Neo-völkisch movements

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Neo-völkisch movements, as defined by the historian Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged, especially in the English-speaking world, since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th and early 20th century Germany in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism, and multiculturalism.[1] Some identify as neo-fascist, neo-Nazi, or Third Positionist; others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics,[1] and may show right-wing anarchist tendencies.[2] Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes, so that neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements.

Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right, Evolian Traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity Movement, Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (Esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism, National Socialist black metal).

Nazi Satanism[edit]

Among the terms used are Nazi Satanism and Fascist Satanism. Sometimes these groups self-identify as "Traditional Satanism" and consist of small groups in Norway, Britain, New Zealand and France, under names such as Black Order or Infernal Alliance, which draw their inspiration from the Esoteric Hitlerism of Miguel Serrano.[3] Uww, founder of black metal fanzine Deo Occidi, denounced Anton LaVey as a "moderate Jew", and embraced the "esoterrorism" of the Scandinavian Black Metal milieu. Small Satanist grouplets catering to the black metal Satanist fringe include the Black Order, the Order of Nine Angles (ONA), the Ordo Sinistra Vivendi (formerly the Order of the Left Hand Path) and the Order of the Jarls of Baelder.[4]

The chief initiator of Nazi Satanism in Britain has been alleged to be David Wulstan Myatt (b. 1950), active in neo-nazi politics from the late 1960s.[5] The ONA was allegedly led by Myatt[6] who converted to Islam in 1998, but renounced Islam in 2010[7] in favor of his own Numinous Way philosophy.[8][9] Myatt however has always denied any involvement with the ONA and Satanism, and repeatedly challenged anyone to provide any evidence of such allegations.[10][11]

The Order of Nine Angles "represent a dangerous and extreme form of Satanism" [12] and first attracted public attention during the 1980s and 1990s after being mentioned in books detailing Satanist and far right groups.[10][13][14][15] The ONA was formed in the United Kingdom, and rose to public note during the 1980s and 1990s. Presently, the ONA is organized around clandestine cells (which it calls traditional nexions)[16] and around what it calls sinister tribes.[8][17][18]

Order of the Jarls of Baelder[edit]

The Order of the Jarls of Baelder (OJB - which was dissolved in early 2005) was a British neopagan non-political and non-aligned educational society founded in 1990 by Stephen Bernard Cox who was briefly associated, in the 1980s, with the Order of Nine Angles,[19][20] Cox having published the ONA's book Naos in 1990 under the imprint of his Coxland Press[21] and also, in 1993, Antares by the ONA's C. Beest.[22]

According to Anti-fascistische Actie Nederland, "The Order of the Jarls or Baelder belonged in the nineties of the last century to the international network of satanic Nazi organizations which the Order of the Nine Angles (ONA) played a pivotal role." [23]>"Pieter Zoomers: De mystieke vrienden van een spritueel blad". Retrieved 2011-07-13. </ref>

The OJB - (Jarl is Scandinavian for earl) - which was renamed the Arktion Federation in 1998 - was also described by Partridge as a fascist Satanist group.[23] However, according to the OJB these allegations are incorrect. Instead, the OJB claimed to have advocated pan-European neo-tribalism, which involved celebration of the rich tapestry of cultural diversity of humanity, study of Aryan traditions and heritage, pursuing the "aeonic destiny of Europe" and the emergence of the elitist super race, as an element of the unfolding of variant global/continental cultural forms. The activities of the OJB, which functioned as a spiritual and heritage group for people of any race or religion, included such activities as rock climbing, hang gliding, hiking, and the study of runes.[24] Gay members were encouraged to join because it was felt they added to the male bonding of the organization. The OJB symbol formerly consisted of the valknut combined with the Gemini sign within a broken curved-armed swastika.[25] Its symbol was later changed to a representation of the world tree embracing the yin-yang and maze with sun and stars.

Nordic racial paganism[edit]

As defined by Goodrick-Clarke, Nordic racial paganism is synonymous with the Odinist movement (including some who identify as Wotanist). He describes it as a "spiritual rediscovery of the Aryan ancestral gods...intended to embed the white races in a sacred worldview that supports their tribal feeling", and expressed in "imaginative forms of ritual magic and ceremonial forms of fraternal fellowship".[26] The mainline Odinist, Asatruar and Germanic Neo-Pagan community does not hold any racist, Nazi, extreme right-wing or racial supremacist beliefs, and most Neo-Pagan groups reject racism and Nazism.[27][28][29]

