). In 2004, an Orthodox church was spray-painted with pro-Ustaše graffiti.[40][41] During some protests in Croatia, supporters of Ante Gotovina and other suspected war criminals have carried nationalist symbols and pictures of Pavelić.[42] On May 17, 2007, a concert in Zagreb by Thompson, a popular Croatian singer, was attended by 60,000 people, some of them wearing Ustaše uniforms. Some gave Ustaše salutes and shouted the Ustaše slogan "Za dom spremni" (for the homeland – ready!). This event prompted the Jerusalem office of the Simon Wiesenthal Center to publicly issue a protest to the Croatian president.[43][44][45][46][47] In 2007, Austrian authorities launched a criminal investigation into the widespread display of Ustaše symbols at a gathering of Croatian nationalists in Bleiburg, Austria.[48][49]

Estonia[edit]

In 2006, Roman Ilin, a Jewish theatre director from St. Petersburg, Russia, was attacked by neo-Nazis when returning from an underground tunnel after a rehearsal. Ilin subsequently accused Estonian police of indifference after filing the incident.[50] When a dark-skinned French student was attacked in Tartu, the head of an association of foreign students claimed that the attack was characteristic of a wave of neo-Nazi violence. An Estonian police official, however, stated that there were only a few cases involving foreign students over the previous two years.[51] In November 2006, the Estonian government passed a law banning the display of Nazi symbols.[52]

The 2008 United Nations Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur's Report noted that community representatives and non-governmental organizations devoted to human rights had pointed out that neo-Nazi groups were active in Estonia—particularly in Tartu—and had perpetrated acts of violence against non-European minorities.[53]

Hungary[edit]

Further information: History of the Jews in Hungary

Today, Neo-Nazism in Hungary takes the form of hatred towards Judaism and Israel, it can be observed from many prominent Hungarian politicians. The most famous example is the MIÉP-Jobbik Third Way Alliance of Parties. Antisemitism in Hungary is manifested mainly in far right publications and demonstrations. Hungarian Justice and Life Party supporters continued their tradition of shouting antisemitic slogans and tearing the US flag to shreds at their annual rallies in Budapest in March 2003 and 2004, commemorating the 1848–49 revolution. Further, during the demonstrations held to celebrate the anniversary of the 1956 uprising, a post-Communist tradition celebrated by the left and right of the political spectrum, antisemitic and anti-Israel slogans were heard from the right wing, such as accusing Israel of war crimes. The center-right traditionally keeps its distance from the right-wing Csurka-led and other far-right demonstrations.[54]

France[edit]

Neo-Nazi organizations in France are outlawed, yet a significant number exist.[55] Legal far-right groups are also numerous, and include the Bloc identitaire, created by former members of Christian Bouchet's Unité Radicale group. Close to National Bolshevism and Third Position ideologies, Unité Radicale was dissolved in 2002 following Maxime Brunerie's assassination attempt on July 14, 2002 against then-President Jacques Chirac. Christian Bouchet had previously been a member of Nouvelle Résistance (NR), an offshoot of Troisième Voie (Third Way) which described itself as "nationalist revolutionary". Although Nouvelle Résistance at first opposed the "national conservatives" of Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front, it changed strategy, adopting the slogan "Less Leftism! More Fascism![56] " Nouvelle Résistance was also a successor to Jean-François Thiriart's Jeune Europe neo-Nazi Europeanist movement of the 1960s, which had participated in the National Party of Europe, along with Oswald Mosley's Union Movement, Otto Strasser and others. The French government estimated that neo-Nazi groups in France had 3,500 members.[57] In 2011 alone, 129 violent actions were recorded in France against the Jewish pupulation, with 60.5% of those cases occurring in the Île-de-France region. The CNCDH notes that in 19 cases, these violent actions could be imputed to persons of ‘Arab origin or Muslim confession’, with 15 others relating to neo-Nazi ideology, mainly consisting of displaying swastikas. In relation to these violent actions 36 persons were arrested, 28 of whom were minors. Of the 129 violent actions recorded, 50.4% were for degradations, 44.2% for violence and assault and battery, and the remaining 5.4% for arson. In France in 2011, 260 threats were recorded, with 53% of those (138 cases) occurring in the Île-de-France region. Of these threats, 15% related to neo-Nazi ideology, with another 14% imputable to persons of ‘Arab origin or Muslim confession’. Thirty-two persons were arrested in relation to these threats, nine of whom were minors. Of the 260 threats, 44% consisted of speech acts and threatening gestures and insults, 38% of graffiti and the remaining 18% of pamphlets and emails.[58]

