Neoptera

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Neopterans
Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Recent
Hymenoptere2.jpg
Honeybee (order Hymenoptera)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Branch: Metapterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera

Neoptera is a classification group that includes most part of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way. Originally, the taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov, in the following classification:

 Classification by Martynov 1923 and 1924):
 
 Pterygota
   division Palaeoptera
         order Odonata
         order Agnatha (correct name: Ephemeroptera)
         †order Dictyoneuridea
         †order Megasecoptera
         †order Protodonata
         †order Protephemeroidea
   division Neoptera
     subdivision Polyneoptera
       superorder Orthopteroidea
         order Orthoptera (correct name: Saltatoria)
         order Plecoptera
         order Dermatoptera
         order Embioptera
       superorder Blattopteroidea (senior name: Pandictyoptera)
         order Blattodea
         order Mantodea
         order Isoptera
     subdivision Paraneoptera
       superorder Hemiptera (correct name: Arthroidignatha)
         order Phytophtires (correct name: Plantisuga)
         order Auchenorrhyncha
         order Heteroptera
     subdivision Oligoneoptera
 
 The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera.

Later, a number of other classifications had been proposed. According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota (as in the Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota:

 1. Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878
 1.1. Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890
 1.2. Metapterygota Börner 1909
 1.2.1. Odonata Fabricius 1793
 1.2.2. Neoptera Martynov 1923

The most recent rank-free classificalion of Neoptera is the following (Kluge 2005, Kluge 2010, Kluge 2012):

 1. Neoptera Martynov 1923
 1.1. Idioprothoraca Kluge 2012 
 1.1.1. Embioptera Lameere 1900
 1.1.2. Notoptera Crampton 1915
 1.2. Rhipineoptera Kluge 2012
 1.2.1. Plecoptera Burmeister 1839
 1.2.2. Pandictyoptera Crampton 1917  
 1.2.3. Saltatoria Latreille 1817 
 1.2.4. Spectra Latreille 1802 = Phasmida
 1.2.5. Dermatoptera Burmeister 1838  
 1.3. Eumetabola Hennig 1953
 1.3.1. Parametabola Crampton 1838 = Paraneoptera Martynov 1923, s.l.        
 1.3.1.1. Zoraptera Silvestri 1913
 1.3.1.2. Acercaria Börner 1904
 1.3.1.2.1. Thysanoptera Haliday 1836
 1.3.1.2.2. Arthroidignatha Spinola 1850
 1.3.2. Metabola Burmeister 1832  = Oligoneoptera Martynov 1923
 1.3.2.1. Elytrophora Packard 1883
 1.3.2.1.1. Coleoptera auct. = Eleuterata Fabricius 1775
 1.3.2.1.2. Strepsiptera Kirby 1813
 1.3.2.2. Neuropteroidea Handlirsch 1903
 1.3.2.2.1. Birostrata Kluge 2005
 1.3.2.2.2. Rhaphidioptera Navas 1916
 1.3.2.2.3. Meganeuroptera Crampton 1916
 1.3.2.3. Panzygothoraca Kluge 2004
 1.3.2.3.1. Hymenoptera Linnaeus 1758
 1.3.2.3.2. Enteracantha Kluge 2010 (= "Mecoptera" + Aphaniptera)
 1.3.2.3.3. Diptera Linnaeus 1758
 1.3.2.3.4. Amphiesmenoptera Kiriakoff 1948
 1.3.2.3.4.1. Trichoptera Kirby 1813
 1.3.2.3.4.2. Lepidoptera Linnaeus 1758

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Neoptera at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Neoptera at Wikispecies