On the basis of research by Mattias Gardell,[30] Goodrick-Clarke traces the original conception of the Odinist religion by Alexander Rud Mills in the 1920s, and its modern revival by Else Christensen and her Odinist Fellowship from 1969 onwards. Christensen's politics were left-wing, deriving from anarcho-syndicalism, but she believed that leftist ideas had a formative influence on both Italian Fascism and German National-Socialism, whose totalitarian perversions were a betrayal of these movements' socialist roots. Elements of a leftist and libertarian racial-socialism could therefore be reclaimed from the fascism in which they had become encrusted.[31] However, Christensen was also convinced that the diseases of Western culture demanded a spiritual remedy. Mills' almost-forgotten writings inspired her with a programme for re-connecting with the gods and goddesses of the old Norse and Germanic pantheons, which she identified with the archetypes in Carl Jung's concept of the racial collective unconscious. According to Christensen, therefore, Odinism is organically related to race in that "its principles are encoded in our genes".[32]

The Ásatrú movement as practiced by Stephen McNallen differed from Christensen's Odinist Fellowship in placing a greater emphasis on ritual and a lesser focus on racial ideology. In 1987, McNallen's Asatru Free Assembly collapsed from prolonged internal tensions arising from his repudiation of Nazi sympathizers within the organization. A group of these, including Wyatt Kaldenberg, then joined the Odinist Fellowship (as its Los Angeles chapter) and formed an association with Tom Metzger, which led to a further rebuff since "Else Christensen thought Metzger too racist, and members of the Arizona Kindred also wanted the Fellowship to be pro-white but not hostile to colored races and Jews".[33] A series of defections from both of the main US-based organizations created secessionist groups with more radical agendas, among them Kaldenberg's Pagan Revival network and Jost Turner's National Socialist Kindred.[33]

Kaplan and Weinberg note that "the religious component of the Euro-American radical right subculture includes both pagan and Christian or pseudo-Christian elements," locating Satanist or Odinist Nazi Skinhead sects in the United States (Ben Klassen), Britain (David Myatt), Germany, Scandinavia and South Africa.[34]

In the United States, some white supremacist groups—including several with neo-fascist or neo-Nazi leanings—have built their ideologies around pagan religious imagery, including Odinism. One such group is the White Order of Thule.[35] Wotanism is another religion that has appeared in the US white supremacist movement, and also utilizes imagery derived from paganism. Odalism is a European ideology advocated by the defunct Heathen Front.

The question of the relationship between Germanic neopaganism and the neo-Nazi movement is controversial among German neopagans, with opinions ranging across a wide spectrum. Active conflation of neo-fascist or far right ideology with paganism is present in the Artgemeinschaft and Deutsche Heidnische Front. In Flanders, Werkgroep Traditie combines Germanic neopaganism with the ideology of the Nouvelle Droite.

In the United States, Michael J. Murray of Ásatrú Alliance (in the late 1960s an American Nazi Party member)[36] and musician/journalist Michael Moynihan (who turned to "metagenetic"[37] Asatru in the mid-1990s),[38] though Moynihan states that he has no political affiliations.[39] Kevin Coogan claims that a form of "eccentric and avant-garde form of cultural fascism" or "counter-cultural fascism" can be traced to the industrial music genre of the late 1970s, particularly to the seminal British Industrial band Throbbing Gristle, with whom Boyd Rice performed at a London concert in 1978.[40] Schobert alleges a neo-Nazi "cultural offensive" targeting the Dark Wave subculture.[41]

Mattias Gardell claims that while older US racist groups are Christian and patriotic (Christian Identity), there is a younger generation of white supremacists who have rejected both Christianity and mainstream right-wing movements.[42] Many neo-Nazis have also left Christianity for neopaganism because of Christianity's Jewish roots, and patriotism in favour of Odinism because they view both Christianity and the United States government as responsible for what they see as the evils of a liberal society and the decline of the white race.[43] Kaplan claims that there is a growing interest in one form of Odinism among members of the radical racist right-wing movements.[44] Berger judges that there has been an aggregation of both racist and non-racist groups under the heading of "Odinism", which has confused the discussion about neo-Nazi Neopagans, and which has led most non-racist Germanic neopagans to favour terms like "Ásatrú" or "Heathenry" over "Odinism".[45] Thus, the 1999 Project Megiddo report issued by the FBI used "Odinism" as referring to white supremacist groups exclusively, sparking protests by the International Asatru-Odinic Alliance, Stephen McNallen expressing concern about a "pattern of anti-European-American actions".[46]

Tempelhofgesellschaft[edit]