Germany[edit]

Main article: Far right in Germany
Anti-Nazi demonstration in Dresden, Germany, February 13, 2012

In Germany, immediately after World War II, Allied forces and the new German government attempted to prevent the creation of the new Nazi movement through a process known as denazification. However, with the onset of the Cold War it had lost interest in prosecuting anyone.[59] Many of the more than 90,000 Nazi war criminals recorded in German files were serving in positions of prominence under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.[60][61] Not until 1964 and 1965 were the former SS members from Treblinka brought to trial by West Germany.[62] The government had passed laws prohibiting Nazis from publicly expressing their beliefs. Displaying the swastika became an offense punishable by up to one year imprisonment. Nevertheless, some former National Socialists retained their political beliefs and passed them down to new generations who formed the extreme-right National Democratic Party.[63]

After German reunification in the 1990s, post-National Socialist groups gained more followers, mostly among the younger generation in the former East Germany.[63] They have expressed an aversion to people from Slavic countries (especially Poland) and people of other national backgrounds who moved from the former West Germany into the former East Germany after Germany was reunited.[64] According to the annual report of Germany's interior intelligence service (Verfassungsschutz) for 2012, at the time there were 26,000 right-wing extremists living in Germany, including 6,000 neo-Nazis.[65] The Neo-Nazi organizations are not outlawed in Germany,[63] although Holocaust denial is, according to the German Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch § 86a) and § 130 (public incitement).

Greece[edit]

The far right political party Golden Dawn (Chrysi Avyi) is often labeled as neo-Nazi, although the group rejects this label. A few Golden Dawn members participated in the Bosnian War in the Greek Volunteer Guard (GVG) and were present in Srebrenica during the Srebrenica massacre.[66][67] Another Greek neo-Nazi group is the Strasserist "Mavros Krinos" (Μαύρος Κρίνος – Black Lily).

In the elections of 6 May 2012, Golden Dawn received 6.97% of the votes, entering the Greek parliament for the first time with 21 representatives. Due to no coalition amongst the elected parties so as to form a Greek Government, new elections were proclaimed.

In the elections of 17 June 2012, Golden Dawn received 6.92% of the votes, entering the Greek parliament with 18 representatives.

Netherlands[edit]

The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism reports that on 17 May 2011 in Leek, Groningen, antisemitic graffiti were found at a Jewish school. The graffiti consisted of a swastika and the text “C18”, or Combat 18, a neo-Nazi organisation active throughout Europe. The number 18 refers to the initials of Adolf Hitler, A and H being the first and eighth letters of the alphabet, respectively.[68]

Russia[edit]

Neo-Nazism in Russia: The photograph was taken at an anti-homosexual demonstration in Moscow in October 2010

Many Russian neo-Nazis openly admire Adolf Hitler and use the German Nazi swastika as their symbol. Russian neo-Nazis are characterized by racism, antisemitism, homophobia, Islamophobia and extreme xenophobia towards people from Asia.[69] Their ideology centers on defending Russian national identity against what they perceive as a takeover by minority groups such as Jews, Caucasians, homosexuals, Central Asians, Roma people, Poles, and Muslims.

Russian neo-Nazis have made it an explicit goal to take over the country by force, and have put serious effort into preparing for this. Paramilitary organizations operating under the guise of sports clubs have trained their members in squad tactics, hand to hand combat and weapons handling. They have stockpiled and used weapons, often illegally.

