Nepotism

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For the television episode, see Nepotism (The Office).

Nepotism is favoritism granted in politics or business to relatives. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to cardinal positions by Catholic popes and bishops. Nepotism is found in the fields of politics, entertainment, business and religion.

Origins[edit]

Main article: Cardinal-nephew

The term comes from Italian word nepotismo,[1][2] which is based on Latin root nepos meaning nephew.[3] Since the Middle Ages and until the late 17th century, some Catholic popes and bishops, who had taken vows of chastity, and therefore usually had no legitimate offspring of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son.[4]

Several popes elevated nephews and other relatives to the cardinalate. Often, such appointments were a means of continuing a papal "dynasty".[5] For instance, Pope Callixtus III, head of the Borgia family, made two of his nephews cardinals; one of them, Rodrigo, later used his position as a cardinal as a stepping stone to the papacy, becoming Pope Alexander VI.[6] Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III.[7]

Paul also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally ended when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem, in 1692.[4] The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.[8]

Types of nepotism[edit]

Political[edit]

Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism.[9]

Organizational[edit]

Nepotism can also occur within organizations, when a person is employed due to their familial ties. It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.

By Country[edit]

Australia[edit]

Anna Bligh, who won the 2009 Queensland State election, has been accused of nepotism by giving her husband Greg Withers a position as the Office of Climate Change head.[10]

Shortly after his appointment as the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney in 2001, Peter Jensen was accused, in an Australian Broadcasting Corporation interview, of nepotism after nominating his brother Phillip Jensen as Dean of Sydney and appointing his wife Christine Jensen to an official position in the Sydney diocese.[11]

Belgium[edit]

Over the past decade, criticism has been growing over the creation of political dynasties in Belgium, in which all of the traditional political parties have been involved. This phenomenon has been explained by the fact that prominent party members control the ranking of candidates on party lists for elections and a candidate's place on a list determines whether or not he or she is elected. Another justification for the phenomenon is the importance of name recognition for collecting votes.[12]

Claims of nepotism have been made against Bruno Tobback, the son of senator and former minister Louis Tobback, a member of the Flemish socialists, became the Belgian federal government's minister for the pensions and environment at 35 in 2005.[13] Alexander De Croo, the son of former speaker of the Belgian parliament Herman De Croo, ran for the leadership of his father's party Open VLD at age 33.[14] Finally there is the example of Maya Detiège, the daughter of former mayor of the city of Antwerp Leona Detiège, who herself is the daughter of the former mayor of Antwerp Frans Detiège.[12]

Cambodia[edit]

Prime Minister Hun Sen and senior members of Parliament, are also known for their hand in getting family members into government positions. In the 2013 Cambodian parliamentary elections, at least eight candidates standing in the upcoming July election are sons of high-ranking Cambodian People’s Party officials.[15] All ruling party sons lost, but were appointed into high government positions.

China[edit]

For the past 3,000 years, nepotism has been common in China's clan and extended family based culture. Confucius wrote about the importance of balancing "filial piety with merit". The clan-based feudal system collapsed during Confucius' lifetime, yet nepotism has continued through the modern age.[16][17] For instance, Zhang Hui, was believed to have his career "expedited" through the intervention of his uncle, Li Jianguo, Vice Chairman and Secretary General of the National People’s Congress. Hui was made the youngest member and secretary of Jining's Municipal Standing Committee at the age of 32.[18]

See also: Princelings

France[edit]

In October 2009, Jean Sarkozy was poised to become EPAD's director despite lacking a diploma and professional experience.[19] He was voted regional councillor of Neuilly-sur-Seine in 2008.[20]

Pierre Sarkozy, first son of then President Nicolas Sarkozy, asked SCPP[dead link] for financial help in September 2009 of around €10000 towards an €80000 artistic project. Because he was not a SCPP member, the request was automatically rejected. Sarkozy then went to the Élysée which lead to an Élysée counsel contacting the SCPP, and SCPP president Marc Guez assuring the issue would soon be favorably resolved.[21][22] According to Abeille Music president and SCPP member Yves Riesel, however, this would not happen as SCPP's financial help has been restricted to members only for months.[23]

