Nephrocalcinosis

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Nephrocalcinosis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E83.5N29.8*
ICD-9 275.49
DiseasesDB 8902
MedlinePlus 000492
eMedicine article/243911
Patient UK Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis, once known as Albright's calcinosis after Fuller Albright, or "Anderson-Carr" Kidneys, is a term originally used to describe deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma due to hyperparathyroidism. It is now more commonly used to describe diffuse, fine, renal parenchymal calcification on radiology.[1] During its early stages, nephrocalcinosis is visible on x-ray, and appears as a fine granular mottling over the renal outlines. These outlines eventually come together to form a dense mass.[2] It is most commonly seen as an incidental finding with medullary sponge kidney on an abdominal x-ray. However, it may be severe enough to cause (as well as be caused by) renal tubular acidosis or even end stage renal failure, due to disruption of the renal tissue by the deposited calcium.

Stages of nephrocalcinosis[edit]

  • Chemical nephrocalcinosis
  • Microscopic nephrocalcinosis
  • Macroscopic nephrocalcinosis

Symptoms of nephrocalcinosis[edit]

Though this condition is usually asymptomatic, if symptoms are present they are usually related to the causative process, (e.g. hypercalcemia).[3] These include renal colic, polyuria and polydipsia:[3]

There are several causes of nephrocalcinosis that are typically acute and present only with renal failure.[3] These include tumor lysis syndrome, acute phosphate nephropathy, and occasional cases of enteric hyperoxaluria.[3]

Etiologies[edit]

Causes of cortical nephrocalcinosis[edit]

Causes of medullary nephrocalcinosis[edit]

Medullary nephrocalcinosis in Sonography

And other causes of hypercalcemia (and thus hypercalciuria)

References[edit]