Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2013

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Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2013
Nepal
2008 ←
19 November 2013 → Next

575 (of the 601) seats to the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly
301 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Sushil Koirala.jpg Jhala Nath Khanal portrait.jpg Prachanda 2009.jpg
Leader Sushil Koirala Jhala Nath Khanal Pushpa Kamal Dahal
Party Nepali Congress Communist Party of Nepal (UML) UCPN (Maoist)
Leader's seat Banke - 1, Chitwan - 4 Ilam - 1. Sarlahi - 1 Kathmandu- 10, Siraha - 5
Last election 115 seats 108 seats 229 seats
Seats won 196 seats 175 seats 80 seats
Popular vote 2,694,983 (FPTP)
2,418,370 (Prop.)
2,492,090 (FPTP)
2,239,609 (Prop.)
1,609,145 (FPTP)
1,439,726 (Prop.)
Percentage 29.80% (FPTP)
25.55% (Prop.)
27.55% (FPTP)
23.66% (Prop.)
17.79%(FPTP)
15.21% (Prop.)
Swing Increase7.01% (FPTP)
Increase4.41% (Prop.)
Increase5.92% (FPTP)
Increase3.33% (Prop.)
Decrease12.27% (FPTP)
Decrease14.07 (Prop.)

Prime Minister before election

Khil Raj Regmi
Independent

Elected Prime Minister

Sushil Koirala
Nepali Congress

Constituent Assembly elections were held in Nepal on 19 November 2013.[1] The vote was repeatedly delayed,[2] having previously been planned for 22 November 2012 following the dissolution of the 1st Constituent Assembly on 27 May 2012, but it was put off by the election commission.[3] The Nepali Congress emerged as the largest party in the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly, winning 196 of the 575 elected seats.

Background[edit]

Following King Gyanendra's suspension of Parliament and government takeover during the Nepalese Civil War, mass protests led to him to re-instate Parliament and end the war fought by the government against the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), on the condition that the constitution would be re-written. The king's powers were also removed and an election was held in 2008 to elect a Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly was tasked with writing a new constitution; however, its deadline was extended several times, with the last one set for 27 May 2012.

In the lead up to the deadline, there were several violent protests by a variety of ethnic groups outside the Parliament building. Rallies were then banned in the area and around the PM's office with riot police guarding against protests and the Nepali Army on high alert in case the situation could not be controlled. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai called for a new election on 22 November after the deadline passed, with a possibility of a state of emergency. A member of his party, Post Bahadur Bogati, announced that "it is not possible to promulgate the constitution within the deadline now. That possibility is out, 100 percent."

On the deadline day there were large protests as talks between the CPN (Maoist), Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) and the Madhesi Front were ongoing. The talks broke down after the incumbent CPN (Maoist)'s demands for 10 to 14 new provinces largely along ethnic groups lines, which was supported by several small Madhesi parties calling for autonomy, was opposed by the Nepali Congress and the CPN (UML). CPN (Maoist) member Narayankaji Shrestha said that "a constitution is not possible without federal states recognising the identity of ethnic groups." The opponents of the proposal said the move could lead to tensions amongst different castes. Ram Sharan Mahat of the Nepali Congress said that the CPN (Maoist) "want[ed] to kill the assembly, not make the constitution" in order to stay in power. At a cabinet session that night CPN (UML) general secretary and Deputy Prime Minister Ishwor Pokhrel walked out saying that the move was "unconstitutional, neither is it based on political consensus." However, the Madhesi leader Laxman Lal Karna said that "in the afternoon, the NC and the [CPN-]UML had said there was no chance of a deal. Let us go for polls. We have done the democratic thing."[4][5] The CPN (Maoist)'s Barsha Man Pun then announced the election saying that "we had no other alternative. We apologise for not being able to prepare the constitution."[6]

The Nepali Congress claimed the delays were a ploy by the UCPN (M) to remain in power and that Maoist-led government's "unilateral decision was unexpected".[7] However, according to an AFP interview on Rajkishore Yadav, the Maoist-led government "wanted to conduct elections in November 22" but the election commission insisted that "the lack of a workable constitution meant there were no legal provisions for holding a vote".[8]

In mid-September 2013, an opposition one-day strike called for the cancellation of the election.[9]

Opinion polls[edit]

In mid-2011, an opinion indicated that 45% of respondents opposed an extension of the CA's mandate. A majority of respondents were uncertain about who they would vote for. Similarly, there were calls for a fresh election by opposition politicians at the time. Most respondents also said a new constitution was the top most priority.[10]