Observers have noted the irony of Russians embracing neo-Nazism, because one of Hitler's ambitions at the start of World War II was to exterminate, expel, or enslave most or all Slavs from central and eastern Europe (i.e., Russians, Ukrainians, Poles etc.).[70] At the end of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, over 25 million Soviet citizens had died.[71] In a 2007 news story, ABC News reported, "In a country that lost more people defeating the Nazis than any other country, there are now an estimated 50,000 to 70,000 neo-Nazis, half of the world's total."[72]

The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused great economic and social problems, including widespread unemployment and poverty. Several far right paramilitary organizations were able to tap into popular discontent, particularly among marginalized, lesser educated and unemployed youths. Of the three major age groups — youths, adults, and the elderly — youths may have been hit the hardest. The elderly suffered due to inadequate (or unpaid) pensions, but they found effective political representation in the Communist Party, and generally had their concerns addressed through better budget allocations. Adults, although often suffering financially and psychologically due to job losses, were generally able to find new sources of income.

Russian National Unity (RNE), founded in 1990 and led by Alexander Barkashov, has claimed to have members in 250 cities. RNE adopted the swastika as its symbol, and sees itself as the avant-garde of a coming national revolution. It is critical of other major far right organizations, such as the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR). Historian Walter Laqueur calls RNE far closer to the Nazi model than the LDPR. RNE publishes several news sheets; one of them, Russky poryadok, claims to have a circulation of 150,000. Full members of RNE are called Soratnik (comrades in arms), receive combat training at locations near Moscow, and many of them work as security officers or armed guards.[73]

On August 15, 2007, Russian authorities arrested a student for allegedly posting a video on the Internet which appears to show two migrant workers being beheaded in front of a red and black swastika flag.[74] Alexander Verkhovsky, the head of a Moscow-based center that monitors hate crime in Russia, said, "It looks like this is the real thing. The killing is genuine ... There are similar videos from the Chechen war. But this is the first time the killing appears to have been done intentionally."[75] A Russian neo-Nazi group called the Russian National Socialist Party claimed responsibility for the murders.

Serbia[edit]

Neo-Nazism in Serbia is mostly based on national and religious factors. Nacionalni stroj (National Alignment), a neo-Nazi organization from the Vojvodina region, orchestrated several incidents. Charges were laid against 18 of the leading members.[76]

Sweden[edit]

Neo-Nazi activities in Sweden have previously been limited to white supremacist groups, none of which has more than a few hundred members.[77] The main neo-Nazi organizations as of 2014 are the Party of the Swedes and the Swedish Resistance Movement.

Switzerland[edit]

The neo-Nazi and white power skinhead scene in Switzerland has seen significant growth in the 1990s and 2000s.[citation needed] This development occurred in parallel with the increasing presence of right-wing populism due to SVP campaigns[citation needed], and is reflected in the foundation of the Partei National Orientierter Schweizer in 2000, which resulted in an improved organizational structure of the neo-Nazi and white supremacist scene.

Turkey[edit]

Apart from neo-fascist[78][79][80][81][82][83][84] Grey Wolves and ultranationalist[85][86][87][88][89][90] Nationalist Movement Party there are some Neo-Nazi organizations in Turkey like Turkish Nazi Party[91] or National Socialist Party of Turkey,[92] mainly based on internet.[93][94][95]

Ukraine[edit]

Fans of the FC Karpaty Lviv football club honoring the Waffen-SS Galizien division, in Lviv, Ukraine, 2013

The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) dates back to 1929. It survived into the 21st century after splitting into a Melnykite camp or OUN A and a Banderite camp or OUN B, from which after WWII another group split off, the 'OUN abroad' as part of the Ukrainian diaspora. When Ukraine became independent from Russia ultra nationalists were in the minority. In 1991 Svoboda (political party) was founded as 'Social-National Party of Ukraine'. The party combined radical nationalism and neo-Nazi features.[96] It was renamed and rebranded 13 years later as 'All-Ukrainian Association Svoboda' in 2004 under Oleh Tyahnybok. By 2005 an important step toward heroization of Ukrainian nationalism was Victor Yushchenko's appointment of Svoboda member Volodymyr Viatrovych as head of the Ukrainian security service (SBU) archives. This allowed Viatrovych not only to sanitize ultra nationalist history, but also officially promote its dissemination along with OUN(b) ideology based on 'ethnic purity' coupled with anti-Russian, anti-Polish and anti-semitic rhetoric; denial of UPA war crimes, and the paradoxical glorification of Nazi history with concomitant denial of wartime collaboration wrote Professor Per Anders Rudling.[97]:229–230 The extreme right wing now capitalize on 'Yushchenkoist' propaganda initiatives.[97]:235 This incudes Iuryi Mykahl’chyshyn, an ideologue who proudly confesses himself part of the fascist tradition.[97] The autonomous nationalists focus on recruiting younger people, participates in violent actions, quoting "anti-bourgeoism, anti-capitalism, anti-globalism, anti-democratism, anti-liberalism, anti-bureaucratism, anti-dogmatism". In 2009 Svoboda fetched 34% of votes in one region of the state. Svoboda is part of a right wing Alliance of European National Movements.[97] Per Anders Rulig has suggested that "Viktor Yanukovych has indirectly aided Svoboda" by "granting Svoboda representatives disproportionate attention in the media".[97]:247