The older Tempelhofgesellschaft (THG) was built in the 1980s by a few members of the nazi "Erbengemeinschaft der Tempelritter". The leader of this group was the former police man Hans-Günter Fröhlich who resided in Germany/Homburg. The group had close links to the German-speaking far-right network. Its first publication was Einblick in die magische Weltsicht und die magischen Prozesse (1987).[47]

The younger Tempelhofgesellschaft was founded in Vienna in the early 1990s by Norbert Jurgen-Ratthofer and Ralft Ettl to teach a dualist form of Christian religion called Marcionism. This one was a part of the main THG/Homburg. The group identifies an "evil creator of this world," the Demiurge with Jehovah, the God of Judaism. Jesus Christ was an Aryan, not Jewish. They distribute pamphlets claiming that the Aryan race originally came to Atlantis from the star Aldebaran (this information is supposedly based on "ancient Sumerian manuscripts"). They maintain that the Aryans from Aldebaran derive their power from the vril energy of the Black Sun. They teach that since the Aryan race is of extraterrestrial origin it has a divine mission to dominate all the other races. It is believed by adherents of this religion that an enormous space fleet is on its way to Earth from Aldebaran which, when it arrives, will join forces with the Nazi Flying Saucers from Antarctica to establish the Western Imperium.[24][48] Its major publication is called Das Vril-Projekt (1992).

After the THG had been dissolved, Ralf Ettl founded the Freundeskreis (circle of friends) Causa Nostra. It remains active and maintains relations to far-right publishers like the Swiss Unitall-Verlag.[49]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 6.
  2. ^ One example is the neo-tribalist paganism promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship (Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 261).
  3. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 106.
  4. ^ Introvigne 2002: 148.
  5. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 216.
  6. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 218.
  7. ^ http://www.davidmyatt.ws/biog.html#N11a
  8. ^ a b Senholt, Jacob C: Political Esotericism & the convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism and National Socialism in the Order of the Nine Angles. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Conference: Satanism in the Modern World, November 2009. [1]
  9. ^ The Numinous Way of David Wulstan Myatt
  10. ^ a b Ryan 1994: 53.
  11. ^ The National-Socialist (March 1998, Thormynd Press, York, England).
  12. ^ Per Faxneld: Post-Satanism, Left Hand Paths, and Beyond in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds) The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity, Oxford University Press (2012), p.207. ISBN 9780199779246
  13. ^ Lewis 2001.
  14. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 215-216.
  15. ^ Ankarloo and Clark 1999: 113.
  16. ^ FAQ About ONA
  17. ^ Angular Momentum: from Traditional to Progressive Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles
  18. ^ Sinister Tribes Of The ONA
  19. ^ Long, Anton: Bealuwes Gast – Of Mythos, Sorcery, and a Mad Mage, Thormynd Press, Third Edition, 2011 ISBN 978-1-257-89657-8
  20. ^ Arkadiusz Sołtysiak. NEOPOGAŃSTWO I NEONAZIZM. KILKA SŁÓW O IDEOLOGIACH DAVIDA MYATTA I VARGA VIKERNESA. Antropologia Religii. Wybór esejów. Tom IV, (2010), s. 173-182
  21. ^ Order of Nine Angles: Naos, Coxland Press, England, 1990, ISBN 1-872543-00-6
  22. ^ Antares, The Dark Rites of Venus, Coxland Press, 1993, ISBN 1-872543-27-8.
  23. ^ Partridge 2005: 230.
  24. ^ a b Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (2002). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3124-4. (Paperback, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4.)
  25. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 224.
  26. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 257.
  27. ^ http://www.heathensagainsthate.org/
  28. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/wy/wyrd/antinazi.html
  29. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/wy/wyrd/odinvsnazi.html
  30. ^ Subsequently published in Gardell's Gods of the Blood.
  31. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 261.
  32. ^ Christensen 1984.
  33. ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 262.
  34. ^ Kaplan and Weinberg 1998: 88.
  35. ^ Berlet and Vysotsky 2006.
  36. ^ Kaplan 1997; The New Barbarians (Southern Poverty Law Center intelligence report, Winter 1998). Since the Alliance's foundation in 1988, Murray has emphasized that it "does not advocate any type of political or racial extremist views or affiliations" towards sympathizing Neo-Nazis.
  37. ^ 2003 interview with the German esotericist magazine Der Golem
  38. ^ "Wulfing One" 1995 (interview with Michael Moynihan in EsoTerra magazine).
  39. ^ Zach Dundas. "Lord of Chaos: ACTIVISTS ACCUSE PORTLAND WRITER AND MUSICIAN MICHAEL MOYNIHAN OF SPREADING EXTREMIST PROPAGANDA, BUT THEY'RE NOT TELLING THE WHOLE STORY". (Willamette Week culture feature, available online: [2])
  40. ^ Coogan 1999.
  41. ^ Schobert 1997a (with Moynihan's reply) & 1998.
  42. ^ Kaplan 1997.
  43. ^ Gardell 2001.
  44. ^ Kaplan 1997.
  45. ^ Berger 2005: 45.
  46. ^ CESNUR (Center for Studies on New Religions) news release, 10 November 1999.
  47. ^ Strube, 2012
  48. ^ Strube, 2012
  49. ^ Strube, 2012