In the Himal Media opinion poll conducted in March 2013, voters expressed a slight preference for the Nepali Congress,14.9%, over the CPN (UML), 11.3%, and UCPN (Maoist), 7.3%.[11]

Conduct[edit]

In the morning of the election, a bomb exploded near a voting station wounding three people after a boy picked up what he though was a toy that then exploded. It also follows days of similar attacks by those opposed to the election.[12] On December 16, Mohan Baidya, Chairman of the breakaway CPN(Maoist) which had boycotted the elections publicly stated his party had planted bombs across the country prior to the elections.[13]

Turnout[edit]

Voters turned out in record numbers with nation-wide turnout averaging 78.34% [14] breaking the previous record of 68.15% in the 1991 general elections.[15] The highest turnout was in Dolpa-1 at 89.5% and the lowest in Baitadi-2 at 67.32%.

Results[edit]

Initial results showed the Nepali Congress winning a plurality of the first-past-the-post seats with 105 of the 240 seats; the CPM-UML close behind with 91; and the CPN (Maoist) far behind, winning just 26. Smaller parties and two independent candidates won the remaining 18 seats.[16] 335 seats were allotted by proportional representation using a modified Sainte-Laguë method of allocation.

Party FPTP Proportional Nominated
seats
Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Nepali Congress 2,694,983 29.80 105 2,418,370 25.55 91 196
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2,492,090 27.55 91 2,239,609 23.66 84 175
Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 1,609,145 17.79 26 1,439,726 15.21 54 80
Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 252,579 2.79 0 630,697 6.66 24 24
Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal (Loktantrik) 283,468 3.13 4 274,987 2.91 10 14
Rastriya Prajatantra Party 238,313 2.63 3 260,234 2.75 10 13
Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal 206,110 2.28 2 214,319 2.26 8 10
Tarai-Madhesh Loktantrik Party 171,889 1.90 4 181,140 1.91 7 11
Sadbhavana Party 140,930 1.56 1 133,271 1.41 5 6
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) (2002) 98,091 1.08 0 130,300 1.38 5 5
Federal Socialist Party 108,683 1.20 0 121,274 1.28 5 5
Rastriya Janamorcha 66,666 0.74 0 92,387 0.98 3 3
Communist Party of Nepal (United) 24,808 0.27 0 91,997 0.97 3 3
Rashtriya Madhesh Samajwadi Party 76,392 0.84 0 79,508 0.84 3 3
Nepal Workers Peasants Party 54,323 0.60 1 66,778 0.71 3 4
Rastriya Janamukti Party 39,352 0.44 0 63,834 0.67 2 2
Terai Madhes Sadbhavana Party 65,047 0.72 1 62,746 0.66 2 3
Tharuhat Tarai Party Nepal 38,972 0.43 0 62,526 0.66 2 2
Nepal Pariwar Dal 14,546 0.16 0 51,823 0.55 2 2
Dalit Janajati Party 33,508 0.37 0 48,802 0.52 2 2