India[edit]

Corruption goes hand in hand with nepotism in India. It goes on in government and private jobs both. Nepotism is common in politics and in the movie industry. It goes on even in religious circles, arts, industry, and other types of organizations. Many members of parliament and the Legislative Assembly have a generations-long legacy of nepotic allocation of constituencies to their relatives.[citation needed] The Khan families, Kapoor families, the Bachan family,[clarification needed] and many other Indian movie actors have brought their children into the movie industry with their endorsements. Moreover, dynasty in politics remains. Rahul Gandhi, Vice-President of the Indian National Congress party, is a descendent of Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi & Rajiv Gandhi, and . Cricket is also affected with nepotism in the form of Stuart Binny and Rohan Gavaskar. [24][25]

Pakistan[edit]

Nepotism has a long history in Indian subcontinent, including Pakistan, where it has been the cause of much controversy. The Bhutto Family have long been targets of allegations of nepotism. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, a Prime Minister of Pakistan was executed by General Zia-ul-Haq. After ten years of dictatorship under Zia, Pakistan returned to democracy under Bhutto's daughter, Benazir Bhutto. After her assassination, her husband Asif Ali Zardari took the office of prime minister. Their son Bilawal Bhutto Zardari is also an active politician and a possible future candidate for prime minister. As of August 2014, politicians Imran Khan and Dr. Tahirul Qadri are leading mass rallies calling for the end of "monarchy" in Pakistan, triggered by the fact that the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is the brother of the Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif of Pakistan's largest province Punjab. Nepotism is at peak with current Prime Ministry having more than 20 family members in government and higher post. Moreover after family the 2nd best options for Nawaz Sharif is to go with his caste.

Romania[edit]

Romanian Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu's family members "dominated" the country for decades.[26][27] Elena Băsescu, the daughter of President Traian Băsescu, was elected in 2009 to the European Parliament, despite the fact that she had no significant professional or political experience.[28]

Spain[edit]

There is Juan Antonio Samaranch, president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001: his son, Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs, has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 2001, while his daughter, Maria Teresa Samaranch Salisachs, has been president of the Spanish Federation of Sports on Ice since 2005.[29] Nepotism occurred in Spanish Colonial America when offices were given to family members.[30]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Mahinda Rajapaksa has been accused of nepotism, appointing three brothers to run important ministries and other political positions for relatives, regardless of their merit. The Rajapaksa family hold the ministries of finance, defence, ports and aviation, highways and road development. The president's brother, Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, was given the post of Defence Secretary. He also controls the armed forces, the police and the Coast Guard, and is responsible for immigration and emigration. Rajapaksa appointed his brother Basil Rajapaksa as minister of Economic Development. Together, the Rajapaksa brothers control over 70% of Sri Lanka's public budget. Mahinda Rajapaksa's eldest brother, Chamal Rajapaksa, is also the current Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, and has held many other posts before, while his eldest son, Namal Rajapaksa, is also a member of the parliament and holds undisclosed portfolios.[31][32]

Others include: his nephew, Shashindra Rajapaksa, who is the Chief minister of Uva; one of his cousins, the Sri Lankan ambassador to the United States, Jaliya Wickramasuriya; and another cousin, Udayanga Weeratunga, who is the ambassador to Russia. Dozens of nephews, nieces, cousins, and in-laws have also been appointed as heads of banks, boards, and corporations.[32]

Venezuela[edit]

Nepotism is known to be practiced by President of the Venezuela National Assembly, Cilia Flores. Nine positions in the National Assembly were filled by Flores' family members, including a mother-in-law, aunt, 3 siblings, a cousin and his mother, and 2 nephews.[33][34][35]

United Kingdom[edit]

In February 2010, Sir Christopher Kelly, chairman of the Committee on Standards in Public Life, said that more than 200 MPs used Parliamentary allowances to employ their own relatives in a variety of office roles. He suggested that the practice should be banned.[36]