After Yanokovych's ouster in February 2014, the interim Yatsenyuk Government placed 4 Svoboda members in leading positions: Oleksandr Sych as Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine, Ihor Tenyukh as Minister of Defense, lawyer Ihor Shvaika as Minister of Agrarian Policy and Food and Andriy Mokhnyk as Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine. The U.S. State Department has stated in a March 5, 2014 fact sheet that "Far-right wing ultranationalist groups, some of which were involved in open clashes with security forces during the EuroMaidan protests, are not represented in the Rada."[98]

Ukraine's National Security and Defence Council chief Andriy Parubiy, one of the founders of Social-National Party of Ukraine,[99] oversees the "anti–terrorist" operation against pro-Russian separatists in eastern Ukraine.[100]

Asia[edit]

Israel[edit]

Neo-Nazism activity is not common or widespread in Israel, and the few activities reported have all been the work of extremists, who were punished severely. One notable case is that of Patrol 36, a cell in Petah Tikva made up of eight teenage immigrants from the former Soviet Union who had been attacking foreign workers and homosexuals, and vandalizing synagogues with Nazi images.[101][102] These neo-Nazis were reported to have operated in cities across Israel, and have been described as being influenced by the rise of neo-Nazism in Europe.[101][102][103] Widely publicized arrests have led to a call to reform the Law of Return to permit the revocation of Israeli citizenship for – and the subsequent deportation of – neo-Nazis.[102]

Mongolia[edit]

Flag of the Dayar Mongol, a neo-Nazi party in Mongolia

Neo-Nazism is a growing political force in Mongolia. From 2008, Mongolian Neo-Nazi groups have defaced buildings in Ulan Bator, smashed Chinese shopkeepers' windows, and killed pro-Chinese Mongols. The Neo-Nazi Mongols' targets for violence are Chinese, Koreans,[104] Mongol women who sleep with Chinese men, and LGBT people.[105] They wear Nazi uniforms and revere the Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan. During World War II, the invading Nazi Germans also recruited Mongol Kalmyks to fight for them against the Soviet Union. Though Tsagaan Khass leaders say they do not support violence, they are self-proclaimed Nazis. "Adolf Hitler was someone we respect. He taught us how to preserve national identity," said the 41-year-old co-founder, who calls himself Big Brother. "We don't agree with his extremism and starting the Second World War. We are against all those killings, but we support his ideology. We support nationalism rather than fascism." Some have ascribed it to poor historical education.[104]

Myanmar[edit]

The Straits Times writes that the 969 Movement, which it says "is described as Myanmar's 'neo-Nazi group'", is facing scrutiny for "its role in spreading anti-Muslim sentiment".[106]

The Americas[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Further information: Racism in Brazil

Several Brazilian neo-Nazi gangs appeared in the 1990s in Southern Brazil and Southeastern Brazil, regions with mostly white people, with their acts gaining more media coverage and public notoriety in the 2000s.[107][108][109][110][111][112][113] Some members of Brazilian neo-Nazi groups have been associated with football hooliganism.[114]

Their targets have included African, South American and Asian immigrants; Jews; Afro-Brazilians and internal migrants with origins in the northern regions of Brazil (who are mostly brown-skinned or Afro-Brazilian);[112][115] homeless people, prostitutes; recreational drug users; feminists and—more frequently reported in the media—homosexuals, bisexuals, the third-gendered and the transgendered.[111][116][117] News of their attacks has played a role in debates about anti-discrimination laws in Brazil (including to some extent hate speech laws) and the issues of sexual orientation and gender identity.[118][119][120]