Akhanda Nepal Party 12,590 0.14 0 36,883 0.39 1 1
Madeshi Janadikar Forum (Gantantrik) 35,289 0.39 0 33,982 0.36 1 1
Nepali Janata Dal 6,816 0.08 0 33,203 0.35 1 1
Khambuwan Rashtriya Morchan Nepal 6,451 0.07 0 30,686 0.32 1 1
Nepa Rastriya Party 9,377 0.10 0 28,011 0.30 1 1
Jana Jagaran Party Nepal 3,510 0.04 0 27,397 0.29 1 1
Sanghiya Sadhbhawana Party 20,395 0.23 0 25,215 0.27 1 1
Madhesh Samata Party Nepal 8,130 0.09 0 23,001 0.24 1 1
Samajwadi Janata Party 4,661 0.05 0 21,624 0.23 1 1
Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch (Tharuhat) 4,622 0.05 0 21,128 0.22 1 1
Sanghiya Gantantrik Samajwadi Party Nepal 8,950 0.10 0 18,631 0.20 0
Nepal Communist Party 8,291 0.09 0 18,140 0.19 0
Nepal Yuwa Kisan Party 2,457 0.03 0 16,204 0.17 0
Nepal Janata Party 2,441 0.03 0 15,650 0.17 0
Nepal Sadbhawana Party 12,572 0.14 0 15,578 0.16 0
Khas Samabeshi Rashtriya Party 6,035 0.07 0 15,225 0.16 0
Terai Madhesh Pahad Himal Ekata Party 2,212 0.02 0 12,466 0.13 0
Akhanda Sudhur Pashchim Party 5,548 0.06 0 12,334 0.13 0
Madhesh Terai Forum 3,632 0.04 0 11,286 0.12 0
Rashtriya Swabhiman Party Nepal 1,550 0.02 0 11,270 0.12 0
Lok Dal 748 0.01 0 10,953 0.12 0
Janata Dal Nepal 350 0.00 0 10,645 0.11 0
Nepal Loktantrik Samajwadi Dal 1,552 0.02 0 10,359 0.11 0
Janata Dal Loktantrik Party 1,478 0.02 0 10,018 0.11 0
Jana Prajatantrik Party 1,318 0.01 0 8,645 0.09 0
Shiva Sena Nepal 3,479 0.04 0 8,416 0.09 0
Picchada Barga Nishad Dalit Janajati Party 255 0.00 0 8,332 0.09 0
Mongol National Organization 4,669 0.05 0 8,215 0.09 0
Nava Nepal Nirman Party 1,398 0.02 0 8,119 0.09 0
Chure Babar Rashtriya Ekata Party 2,410 0.03 0 7,975 0.08 0
Nepal Shanti Chhetra Parishad 41 0.00 0 7,757 0.08 0
Nepal Gantantrik Ekata Party 0 0 0 7,178 0.08 0
Sanghiya Limbuwan Rajya Parishad 3,063 0.03 0 7,063 0.07 0
Bishwa Satyabadi Party 111 0.00 0 6,666 0.07 0
Sahakari Party Nepal 847 0.01 0 6,141 0.06 0
Rashtirya Janata Dal Nepal 2,569 0.03 0 6,097 0.06 0
Shanti Party Nepal 1,659 0.02 0 6,032 0.06 0
Sanghiya Samabeshi Samajwadi Party, Nepal 65 0.00 0 5,978 0.06 0
Garib Ekta Samaj Party, Nepal 421 0.00 0 5,859 0.06 0
Madhesi Janadikar Forum Madhesh 2,197 0.02 0 5,814 0.06 0
Rashtriya Yatharthabadi Party Nepal 953 0.01 0 5,505 0.06 0
Nepal Ama Party 1,542 0.02 0 5,491 0.06 0
Janata Dal United 522 0.01 0 5,396 0.06 0
Rashtriya Shiva Sena Party 1,959 0.02 0 5,371 0.06 0
Rashtriya Madhesh Bahujan Samajwadi Party 869 0.01 0 5,301 0.06 0
Samyukta Rashtrabadi Morcha Nepal 812 0.01 0 5,225 0.06 0
Rashtriya Mukti Andolan Nepal 167 0.00 0 5,216 0.06 0
Churebavar Loktantrik Party 566 0.01 0 5,085 0.05 0
Nepal Nagarik Party 691 0.01 0 4,861 0.05 0
Nepal Labour Party 982 0.01 0 4,837 0.05 0
Nepal Sadbhawana Party (Gajendrawadi) 1,679 0.02 0 4,824 0.05 0