References[edit]

  • Cox, Stephen B.(2003) "The Path of the Sun in the Freemasons Lodge" (article; lecture).
  • Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark (1999). The Twentieth Century. U. Penn. Press.
  • Jeffery M. Bale (2002). "'National revolutionary' groupuscules and the resurgence of 'left-wing' fascism: the case of France's Nouvelle Résistance". Patterns of Prejudice July, 36(3): 24-49.
  • Chip Berlet and Stanislav Vysotsky (2006). "Overview of U.S. white supremacist groups". Journal of Political and Military Sociology Summer, 34(1): 11-48.
  • Devin Burghart, ed. (1999). Soundtracks to the White Revolution: White Supremacist Assaults on Youth Music Subcultures. Chicago, IL: Center for New Community [in cooperation with Northwest Coalition for Human Dignity].
  • Devin Burghart and Justin Massa (2001). “Damned, Defiant and Dangerous: Continuing White Supremacist Violence in the U.S.” Searchlight July, online archive.
  • Else Christensen (1984). "Odinism — Religion of Relevance". The Odinist 82.
  • Kevin Coogan (1999). "How Black is Black Metal?" HITLIST February/March, 1(1). Berkeley CA, USA & Oraclesyndicate.org.
  • Betty A. Dobratz (2001). "The Role of Religion in the Collective Identity of the White Racialist Movement". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (2001): 287-301.
  • Mattias Gardell (2003). Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3071-7. ISBN 978-0-8223-3071-4.
  • Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (2002). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3124-4. (Paperback, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4.)
  • Roger Griffin (1985). "Revolts against the Modern World: The Blend of Literary and Historical Fantasy in the Italian New Right". Literature & History 11(1): 101-23.
  • ——— (2003). "From slime mould to rhizome: an introduction to the groupuscular right". Patterns of Prejudice March, 37(1): 27-50.
  • M. Introvigne (2002). "The Gothic Milieu". In: Jeffrey Kaplan, ed., The Cultic Milieu: Oppositional Subcultures in an Age of Globalization. ISBN 978-0-7591-0204-0.
  • Jeffrey Kaplan (1997). Radical Religion in America: Millenarian Movements from the Far Right to the Children of Noah. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0396-2.
  • Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg (1998). The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. ISBN 0-8135-2564-0.
  • James R. Lewis (2001). Satanism Today: An Encyclopedia of Religion, Folklore, and Popular Culture. Abc-Clio Inc.
  • Wulfing One (1995). "The Storm Before the Calm: An Interview with Blood Axis". EsoTerra 5.
  • Christopher H. Partridge (2005). The Re-enchantment of the West: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture and Occulture. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-567-04133-6.
  • Nick Ryan (1994). Into a World of Hate. Routledge.
  • Alfred Schobert (1997a). "Heidentum, Musik und Terror". Junge Welt 18.4.1997, S.13. (Online, with Michael Moynihan's reply: 2000, Duisburger Institut für Sprach- und Sozialforschung.)
  • ——— (1997b). "Geheimnis und Gemeinschaft. Die Dark-Wave-Szene als Operationsgebiet 'neurechter' Kulturstrategie". In: Cleve, Gabriele et al., eds., Wissenschaft Macht Politik. Intervention in aktuelle gesellschaftliche Diskurse 384-395. Münster.
  • ——— (1998). "Graswurzelrevolution von rechts?" In: Wider de Gewöhnung - der rechte Zeitgeist und seine Abwehr 49-52. Nürnberg.
  • Jan De Zutter (2000). Heidenen voor het blok - Radicaal rechts en het moderne Heidendom ("Heathens for the [Vlaams] Blok - the Radical Right and modern Heathenism"). Antwerpen/Baarn: Uitgeverij Houtekiet. ISBN 90-5240-582-4.
  • Julian Strube (2012). "Die Erfindung des esoterischen Nationalsozialismus im Zeichen der Schwarzen Sonne." Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft, 20(2): 223-268.

External links[edit]