In 2005, Councillor Ann Reid of York arranged for all nine sets of traffic lights on her daughter Hannah's wedding route through York to be switched to green for the five-car convoy. As a result, the wedding party took only 10 minutes to pass through the city.[37]

North Yorkshire Police's Chief Constable Grahame Maxwell was disciplined by the IPCC in 2011, but refused to resign, after admitting that he assisted a relative through the first stages of a recruitment process [38]

Many Northern Irish politicians employ family members. In 2008, 19 elected politicians of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) directly employed family members and relatives constituted 27 of its 136 staff.[39]

United States[edit]

Around 30 family members or relatives of President Ulysses S. Grant prospered financially in some way from either government appointments or employment.[40]

John F. Kennedy made his brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, the first director of the Peace Corps and his brother, Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General.[41]

In December 2012, a report from Washington Post, indicate various nepotism practices from D.C Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA), including one family with five members working for the MWAA. One of the reasons given by the associate general counsel to defend the alleged nepotism was “if [the employees are] qualified and competed for [the positions] on their own, I don’t see a problem with relatives working in the same organization.”[42] The inspector general of the Transportation Department and Congress pressured the Authority to resolve practices of nepotism. Authority employees are no longer allowed to directly or indirectly influence hiring or promotion of relatives, as documented in their ethics policy.[43]

Zimbabwe[edit]

President Robert Mugabe is reported to be preparing his wife Grace Mugabe to be the next president of Zimbabwe once he steps down.[44] Vice President Joice Mujuru was previously considered to be the favored successor to Mugabe. It is thus fair to say Grace Mugabe is taking advantage of her husbands political position which can therefore be termed as 'the birth of nepotism in Zimbabwean politics.[45]

In entertainment[edit]

Outside of national politics, accusations of "nepotism" are made in instances of prima facie favoritism to relatives, in such cases as:

In employment[edit]

Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining the job or being paid more than other similarly situated people.[50] Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees,[51] and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name."[52] Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive.

Types of partiality[edit]