Rashtriya Nagarik Party 290 0.00 0 4,668 0.05 0
Churebavar Rashtriya Party 577 0.01 0 4,650 0.05 0
Nepal Sadbhawana Party (United) 1,285 0.01 0 4,578 0.05 0
Bahujan Samaj Party Nepal 460 0.00 0 4,522 0.05 0
Jantantrik Terai Madhes Mukti Tigers 2,755 0.03 0 4,370 0.05 0
Hindu Prajatantrik Party, Nepal 178 0.00 0 4,215 0.04 0
Naya Nepal Rashtriya Party 55 0.00 0 4,140 0.04 0
Jana Unity-Cooperative Party of Nepal 2,125 0.02 0 4,066 0.04 0
Nepal Samabeshi Party 131 0.01 0 3,882 0.04 0
Deshbhakta Samaaj 703 0.01 0 3,866 0.04 0
Limbuwan Mukti Morcha 398 0.00 0 3,748 0.04 0
Liberal Democratic Party 407 0.00 0 3,721 0.04 0
Nepal Jana Sambeshi Ekata Party 142 0.00 0 3,674 0.04 0
Nepal Communist Party (ML-Socialist) 788 0.01 0 3,661 0.04 0
Janata Party Nepal 1,354 0.01 0 3,595 0.04 0
Rashtriya Churebavar Party 403 0.00 0 3,484 0.04 0
Nepal Gauravshali Party 116 0.00 0 3,388 0.04 0
Nepal Rashtriya Bikash Party 550 0.01 0 3,373 0.04 0
Rashtriya Ekata Party 750 0.01 0 3,365 0.04 0
Social Republican Party 541 0.01 0 3,360 0.04 0
Deshbhakta Paryavaraniya Samajik Morcha 217 0.00 0 3,293 0.03 0
United Green Organization 94 0.00 0 3,229 0.03 0
Jana Morcha Nepal 876 0.01 0 3,181 0.03 0
Nepal Rashtra Sewa Dal 183 0.00 0 3,127 0.03 0
Loktantrik Party - Nepal 249 0.00 0 3,107 0.03 0
Rastriya Jana Bikas Party 67 0.00 0 3,102 0.03 0
Matribhumi Nepal Dal 440 0.00 0 3,099 0.03 0
Naya Sanghiyata Janadharana Party 0 0.00 0 3,007 0.03 0
Nepal Rashtriya Yatayat Bikash Dal 12 0.00 0 2,952 0.03 0
Rashtrabadi Ekata Party 394 0.00 0 2,905 0.03 0
Limbuwan Mukti Morcha Nepal 741 0.01 0 2,844 0.03 0
Nepal Samajwadi Party (Lohiaite) 743 0.01 0 2,743 0.03 0
Sanghiya Bikashbadi Party Nepal 0 0.00 0 2,652 0.03 0
Rashtrabadi Janata Party 762 0.01 0 2,505 0.03 0
Nepal Janabhawana Party 28 0.00 0 2,439 0.03 0
Nepal Nyayik Dal 146 0.00 0 2,379 0.03 0
Tamangsaling Rashtriya Janaekta Party 36 0.00 0 2,308 0.02 0
Samyukta Jana Morcha 147 0.00 0 2,225 0.02 0
Shramik Janata Party - Nepal 45 0.00 0 2,034 0.02 0
Rashtriya Madhesh Ekata Party, Nepal 850 0.01 0 2,031 0.02 0
Om Sena Nepal 18 0.00 0 2,011 0.02 0
Hariyali Party Nepal 251 0.00 0 1,927 0.02 0
Nepal Madhesi Janata Dal (S) 334 0.00 0 1,902 0.02 0
Nepal Shramjivi Dal 40 0.00 0 1,891 0.02 0
Yuwa Shakti Nepal Party 22 0.00 0 1,820 0.02 0
League Nepal Shanti Ekata Party 435 0.00 0 1,813 0.02 0
Loktantrik Janata Party Nepal 135 0.00 0 1,729 0.02 0
Terai Pahad Himal Samaj Party 81 0.00 0 1,697 0.02 0
Rashtriya Loktantrik Yuwa Party 34 0.00 0 1,191 0.01 0
Nepali Janata Party 0 0.00 0 996 0.01 0
Garib Janatako Kranti Party 682 0.00 0 0 0.00 0
Communist Party of Nepal (MLM) Communist 247 0.00 0 7,781 0.00 0
Independents 107,764 1.19 2 2
Total 9,044,908 100 240 9,463,862 100 335 26 601 0
Source: Election Commission, Nepal, Republica