Recently, neo-Nazi groups were caught by police inside the crowd of Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense.[121]

Canada[edit]

Neo-Nazism has existed in Canada as a branch of right-wing radicalism and has been a source of considerable controversy during the last 50 years. As Adolf Hitler was assuming control of Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, Adrien Arcand’s National Social Christian Party dominated the white supremacist front.[122] After World War II, racism and Nazism lost popularity, and far-right white supremacist movements faded into the background. Contemporary Neo-Nazism in Canada began with the formation of the Canadian Nazi Party in 1965. In the 1970s and 1980s, Neo-Nazism continued to spread as organizations including the Western Guard and Church of the Creator promoted white supremacist ideals.[122] Neo-Nazism in Canada was revitalized in 1989 with the institution of the Heritage Front organization and the rise in popularity of skinhead music. However, controversy and dissention has left many Canadian Neo-Nazi organizations dissolved or weakened in the last few years.[123] On April 12, 2012 several Jewish-owned summer homes in Val Morin were broken into and defaced with swastikas and anti-Semitic messages. Three major Neo-Nazi organisations in Canada include: Nationalist Party of Canada, which is a political party established in 1977 by Don Andrews. The Party affirms to promote and maintain European heritage in Canada, but is known for its anti-Semitism. Many influential Neo-Nazi Leaders such as Wolfgang Droege affiliated with the party but after the formation of Heritage Front in 1989, the majority of radicals left to join the new and promising Heritage Front.[123] The Heritage Front, which was a Neo-Nazi organization created by Wolfgang Droege in 1989 in Toronto. Leaders of the white supremacist movement were “disgruntled about the state of the radical right” [123] and wanted to unite and intensify the unorganized groups of white supremacists into an influential and efficient group with common objectives. Plans for the organization began in September 1989 and Heritage Front was formally announced a couple of months later in November. And the Church of the Creator, which is a religion established by Ben Klassen in 1973.[124] The church teaches that the Aryan race is the chosen race and calls for Rahowa, or Racial Holy War to be raged against Jews and other races.[124] Although Creativity is religion, it acts as political organization and promotes and organizes neo-Nazi and skinhead functions. Nonetheless, Creativity endorses legal and non violent demonstrations.[125] In Canada, the Creativity movement was made popular by George Burdi.[126]

Chile[edit]

Main article: Nazism in Chile

After the dissolution of the National Socialist Movement of Chile (MNSCH) in 1938, notable former members of MNSCH migrated into Partido Agrario Laborista (PAL), obtaining high charges.[127] Not all former MNSCH members joined the PAL; some continued to form parties of the MNSCH line until 1952.[127] A new old-school Nazi party was formed in 1964 by school teacher Franz Pfeiffer.[127] Among the activities of this group were the organization of a Miss Nazi beauty contest and the formation of a Chilean branch of the Ku Klux Klan.[127] The party disbanded in 1970. Pfeiffer attempted to restart it in 1983 in the wake of a wave of protest against the Augusto Pinochet regime.[127]

Nicolás Palacios considered the "Chilean race" to be a mix of two bellicose master races: the Visigoths of Spain and the Mapuche (Araucanians) of Chile.[128] Palacios traces the origins of the Spanish component of the "Chilean race" to the coast of the Baltic Sea, specifically to Götaland in Sweden,[128] one of the supposed homelands of the Goths. Palacios claimed that both the blonde-haired and the bronze-coloured Chilean Mestizo share a "moral physonomy" and a masculine psychology.[129] He opposed immigration from Southern Europe, and argued that Mestizos who are derived from south Europeans lack "cerebral control" and are a social load.[130]

Costa Rica[edit]

Several neo-Nazi groups exist in Costa Rica, and the first to be in the spotlight was the Costa Rican National Socialist Party, which is now disbanded.[131] Others include Costa Rican National Socialist Youth, Costa Rican National Socialist Alliance, New Social Order, Costa Rican National Socialist Resistance (which is Costa Rica's member of the World Union of National Socialists)[132] and the Hiperborean Spear Society. The groups normally target Jewish-Costa Ricans, Afro-Costa Ricans, Communists, homosexuals and specially Nicaraguan and Colombian immigrants. The media has discovered the existence of an underground neo-Nazi group inside the police.[133]