Nepotism refers to partiality to family whereas cronyism refers to partiality to an associate or friend. Favoritism, the broadest of the terms, refers to partiality based upon being part of a favored group, rather than job performance.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nepotism." Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  2. ^ "In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History". Adam Bellow Booknotes interview transcript. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Article nepos". CTCWeb Glossary. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Article Nepotism". New Catholic Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-12. [dead link]
  5. ^ Gianvittorio Signorotto; Maria Antonietta Visceglia (21 March 2002). Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-1-139-43141-5. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "Article Pope Alexander VI". New Catholic Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  7. ^ "Article Pope Paul III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  8. ^ Anura Gurugé (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  9. ^ From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Science, by R. C. S. Trahair, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994, page 72. Retrieved online from Google Books, Jul 30, 2012.
  10. ^ Houghton, Des (2008-06-28). "Anna Bligh's Labor in trouble in the polls" Couriermail, 28 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-17.
  11. ^ "AM - Archbishop Jensen accused of nepotism". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2002-11-18. Retrieved 2012-06-22. 
  12. ^ a b "Politiek België is familiezaak - Buitenland - Telegraaf.nl [24 uur actueel, ook mobiel] [buitenland]". Telegraaf.nl. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  13. ^ Martin Hurst (1 Mar 2005). "Tobback: making his mark". Investment & Pensions Europe. IPE International Publishers Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  14. ^ "Alexander De Croo wil voorzitter Open Vld worden". Gva.be. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  15. ^ "Sons of the party anointed". Meas Sokchea. 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  16. ^ http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1548234/high-level-officials-monopolise-party-promotion-mechanism-study-finds
  17. ^ Adam Bellow (13 July 2004). In Praise of Nepotism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 89–92. ISBN 978-1-4000-7902-5. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  18. ^ Fang Xiao (18 December 2012). "Chinese Politburo Member Accused of Nepotism". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  19. ^ "Poll shows majority against job for Sarkozy's son". Reuters.com. 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  20. ^ "Sarkozy´s Son Climbs New Rung On Political Ladder". dalje.com. Kontineo oglašavanje d.o.o. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  21. ^ "Népotisme et Sarkozysme, acte II (màj)". Electronlibre.info. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  22. ^ "Après Jean, un coup de pouce de l'Elysée pour Pierre Sarkozy". Rue89.com. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  23. ^ "Après Jean, l'Elysée se met au service de Pierre Sarkozy". Liberation.fr. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  24. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/12/world/asia/12iht-letter12.html?_r=0
  25. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/comment/nepotism-the-way-they-do-politics-in-india-20140327-zqnpg.html
  26. ^ Adam Bellow (13 July 2004). In Praise of Nepotism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4000-7902-5. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  27. ^ Edward Behr (21 May 1991). Kiss the hand you cannot bite: the rise and fall of the Ceauşescus. Villard Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-679-40128-5. 
  28. ^ "Search on Elena Băsescu nepotism". Zaire.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  29. ^ "La larga carrera de un hombre polifacético". El País. 21 April 2010 . (Spanish)
  30. ^ Alan R. Freitang, Ashli Quesinberry Stokes; Ashli Quesinberry Stokes (22 December 2008). Global Public Relations: Spanning Borders, Spanning Cultures. Routledge. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-134-06129-7. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  31. ^ "A war strange as fiction". The Economist. 2007-06-07. 
  32. ^ a b Nov 11, 2010 (2010-11-11). "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan". Atimes.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  33. ^ Emmanuel Adetula; calibre (0.7.50) (6 April 2011). The Naked Truth. Xlibris Corporation. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4568-8753-7. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  34. ^ Simon Romero (18 February 2007). "Chávez family dogged by nepotism claims". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  35. ^ "Nacional y Política - eluniversal.com" (in Spanish). Buscador.eluniversal.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  36. ^ "Ban on MP spouse jobs 'essential'". BBC News. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  37. ^ Stokes, Paul (18 October 2005). "Councillor turns lights green for daughter's wedding". The Telegraph (York, UK). Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  38. ^ "Chief constable remains despite calls for resignation". BBC News (North Yorkshire, UK). 12 May 2011. 
  39. ^ "DUP's two tribes". Belfast Telegraph. 22 February 2008 
  40. ^ Lawrence M. Salinger (2005). Encyclopedia of white-collar & corporate crime, Volume 2 2. pp. 374–375. ISBN 9780761930044. 
  41. ^ Jeffrey M. Elliot; Sheikh R. Ali (1 September 2007). The PresidentialCongressional Political Dictionary. Wildside Press LLC. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4344-9140-4. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  42. ^ Thomson, Cheryl W. (8 December 2012). "D.C. airport authority employment is frequently a family affair". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  43. ^ Editorial Board (10 December 2012). "Airports authority must clean up its act on nepotism". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  44. ^ Thornycroft, Peta; Blair, David (31 October 2014). "Mugabe accused of 'bedroom coup' as he prepares his wife for presidency" (Web). The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  45. ^ JR ASAP BEATZ,ASAP PRESS
  46. ^ "Peaches Geldof bags TV reality show as magazine editor". Sundaymirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-03-06. [dead link]
  47. ^ "EXTRA: Nepotism in the Director's Chair at". Hollywood.com. 2000-04-21. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  48. ^ "Nothing is true, everything is permitted - Coppola nepotism hate". Spiritof1976.livejournal.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  49. ^ Nicolas Cage - imdb biography
  50. ^ "Nepotism at Work". Safeworkers.co.uk. 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  51. ^ "Family Ties: Handling Nepotism Within Your Business - Perspectives - Inside INdiana Business with Gerry Dick". Insideindianabusiness.com. 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  52. ^ Kneale, Klaus. "Is Nepotism So Bad?". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  53. ^ Judy Nadler and Miriam Schulman. "Favoritism, Cronyism, and Nepotism". Santa Clara University. Retrieved June 20, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]