Reaction[edit]

Domestic

The UCPN (Maoist) leader Prachanda protested the conduct of the election, alleging fraud, and threatening to withdraw from the Constituent Assembly.However domestic and international pressure mounted and various political leaders from Nepali Congress and CPN UML urged Unified Maoist to accept the peoples verdict and get involved in the process of a peaceful CA.[17] Subsequently an internal assessment by the party concluded vote-rigging was not the cause of the party's defeat and mentioned "misrepresentation of the party on issue of federalism and the party’s split" as reasons for defeat.[18] On December 25, 2013, the UCPN (Maoist) offered unconditional support to the Nepali Congress to from the next government following the signing of a four-point deal between the NC, CPN(UML), UCPN (Maoist) and Madesbadi parties that agreed to form a parliamentary body to investigate election irregularities.[19]

In response to the allegations of fraud leveled by the Maoist and smaller parties, Chief Election Commissioner Nilkantha Upreti affirmed the elections were "concluded in a free, fair , impartial and credible manner" and urged voters "not to believe in such misleading publicity" about the fairness of the elections.[20]

International

  • United States United States: The White House Press Secretary hailed the elections as "a milestone not just for Nepal but for people around the world working to rebuild after conflicts and resolve disputes via constitutional and homegrown means" and pledged continued support for Nepal's democratic exercise.[21] Former US President Jimmy Carter congratulated Nepal on a "well conducted election process" and urged the UCPN (Maoist) to "respect the will of Nepali voters as expressed on election day".[22]
  • United Nations United Nations: Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in his congratulatory message to the Nepali people stated “the United Nations remains committed to supporting Nepal in its transition towards a peaceful, democratic and prosperous future.”[23]
  • Germany Germany: The German Federal Office congratulated the interim government for holding free and credible CA elections and said "high turnout in the election has testified Nepalese people´s firm commitment to democracy and the rule of law".[24]
  • India India: The Indian External Affairs Ministry congratulated "the people of Nepal, political parties, government and security forces and the Election Commission of Nepal" for "conducting free and fair elections for the Constituent Assembly".[25]
  • China China: The Chinese Embassy in Kathmandu welcomed the "smooth holding" of the Constituent Assembly elections and said it "sincerely hopes that the political forces in Nepal will continue to strengthen dialogue and consultations for early completion of the constitution-making process and realize its goal of national stability and development".[26]
  • Japan Japan: The Election Observation Mission of Japan composed of officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and an outside expert from Tokushima University and headed by Japanese Ambassador to Nepal, Masashi Ogawa, concluded the "election was conducted in a peaceful, free and fair manner without serious irregularities". A statement issued by the Japanese Embassy in Kathmandu said "Japan hopes that this election will further consolidate democracy in Nepal and its post-electoral political process toward promulgating a constitution will develop smoothly. Japan will continue to support Nepal's efforts for peace-building and the consolidation of democracy".[28]
  • United KingdomUK: Foreign and Commonwealth Office Minister Hugo Swire congratulated the people of Nepal and stated "these elections were generally peaceful and well run, a credit to the people and the election authorities" [29]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nepal voting ends for new Constituent Assembly". BBC News. November 19, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Channel NewsAsia". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  3. ^ Utpal Parashar (May 27, 2012). "Nepal fails to meet constitution deadline". Kathmandu: Hindustan Times. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Nepal premier calls for fresh elections". Al Jazeera English. October 4, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  5. ^ Prashant Jha (May 28, 2012). "Nepal's CA fails to write Constitution". The Hindu. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  6. ^ Sharma, Gopal (May 27, 2012). "Nepal faces fresh turmoil after charter deadline missed". Reuters. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  7. ^ Poll call Maoist ploy to stay in power, says NC
  8. ^ AFP: Nepal calls April-May elections to end deadlock (21 November 2012)
  9. ^ Nepal strike shuts down capital Al Jazeera, 12 September 2013
  10. ^ Majority Against CA Extension Nepal News, 19 October 2011
  11. ^ [1] Nepali Times,15–21 March 2013 #647. Retrieved Nov 29, 2013.
  12. ^ "Bomb blast at Nepal polling booth - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ "CPA, 12-pt pact have been scrapped: Baidya". eKantipur. Retrieved December 16, 2013. "Meanwhile, Baidya has owned up the responsibility for explosions that occurred in various places across the nation ahead of the Constituent Assembly elections..."The party cadres detonated bombs realising it was necessary for the people," he said."
  14. ^ "Constituency Wise Cast/Valid/Invalid Votes". Election Commission of Nepal. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Sovereign people make CA polls historic". My Republica. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  16. ^ "Nepali Congress maintains lead over CPN-UML in polls". LiveMint. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  17. ^ Charlie Campbell (November 22, 2013). "Nepal’s Maoists Dispute Election Results, Raising Fears of Further Crisis". Kathmandu: Time Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Maoist internal review sparks blame game". Kathmandu: eKantipur. Dec 15, 2013. Retrieved Dec 15, 2013. 
  19. ^ Ekantipur Report (25 December 2013). "'UCPN (M) to give unconditional support to NC-led govt'". Ekantipur. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  20. ^ "Election was free and credible: EC". EKantipur. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  21. ^ "Statement by the Press Secretary on Elections in Nepal". The White House. Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  22. ^ "Carter Center Congratulates Nepal on Well-Conducted Election Process". The Carter Centre. The Carter Centre. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  23. ^ "Nepal: Ban welcomes peaceful conduct of Constituent Assembly poll". UN News Centre. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  24. ^ "Germany hails Nepal election". My Republica. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  25. ^ "India congratulates Nepal for fair polls". Business Standard. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  26. ^ "China hails election". The Himalayan Times. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  27. ^ "STATEMENT by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the Elections to the Constituent Assembly of Nepal". European Union External Action Service. European Union External Action Service. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  28. ^ "Japanese observers declare elections free, fair". 23 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  29. ^ "FCO Minister comments on the recent elections in Nepal". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 7 January 2014.