United States[edit]

The NSM rally on the West lawn of the US Capitol, Washington DC, 2008

There are a number of neo-Nazi groups in the United States. The National Socialist Movement (NSM), with about 400 members in 32 states,[134] is currently the largest neo-Nazi organization in the United States.[135] After World War II, new organizations formed with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles. The National States' Rights Party, founded in 1958 by Edward Reed Fields and J. B. Stoner countered racial integration in the American southern states with Nazi-inspired publications and iconography. The American Nazi Party, founded by George Lincoln Rockwell in 1959, achieved high-profile coverage in the press through their public demonstrations.[136]

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing Nazi, racist, and anti-Semitic views. A First Amendment landmark case was National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie, in which neo-Nazis threatened to march in a predominantly Jewish suburb of Chicago. The march never took place in Skokie, but the court ruling allowed the neo-Nazis to stage a series of demonstrations in Chicago.

The Institute for Historical Review, formed in 1978, is a Holocaust denial body associated with neo-Nazism.

Organizations which report upon American neo-Nazi activities include the Anti-Defamation League and Southern Poverty Law Center. While a small minority of American neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground, so they can recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment. American neo-Nazis are known to attack, torment, and harass Jews, African Americans, Slavic Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans, American Gypsies, homosexuals, "race traitors" and people with different political or religious opinions.[137] American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations, and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere.[138]

A photograph surfaced of a US Marines sniper team in Afghanistan posing in front of a flag with a logo resembling that of the notorious Nazi SS.[139] Days after the Marines apologized for a flag resembling the Nazi “SS” symbol, new questions are being raised about an Army base in Afghanistan reportedly called “Combat Outpost Aryan”.[140]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lee McGowan (2002). The Radical Right in Germany: 1870 to the Present. Pearson Education. pp. 9, 178. ISBN 0-582-29193-3. OCLC 49785551. 
  2. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda; Wolfgang Neugebauer. "Right-Wing Extremism in Austria: History, Organisations, Ideology". "Right-wing extremism can be equated neither with Nazism nor with neo-Fascism or neo-Nazism. Neo-Nazism, a legal term, is understood as the attempt to propagate, in direct defiance of the law (Verbotsgesetz), Nazi ideology or measures such as the denial, playing-down, approval or justification of Nazi mass murder, especially the Holocaust." 
  3. ^ Martin Frost. "Neo Nazism". "The term neo-Nazism refers to any social or political movement seeking to revive National Socialism, and which postdates the Second World War. Often, especially internationally, those who are part of such movements do not use the term to describe themselves." 
  4. ^ Lee, Martin A. 1997. The Beast Reawakens. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, pp. 85–118, 214–234, 277–281, 287–330, 333–378. On Volk concept," and a discussion of ethnonationalist integralism, see pp. 215–218
  5. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002). "Neo-Nazism". The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Retrieved 2007-12-08. "Neo-Nazism is the name for a modern offshoot of Nazism. It is a radically right-wing ideology, whose main characteristics are extreme nationalism and violent xenophobia. Neo-Nazism is, as the word suggests, a modern version of Nazism. In general, it is an incoherent right-extremist ideology, which is characterised by ‘borrowing’ many of the elements that constituted traditional Nazism." 
  6. ^ Ondřej Cakl & Klára Kalibová (2002). "Neo-Nazism". Faculty of Humanities at Charles University in Prague, Department of Civil Society Studies. Retrieved 2007-12-08. "Neo-Nazism: An ideology which draws upon the legacy of the Nazi Third Reich, the main pillars of which are an admiration for Adolf Hitler, aggressive nationalism (“nothing but the nation”), and hatred of Jews, foreigners, ethnic minorities, homosexuals and everyone who is different in some way." 
  7. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda (1997). "'Revisionism' in Germany and Austria: The Evolution of a Doctrine". In Hermann Kurthen, Werner Bergmann, & Rainer Erb. Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany After Unification. Oxford University Press. p. 188. ISBN 0-19-510485-4. 
  8. ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future, pp. 80, 116, 117
  9. ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future, p. 117-118
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Bibliography[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Academic surveys[edit]

External links[edit]